Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1433
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Chinnan Nevin K - - 2006
We discuss a case of severe pneumonia with pneumatoceles in a 2-month old infant. Despite peak and plateau airway pressures kept below 30 and 25 cmH(2)O, respectively, the infant developed bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum caused by pneumatocele rupture, necessitating bilateral intercostal drainage. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 ...
Savian Camila - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Manual hyperinflation (MHI) and ventilator hyperinflation (VHI) are two methods of recruitment maneuvers used in ventilated patients to improve lung compliance and secretion mobilization. The use of VHI may minimize the adverse effects of disconnection from the ventilator, but it is uncertain whether high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Holland A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may affect hepato-splanchnic blood flow. We studied whether a PEEP of 10 mbar may negatively influence flow-dependent liver function (indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, ICG-PDR) and splanchnic microcirculation as estimated by gastric mucosal PCO2 (PRCO2). METHODS: In a randomized, controlled clinical study, we ...
Saner Fuat H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the impact of end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation on venous liver outflow, portal vein, and hepatic artery flows as well as systemic hemodynamics in patients following liver transplantation (LT). DESIGN: Prospective, interventional patient study. SETTING: University hospital intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 65 consecutive patients after LT. INTERVENTIONS: All ...
Kudnig Simon T - - 2006
To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on oxygen delivery (DO(2)) with 1-lung ventilation during thoracoscopy in normal anesthetized dogs. Prospective, controlled experimental study. Eight, adult, intact Walker Hound dogs weighing 25.6-29.2 kg. Anesthetized dogs had 1-lung ventilation during an open-chest condition. A Swan-Ganz catheter was used to ...
Alegría Ximena - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is routinely used in mechanically ventilated preterm infants to maintain lung volume. An acute increase in PEEP can affect lung mechanics and tidal volume, but it is unknown if these effects elicit compensatory changes in respiratory center output. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute effects ...
Erlandsson K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients have an increased risk for peri-operative lung complications and develop a decrease in functional residual capacity (FRC). Electric impedance tomography (EIT) can be used for continuous, fast-response measurement of lung volume changes. This method was used to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain FRC. METHODS: ...
Stahl Claudius A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: It is not clear whether the mechanical properties of the respiratory system assessed under the dynamic condition of mechanical ventilation are equivalent to those assessed under static conditions. We hypothesized that the analyses of dynamic and static respiratory mechanics provide different information in acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Prospective multiple-center ...
Richard Jean-Christophe M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Supine position may contribute to the loss of aerated lung volume in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that verticalization increases lung volume and improves gas exchange by reducing the pressure surrounding lung bases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational physiological study in a medical ICU. SUBJECTS ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare two lung injury models (oleic acid [OA] and saline solution washout [SW]) regarding lung morphology, regional inflation, and recruitment during static pressure-volume (PV) curves, and the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) below and above the lower inflection point (Pflex). METHODS: Fourteen adult pigs underwent OA or ...
Krismer Anette C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Outcome after trauma with severe hemorrhagic shock is still dismal. Since the majority of blood is present in the venous vessels, it might be beneficial to perform venous recruiting via the airway during severe hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of negative ...
Dahlem P - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation on alveolar fibrin turnover in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In a randomised controlled trial, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 61) were allocated to three ventilation groups after intratracheal LPS (Salmonella enteritidis) instillations. Group I animals were subjected ...
Paratz Jennifer - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To measure hemodynamics and plasma catecholamines during manual hyperinflation (MHI) in ventilated patients. METHODS: MHI was performed with a Mapleson "C" circuit, 2l-reservoir bag; peak inspiratory pressure was standardized to 35 mL water; and positive expiratory-end pressure of 5 mL water was administered to seven mechanically ventilated patients with ...
Ozalevli S - - 2007
To discuss the utility of Sit-to-Stand Test (STST) compared to the 6min walking test (6MWT) for the evaluation of functional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifty-three patients with stable COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) 46+/-9% predicted, mean age 71+/-12 year) and 15 healthy ...
Ahn Johwan - - 2006
Changes in the microbial community of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge system under different influent phosphorus/carbon (P/C) ratio conditions were investigated through evaluation of population respiratory quinone profiles. A total of 13 types of respiratory quinone homologs consisting of 3 types of ubiquinones (UQ) and 10 types ...
Kubitz J C - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measurement of central blood volumes (CBV), such as global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) are considered appropriate estimates of intravascular volume status. However, to apply those parameters for preload assessment in mechanically ventilated patients, the influence of tidal volume (TV) and positive endexpiratory ...
Küntscher Markus V - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to observe the interactions between cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), central venous pressure (CVP), intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and total circulating blood volume index (TBVI) during resuscitation of major burns. Sixteen patients with an average TBSA of 46% (26-67%) and an average abbreviated ...
Villar J - - 2006
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has become an essential component of the care of many critically ill patients who require ventilatory support. The application of PEEP is expected to improve lung mechanics and gas exchange as it recruits lung volume. In the last 3 decades, research of the effects of PEEP ...
Maybauer D M - - 2006
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used to improve gas exchange, increase functional residual capacity, recruit air spaces, and decrease pulmonary shunt in patients suffering from respiratory failure. The effect of PEEP on extravascular lung water (EVLW), however, is still not fully understood. This study was designed as a prospective laboratory ...
Liao Donghua - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to determine the geometric configuration and morphometric dimensions in the rabbit oesophagus during luminal pressure loading. The geometric configuration is of fundamental importance because it is related to stress and strain and determines the resistance to flow. The oesophagus was excised from rabbits, ...
Kubitz Jens C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Intermittent positive pressure ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) affect cardiac preload. Their effect is dependent on chest wall compliance. This study compares the effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation and PEEP on stroke volume variation and central blood volume during open and closed chest conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Villar Jesús - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown in a two-center study that high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and low tidal volume (LTV) improved outcome in ARDS. However, that study involved patients with underlying diseases unique to the study area, was conducted at only two centers, and enrolled a small number of patients. ...
Markhorst D G - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the accuracy of respiratory inductive plethysmographic (RIP) estimated lung volume changes at varying positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) during different degrees of acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Measurements of inspiratory tidal volume were validated in eight piglets during constant volume ventilation at incremental ...
Caramez Maria Paula MP Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, and with Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts 02114, - - 2006
To evaluate the respiratory and hemodynamic effects of open suctioning (OS) versus closed suctioning (CS) during pressure-control (PC) and volume-control (VC) ventilation, using a lung-protective ventilation strategy in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal laboratory in a university hospital. Randomized cross-over evaluation. Eight female Dorset sheep. ...
Chang Hung - - 2006
Previous studies in anesthetized humans positioned in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) posture have shown that unilateral positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung produce a more even ventilation distribution and improves gas exchange. Unilateral PEEP to the dependent lung may offer special advantages during LLD surgery by reducing ...
Gruis Kirsten L - - 2006
The absence of data guiding optimal titration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) over time in ALS patients may contribute to the under-prescribing of NIPPV. We conducted a retrospective, single-center, chart review assessment of NIPPV pressure settings used for symptomatic treatment of ALS patients to determine NIPPV adjustments, and to ...
Tadahiko Nonoue
The effects of inversed ratio ventilation (IRV) or those of positiv endexpiratory presure (PEEP) on hemodynamics, pulmonary oxygenation and oxygen delivery were examined in 12 patients each who needed prolonged mechanical ventilation because of acute repiratory failure. Patients were divided into two groups : IRV group and PEEP group. No ...
Bitzén Ulrika - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for automatic recording of multiple dynamic elastic pressure-volume (P(el)/V) loops. To analyse the relationship between multiple dynamic P(el)/V loops and static P(el)/V loops in a porcine model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To test the hypothesis that increasing lung collapse and re-expansion ...
Morán Indalecio - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare, in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) patients, the short-term effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HME) and heated humidifiers (HH) on gas exchange, and also on respiratory system mechanics when isocapnic conditions are met. DESIGN: Prospective open clinical study. SETTING: Intensive Care Service. PATIENTS: Seventeen ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In order to identify parameters predicting intensive care unit mortality in patients transferred to a specialized tertiary centre because of progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome, an observational pilot study was carried out involving 94 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one patients (43.6%) died. Survival was defined as intensive ...
Froese Alison B - - 2006
Using a radiologic technique, the position and pattern of movement of the diaphragm have been evaluated in three adult volunteers, both awake and anesthetized, during spontaneous ventilation and with muscle paralysis and mechanical ventilation. Studies were made with the subjects in supine and left lateral decubitus positions with tidal and ...
Roch Antoine - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: It is possible that taking a static pressure-volume (PV) measurement could durably affect oxygenation and thus interfere with early evaluation of a therapeutic intervention delivered just after that measurement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects over time of a single static PV measurement on ...
Whalen Francis X - - 2006
Abnormalities in gas exchange that occur during anesthesia are mostly caused by atelectasis, and these alterations are more pronounced in morbidly obese than in normal weight subjects. Sustained lung insufflation is capable of recruiting the collapsed areas and improving oxygenation in healthy patients of normal weight. We tested the effect ...
Brederlau Joerg - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This animal study was conducted to assess the combined effects of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and prone positioning on pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics. METHODS: Saline lung lavage was performed in 14 healthy pigs (54 +/- 3.1 kg, mean +/- SD) until the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) ...
De Michele Michele - - 2006
For positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to have lung protective efficacy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, it must increase the end-expiratory lung volume through alveolar recruitment while avoiding lung over-inflation. PEEP may increase the end-expiratory lung volume either by increasing the proportion of aerated alveoli at end-expiration or by ...
Wettstein Daniela - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of a recruitment maneuver (RM) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during total intravenous anesthesia in ponies. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Shetland ponies. PROCEDURE: After premedication with detomidine (10 microg/kg, IV), anesthesia was induced with climazolam (0.06 mg/kg, IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, ...
Nunes S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The time course of impairment of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains poorly defined. We assessed the changes in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange during ARDS. We hypothesized that due to the changes in respiratory mechanics over time, ventilatory strategies based on ...
Carvalho Alysson R S - - 2006
Atelectasis and distal airway closure are common clinical entities of general anaesthesia. These two phenomena are expected to reduce the ventilation of dependent lung regions and represent major causes of arterial oxygenation impairment in anaesthetic conditions. In the present study, the behavior of the elastance of the respiratory system (Ers), ...
Winner Edward - - 2005
Ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, induces slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) to discharge paradoxically. Paradoxical discharge is characterized by increased SAR activity during lung deflation coupled with silence during lung inflation. We hypothesized that over-excitation silences the SARs. Accordingly, if cyclic inflation pressure was reduced so as to lower SAR ...
Pillastrini P - - 2006
Randomized controlled trial. To establish whether the use of mechanical insufflation/exsufflation leads to a significant improve in tracheostomy subjects with upper spinal cord injuries (C1-C7), ASIA classification grade A and bronchial hyper secretion the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced exspiratory volume on the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak ...
Borghi-Silva Audrey - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of positive end expiratory pressure and physiotherapy intervention during Phase I of cardiac rehabilitation on the behavior of pulmonary function and inspiratory muscle strength in postoperative cardiac surgery. METHODS: A prospective randomized study, in which 24 patients were divided in 2 groups: a group that ...
Probyn Megan E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend neonatal resuscitation without controlling tidal volume or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, these may improve gas exchange, lung volume and outcome. AIM: To investigate resuscitation of very premature lambs with a Laerdal bag without PEEP versus volume guarantee ventilation with PEEP. METHODS: Anaesthetized lambs (n=20) delivered at ...
Hinz J - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: For the treatment of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury bedside measurements of regional lung ventilation should be considered for optimizing ventilatory settings. The aim was to investigate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on regional ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients at ...
Rettig Harald C - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several case reports have suggested that block of the brachial plexus by the vertical infraclavicular approach influences hemidiaphragmatic movement and ventilatory function. These effects have not been evaluated in a prospective study. METHODS: Thirty-five consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under brachial plexus anesthesia were included. A ...
Kubitz Jens C - - 2005
The pre-ejection period (PEP) has recently been described as a potential parameter for monitoring cardiac preload. This study further investigated the influence of changes in intravascular volume status and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pre-ejection period. In ten pigs, ECG, arterial pressure and stroke volume derived ...
Krismer Anette C - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although a moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level is widely recommended, it is unknown whether moderate PEEP during mechanical ventilation has adverse effects during severe hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of 0 cm H2O PEEP versus 5 cm H2O PEEP ...
Bennett Stacie - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Ventilation during neonatal resuscitation involves the use of self-inflating bags, flow-inflating bags, and T-piece resuscitators. The ability of operators to deliver desired peak inspiratory pressures (PIP), positive end expiratory pressures (PEEP), prolonged inflations and the length of time to transition between different pressures has not been compared for all ...
Muench Elke - - 2005
Acute respiratory dysfunction frequently occurs following severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation to maintain adequate oxygenation. High PEEP levels, however, may negatively affect cerebral perfusion. The goal of this study was, to examine the influence of various PEEP levels on intracranial pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension, ...
Goldmann K - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are frequently used in children to avoid airway closure and atelectasis during general anaesthesia. Also, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA(dagger)) is frequently used. However, one of the limitations with its use in children is that its low-pressure seal is often inadequate for ...
Trujillo Maximo H - - 2006
We describe a newborn with acute respiratory distress syndrome, subjected to mechanical ventilatory assistance with high level of peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), who developed cardiac tamponade due to pneumopericardium. Tension pneumopericardium produces the same physiological derangement as cardiac tamponade secondary to accumulated blood or ...
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