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Grasso Salvatore - - 2007
RATIONALE: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a focal distribution of loss of aeration in lung computed tomography predicts low potential for alveolar recruitment and susceptibility to alveolar hyperinflation with high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that, in this cohort of patients, ...
Meier Torsten - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is capable of monitoring regional lung recruitment and lung collapse during a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial. DESIGN: Experimental animal study of acute lung injury. SUBJECT: Six pigs with saline-lavage-induced acute lung injury. INTERVENTIONS: An incremental and decremental PEEP trial at ten ...
Yagui Ana Cristina Z - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of the prone position and the need for positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to improve oxygenation. METHOD: Sixteen rats were anesthetized and ventilated at a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 60 rpm and PEEP = 0 cmH(2)O (ZEEP), in the supine position for ...
Rice Todd W - - 2007
The diagnostic criteria for acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS utilize the Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) [P/F] ratio measured by arterial blood gas analysis to assess the degree of hypoxemia. We hypothesized that the pulse oximetric saturation (Spo(2))/Fio(2) (S/F) ratio can be substituted for the P/F ratio in assessing ...
Jeon Kyeongman - - 2007
This study was conducted to observe effects of two methods of setting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on the pressure-volume (PV) curve. After lung injury was induced by oleic acid in six mongrel adult dogs, the inflation PV curve was traced and the lower inflection point (LIP) was measured. The ...
von Ungern-Sternberg Britta S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High fractions of inspired oxygen (Fio2) result in resorption atelectasis shortly after their application. However, the impact of different levels of Fio2 and their interaction with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation distribution is unknown in anesthetized children. We hypothesized that the use of ...
Vovk A - - 2007
Air hunger is an unpleasant urge to breathe and a distressing respiratory symptom of cardiopulmonary patients. An increase in tidal volume relieves air hunger, possibly by increasing pulmonary stretch receptor cycle amplitude. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increasing end-expiratory volume (EEV) also relieves air hunger. Six ...
Berto M C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether aminophylline has an acute effect on the muscle performance of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover against placebo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (48.5 +/- 14.1 years) with ALS were evaluated by means of forced vital capacity (FVC), ...
Lai Chao-Han - - 2007
Haemothorax resulting from injury to a great vessel is a potential complication during transvenous pacemaker implantation that can be caused by perforation by the electrode. If the amount of bleeding is massive, control needs thoracotomy. We report on a 70-year-old man who had a massive haemothorax following transvenous pacemaker implantation. ...
de Waal Koert A - - 2007
Positive pressure ventilation in premature infants can improve oxygenation but may diminish cerebral blood flow and cardiac output. Low superior vena cava (SVC) flow increases risk of intraventricular haemorrhage, and higher mean airway pressure is associated with low SVC flow. Whether this is a direct effect of positive pressure ventilation ...
De Blasi R A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The key concept underlying the dynamic indexes of preload dependence is the physiological heart-lung interaction. During sternotomy this interaction undergoes various changes, some of which remain unclear. Our primary aim was to investigate how the interaction changes during sternotomy by evaluating pulse pressure variations (PPV) with the chest closed ...
Lambert P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Increases in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are often associated with cardiovascular depression, responding to fluid loading. Therefore, we hypothesized that if stroke volume (SV) is reduced by an increase in PEEP this reduction is an indicator of hypovolemia or preload responsiveness, i.e. that SV would increase by fluid administration ...
Bonfim Roberta Fernandes - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hemodialysis on intra-abdominal pressure. METHODS: Five patients admitted between July and November of 2003 were evaluated in the intensive care unit. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured before and after hemodialysis, maintaining the ventilatory parameters except for PEEP (positive-end expiratory pressure). RESULTS: Intra-abdominal pressure was significantly ...
Acosta Pilar - - 2007
An improvement in oxygenation for patients who have acute respiratory failure using PEEP was described close to 40 years ago. Since then, a considerable amount of research has allowed clinicians to use this therapeutic modality in various ways. In patients receiving mechanical ventilation, the term positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) refers ...
Kallet Richard H - - 2007
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspired oxygen fraction (F(IO(2))) are the primary means of improving P(aO(2)) during mechanical ventilation. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) typically present with a large intrapulmonary shunt, which makes even high F(IO(2)) ineffective in improving P(aO(2)). PEEP decreases intrapulmonary shunt by recruiting collapsed alveoli, ...
Allen Gilman B - - 2007
Reopening the injured lung with deep inflation (DI) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) likely depends on the duration and severity of acute lung injury (ALI), key features of which include increased alveolar permeability and fibrin accumulation. We hypothesized that the response to DI and PEEP would worsen as ALI evolves ...
de Prost Nicolas - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether PEEP affects intrapulmonary alveolar edema liquid movement and alveolar permeability to proteins during high volume ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in an animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: 46 male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: A (99m)Tc-labeled albumin solution was instilled in a distal airway to produce a zone ...
Toth Ildiko - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To investigate respiratory and hemodynamic changes during lung recruitment and descending optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration. DESIGN: Prospective auto-control clinical trial. SETTING: Adult general intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Following baseline measurements (T0), PEEP was set at ...
McGuire Michelle M Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bldg. 56-046, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2007
Phrenic long-term facilitation (LTF) has been extensively studied in anesthetized animals under well-defined physiological conditions but the factors underlying its possible manifestation under clinically relevant conditions are not well understood. Here, we examine the stability of LTF in the face of hypercapnic or hypocapnic challenges in anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ...
Ozcan Perihan Ergin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) induces lung injury and bacterial translocation from the lung into the systemic circulation. We investigated the effects of increased inspiratory time on translocation of intratracheally inoculated bacteria during mechanical ventilation with and without extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). METHODS: Rats were ...
Jardin François - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Airway pressure limitation is now a largely accepted strategy in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients; however, some debate persists about the exact level of plateau pressure which can be safely used. The objective of the present study was to examine if the echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular function ...
Thille Arnaud W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Alveolar recruitment in response to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may differ between pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and alveolar recruitment values may differ when measured by pressure-volume curve compared with static compliance. METHODS: The authors compared PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment in 71 consecutive patients identified in a ...
Celebi Serdar - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the pulmonary and hemodynamic effects of two different recruitment maneuvers after open heart surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized into three groups after operation: recruitment maneuver with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (CPAP-40 group, n = ...
Miller Thomas L - - 2007
Alterations in neonatal airway mechanics resulting from ventilatory therapies are implicated in airway collapse and chronic disease. Quantifying the functional impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) on the neonatal airway and elucidating the time course of these changes will support development of protective therapies. The objective of this study was to ...
Nakagawa Rikimaru - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to evaluate pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and blood gas changes on switching from conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in a large animal model of acute lung injury. METHODS: Eleven anesthetised sheep chronically instrumented with vascular monitoring were prepared. Animals received ...
Bass Andora L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High-frequency ventilation can be delivered with either oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) or jet ventilation (HFJV). Traditional clinician biases may limit the range of function of these important ventilation modes. We hypothesized that (1) the jet ventilator can be an accurate monitor of mean airway pressure (P (aw)) during HFOV, and ...
Suarez-Sipmann Fernando - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the continuous monitoring of dynamic compliance could become a useful bedside tool for detecting the beginning of collapse of a fully recruited lung. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory animal investigation. SETTING: Clinical physiology research laboratory, University of Uppsala, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Eight pigs submitted to repeated lung lavages. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Nakazawa Koichi - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the inflammatory response in two different lung injury models: edematous lung induced by oleic acid (OA); and atelectatic lung induced by whole-lung lavage (LAV). METHODS: Japanese white rabbits (n = 28) were allocated to one of the ...
Leong L M C - - 2007
Summary In this randomised controlled trial we examined the effects of four different levels of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP at 0, 5, 8 or 10 cmH(2)O), added to the dependent lung, on respiratory profile and oxygenation during one lung ventilation. Forty-six patients were recruited to receive one of the ...
Carvalho Alysson Roncally S - - 2007
Protective ventilatory strategies have been applied to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). However, adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to avoid alveolar de-recruitment and hyperinflation remains difficult. An alternative is to set the PEEP based on minimizing respiratory system elastance (Ers) by titrating PEEP. ...
Pavone Lucio - - 2007
Septic shock is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, a serious clinical problem exacerbated by improper mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) can exacerbate the lung injury caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality. In this study, we asked the following questions: what is ...
Pavone Lucio A - - 2007
Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that ...
Halter Jeffrey M - - 2007
One potential mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is due to shear stresses associated with alveolar instability (recruitment/derecruitment). It has been postulated that the optimal combination of tidal volume (Vt) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) stabilizes alveoli, thus diminishing recruitment/derecruitment and reducing VILI. In this study we directly visualized the ...
Albu Gergely - - 2007
Changes in pulmonary hemodynamics modify the mechanical properties of the lungs. The effects of alterations in pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc) were investigated on the airway and lung tissue mechanics during positive-pressure ventilation and following lung recruitment maneuvers. Isolated, mechanically normoventilated (PEEP 2.5 cmH(2)O) rat lungs were perfused with Pc set ...
Allo Jean-Christophe - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the control of breathing in rabbits with acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Experimental laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Male White New Zealand rabbits (n = 18). INTERVENTION: Spontaneously breathing ...
Whist A C - - 2006
The objective of this study was to see if introduction of a 2-yr combined selective dry-cow therapy and teat-dipping trial would reduce clinical mastitis (CM) events in 164 Norwegian dairy herds. Three different penicillin or penicillin/dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments, and 3 different teat-dipping regimens (negative control, iodine teat dip, or an ...
Chalhoub V - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Arterial oxygenation may be compromised in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a vital capacity manoeuvre (VCM), followed by ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), on arterial oxygenation in morbidly obese patients undergoing open bariatric surgery. METHODS: Fifty-two ...
Lee Kun-Ze - - 2007
Phasic bursting in the hypoglossal nerve can be uncoupled from phrenic bursting by application of positive end-expired pressure (PEEP). We wished to determine whether similar uncoupling can also be induced in other respiratory-modulated upper airway (UAW) motor outputs. Discharge of the facial, hypoglossal, superior laryngeal, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerves ...
Reske Andreas - - 2006
BACKGROUND: To present and discuss the rationale and possible benefits of timely alveolar recruitment in early post-traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: A 17-year-old patient who had sustained blunt thoracic trauma presented with severe hypoxaemia on admission and whole body computed tomography showed pulmonary contusion and substantial bilateral atelectasis. Oxygenation ...
Koutsoukou Antonia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess respiratory mechanics on the 1st and 5th days of mechanical ventilation in a cohort of brain-damaged patients on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH(2)O or zero PEEP (ZEEP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Physiological study with randomized control trial design in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a ...
Choi Goda - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of acute lung injury, resulting from activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Previous studies have shown that mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes may aggravate lung injury in patients with sepsis and acute lung injury. The authors sought to determine the effects ...
Girgis Karim - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of a decremental trial of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to identify an optimal PEEP level that maintains oxygenation after a lung-recruitment maneuver. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty sedated patients with acute lung injury and/or acute ...
Aboab Jérôme - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: High fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)) used in acute lung injury (ALI) may promote resorption atelectasis. The impact of derecruitment related to high FIO(2) in ALI is debated. We evaluated derecruitment with 100% vs. 60% FIO(2) at two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). PATIENTS: Fourteen consecutive patients with ...
Tusman Gerardo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of dead space for determining open-lung PEEP, the lowest PEEP that prevents lung collapse after a lung recruitment maneuver. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Eight lung-lavaged pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were ventilated using constant flow mode with ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in aerated lung volumes measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and inflation volume-pressure curve (V-P) of the respiratory system, and to evaluate the reliability of PET to assess alveolar recruitment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs in a PET facility ...
Syring Rebecca S - - 2007
Cyclical recruitment of atelectasis with each breath is thought to contribute to ventilator-associated lung injury. Extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPe) can maintain alveolar recruitment at end exhalation, but PEEPe depresses cardiac output and increases overdistension. Short exhalation times can also maintain end-expiratory recruitment, but if the mechanism of this recruitment ...
Chinnan Nevin K - - 2006
We discuss a case of severe pneumonia with pneumatoceles in a 2-month old infant. Despite peak and plateau airway pressures kept below 30 and 25 cmH(2)O, respectively, the infant developed bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum caused by pneumatocele rupture, necessitating bilateral intercostal drainage. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 ...
Savian Camila - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Manual hyperinflation (MHI) and ventilator hyperinflation (VHI) are two methods of recruitment maneuvers used in ventilated patients to improve lung compliance and secretion mobilization. The use of VHI may minimize the adverse effects of disconnection from the ventilator, but it is uncertain whether high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Holland A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may affect hepato-splanchnic blood flow. We studied whether a PEEP of 10 mbar may negatively influence flow-dependent liver function (indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, ICG-PDR) and splanchnic microcirculation as estimated by gastric mucosal PCO2 (PRCO2). METHODS: In a randomized, controlled clinical study, we ...
Saner Fuat H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the impact of end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation on venous liver outflow, portal vein, and hepatic artery flows as well as systemic hemodynamics in patients following liver transplantation (LT). DESIGN: Prospective, interventional patient study. SETTING: University hospital intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 65 consecutive patients after LT. INTERVENTIONS: All ...
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