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García-Delgado Manuel - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The objectives were to characterize alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in pigs with normal lungs and to analyze the effect of immediate application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). METHODS: Animals (n = 25) were mechanically ventilated and divided into four groups: small edema (SE) group, producing pulmonary edema (PE) by ...
Costa Eduardo L V - - 2010
Selection of the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury in patients under mechanical ventilation is still a matter of debate. Many methods are available, but none is considered the gold standard. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Zhao and colleagues applied a method based on ...
Giannella-Neto Antonio - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for the mechanical ventilation of small animals is frequently obtained with water seals or by using ventilators developed for human use. An alternative mechanism is the use of an on-off expiratory valve closing at the moment when the alveolar pressure is equal to the ...
Sinclair Scott E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a recognized complication of mechanical ventilation. Although the specific mechanism by which mechanical ventilation causes lung injury remains an active area of study, the application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces its severity. We have previously reported that VILI is spatially heterogeneous with ...
Hauber Hans P - - 2010
A large number of studies have investigated the effects of high tidal volume ventilation in mouse models. In contrast data on very short term effects of low tidal volume ventilation are sparse. Therefore we investigated the functional and structural effects of low tidal volume ventilation in mice. 38 Male C57/Bl6 ...
Verzilli Daniel - - 2010
To examine the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Thirty sedated and mechanically ventilated patients with ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted to a sixteen-bed surgical medical ICU were included. All patients were studied with sequentially increasing ...
Regli Adrian - - 2010
Intra-abdominal hypertension is common in critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The optimal ventilation strategy remains unclear in these patients. We examined the effect of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) on functional residual capacity (FRC) and oxygen delivery in a pig model of intra-abdominal hypertension. Thirteen ...
Kelm M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of neonates require respiratory support at birth, the demand of which increases with decreasing gestational age. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) stabilizes the airways and improves both pulmonary functional residual capacity and compliance. Self-inflating bags, which can be used with and without a PEEP-valve, are most commonly used ...
Purk John H JH Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 650 East 25th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA. - - 2009
To measure the in vitro dentin microtensile bond strength of established adhesives under different hydrostatic pulpal pressures. After IRB approval, 24 human extracted third molars were randomly distributed into four adhesive treatment groups: Clearfil-SE (self-etch, water-based), One-Step Plus (total-etch, acetone-based), Peak-SE (self-etch, ethanol-based) and PQ1 (total-etch, ethanol-based, Ultradent). Additionally each ...
Morley Colin J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Self-inflating bags are used to provide ventilation during neonatal resuscitation. However, they cannot provide positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) unless a PEEP valve is attached. The ability of Laerdal neonatal self-inflating bags fitted with PEEP valves to reliably deliver PEEP is unclear. The aim of this study was to ...
Theroux Mary C - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that protective ventilation strategy (PVS) as defined by the use of low stretch ventilation (tidal volume of 5 ml x kg(-1) and employing 5 cm of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) during one lung ventilation (OLV) in piglets would result in reduced injury compared to ...
Kim Ji Young - - 2010
BACKGROUND: During laparoscopy, pneumoperitoneum may result in intraoperative atelectasis, which impairs normal gas exchange. This study investigated whether positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH(2)O in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) mode can improve ventilatory and oxygenation parameters during pneumoperitoneum. METHODS: Thirty patients, aged 18-65 years, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated ...
Kurahashi Kiyoyasu - - 2009
Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) occurs when airway outflow is higher than zero at end-expiration. Differences in the time constant among alveolar units may result in an uneven distribution of intrinsic PEEP. The authors conducted a computer simulation of a 2-compartment respiratory system and calculated intrinsic PEEP for each alveolar ...
Reinius Henrik - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients show impaired pulmonary function during anesthesia and paralysis, partly due to formation of atelectasis. This study analyzed the effect of general anesthesia and three different ventilatory strategies to reduce the amount of atelectasis and improve respiratory function. METHODS: Thirty patients (body mass index 45 +/- 4 ...
Hodgson C L - - 2009
In the critical care setting it may be difficult to determine an accurate reading of oxygen saturation from digital sensors as a result of poor peripheral perfusion. Limited evidence suggests that forehead sensors may be more accurate in these patients. We prospectively compared the accuracy of a forehead reflectance sensor ...
Hanson Angela - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Using computed tomography (CT) as reference, our primary objectives were to test if maximal tidal elimination of carbon dioxide (VTCO2) could be used as a marker of "optimal recruitment," indicating maximal available lung tissue for gas exchange and if a decrease in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) indicated the beginning of ...
Scohy Thierry V - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Optimizing alveolar recruitment by alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) and maintaining lung volume with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) allow preventing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Knowing that PEEP has its most beneficial effects when dynamic compliance of respiratory system (Crs) is maximized, we hypothesize that the use of 8 cm ...
Muller Laurent - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Assessing pulse pressure variation (PPV) to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with tidal volume (VT) and the impact of VT and airway driving pressure (P(plat) - PEEP) on the ability of PPV for predicting fluid responsiveness. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: ICU of a university hospital. PATIENTS: ...
Sulemanji Demet - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) allows the clinician to set a maximum plateau pressure (PP) and automatically adjusts tidal volume to keep PP below the set maximum. METHODS: ASV was compared to a fixed tidal volume of 6 ml/kg. ASV determined the respiratory rate and tidal volume based on its ...
McCaul Conán - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, ...
Biais Matthieu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may reduce cardiac output and total hepatic blood flow after liver transplantation. Pulse pressure variation is useful in predicting the PEEP-induced decrease in cardiac output. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between stroke volume variations (SVV) obtained with the Vigileo monitor ...
Cannizzaro Vincenzo - - 2009
The study aim was to establish how recruitment maneuvers (RMs) influence lung mechanics and to determine whether RMs produce lung injury. Healthy BALB/c mice were allocated to receive positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 2 or 6 cmH(2)O and volume- (20 or 40 mL/kg) or pressure-controlled (25 cmH(2)O) RMs every 5 ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2009
The first description of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults appeared in 1967 and was characterized by dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse alveolar infiltrates, and reduced respiratory system compliance. ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) syndrome have no specific treatment, only supportive care: treating the underlying cause, when possible, and using ...
Riva D R - - 2009
We examined whether recruitment maneuvers (RMs) with gradual increase in airway pressure (RAMP) provide better outcome than continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Wistar rats received saline intraperitoneally (0.5 mL, CTRL) or paraquat (15 mg/kg, ALI). Twenty-four hours later lung mechanics [static elastance, viscoelastic component ...
Mekontso Dessap Armand - - 2009
To evaluate the effects of acute hypercapnia induced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) variations at constant plateau pressure (P (plat)) in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on right ventricular (RV) function. Prospective observational study in two academic intensive care units enrolling 11 adults with severe ARDS (PaO(2)/FiO(2) ...
Lanza F C - - 2009
The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or lung recruitment maneuvers (RM) to improve oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is used but it may reduce cardiac output (CO). Intermittent PEEP may avoid these complications. Our objective was to determine if variable PEEP compared with constant PEEP is capable ...
Böhm Stephan H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyzed the effect of the alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on Phase III slope (S(III)) of volumetric capnography (VC) in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized morbidly obese patients were studied. Lungs were ventilated with tidal volumes of 10 mL ...
Bohm Stephan H - - 2009
We evaluated the effect of the alveolar recruitment strategy and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on hemodynamics in 20 morbidly obese (body mass index 50 +/- 9 kg/m2), intravascular volume-loaded patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. The alveolar recruitment strategy was sequentially performed with and without capnoperitoneum and consisted of an upward ...
Badet Michel - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the use of alveolar-recruitment maneuvers to improve oxygenation is controversial. There is lack of standardization and lack of clinical studies to compare various recruitment maneuvers. Recruitment maneuvers are closely linked to the selection of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), ...
Bikker Ido G - - 2009
PURPOSE: To study and compare the relationship between end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and changes in end-expiratory lung impedance (EELI) measured with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the basal part of the lung at different PEEP levels in a mixed ICU population. METHODS: End-expiratory lung volume, EELI and tidal impedance variation ...
Villar Jesús - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Previous experimental studies of ventilator-induced lung injury have shown that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is protective. The authors hypothesized that the application of PEEP during volume-controlled ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) in previously healthy in vivo rats does not attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury if the peak ...
MacBean Naomi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ...
te Pas Arjan B - - 2009
The effect of a 20 s sustained inflation (SI) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on functional residual capacity (FRC) formation at birth were investigated. Preterm rabbit pups (28 d) were randomized at birth into four groups (n = 6 for each): 1) SI, PEEP 5 cm H2O, 2) no SI, ...
Aikawa Priscila - - 2009
Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation and treats acute pulmonary failure. However, increased intrathoracic pressure may cause regional blood flow alterations that may contribute to mesenteric ischemia and gastrointestinal failure. We investigated the effects of different PEEP levels on mesenteric leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Forty-four male Wistar rats ...
Maestroni Alberto - - 2009
We evaluated the acute effect of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on LV diastolic function in 10 healthy subjects. We assessed load dependent diastolic function by Doppler examination of transmitral flow and load independent diastolic function by color M-mode propagation velocity of early flow into the LV cavity ...
Siew Melissa L - - 2009
The factors regulating lung aeration and the initiation of pulmonary gas exchange at birth are largely unknown, particularly in infants born very preterm. As hydrostatic pressure gradients may play a role, we have examined the effect of a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the spatial and temporal pattern of lung ...
Maracajá-Neto L F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The effect of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the elastic properties of the respiratory system during pneumoperitoneum (PnP) remains a controversial subject. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NMB and PEEP on respiratory mechanics. METHODS: We performed a ...
Fagerberg A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive technique that generates images of impedance distribution. Changes in the pulmonary content of air and blood are major determinants of thoracic impedance. This study was designed to evaluate EIT in monitoring pulmonary perfusion in a wide range of cardiac output. METHODS: Eight ...
Grichnik Katherine P - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for and the clinical use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for the management of one-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery. CPAP and PEEP use are important as we are increasingly challenged with ...
Caramez Maria Paula MP Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, and Respiratory Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2009
Many methods exist in the literature for identifying PEEP to set in ARDS patients following a lung recruitment maneuver (RM). We compared ten published parameters for setting PEEP following a RM. Lung injury was induced by bilateral lung lavage in 14 female Dorset sheep, yielding a PaO(2) 100-150 mmHg at ...
Sarkar Suman - - 2009
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation and can prevent ventilator- induced lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nevertheless, PEEP can also induce detrimental effects by its influence on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PEEP on gastric mucosal ...
Huh Jin Won - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), adequate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may decrease ventilator-induced lung injury by minimising overinflation and cyclic recruitment-derecruitment of the lung. We evaluated whether setting the PEEP using decremental PEEP titration after an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre (ARM) affects the clinical outcome in patients with ARDS. ...
Kallet Richard H - - 2009
The physiologic effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on work of breathing (WOB) and breathing pattern, respiratory-system mechanics, and hemodynamic function were examined via a literature review of clinical studies done between 1990 and 2008. Forty-one relevant studies were found; the majority examined patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas some ...
Suarez-Sipmann Fernando - - 2009
The optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is still controversial and has gained renewed interest in the era of 'lung protective ventilation strategies'. Despite experimental evidence that higher levels of PEEP protect against ventilator-induced lung injury, recent clinical trials have failed to demonstrate ...
Krebs Joerg - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory function and hemodynamics in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with normal intra-abdominal pressure (IAP < 12 mmHg) and with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, defined as IAP >or= 12 mmHg) during lung protective ...
Marumo C K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and sustained inspiratory insufflations (SI) during acute lung injury (ALI) are suggested to improve oxygenation and respiratory mechanics. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of PEEP with and without alveolar recruiting maneuver in a mild ALI model induced by inhalation of hydrochloric acid. METHODS: ...
Tannheimer Markus - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The human organism is exposed to considerable hypoxic stress at high altitudes. Our intention was to investigate if a special breathing pattern with expiration against the resistance of pursed lips leads to an elevation in oxygen saturation (SaO(2)). For the first time ever, oxygen saturation was measured continuously during ...
Renner Jochen - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that stroke volume variation (SVV), pulse pressure variation (PPV) and global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) can be used to predict the response to fluid administration. Currently, little information is available whether application of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), especially in infants and neonates, affects ...
Guo Feng-mei - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It is still controversial as to the implementation of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study was conducted to compare the lower and higher PEEP in patients with ARDS ventilated with low tidal volume, to investigate the relationship between the recruited ...
Talmor Daniel D Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston 02215, USA. - - 2008
Survival of patients with acute lung injury or the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been improved by ventilation with small tidal volumes and the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); however, the optimal level of PEEP has been difficult to determine. In this pilot study, we estimated transpulmonary pressure ...
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