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Results 701 - 750 of 1429
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Polkey M I - - 1996
The diaphragm is normally the main inspiratory muscle and diaphragm strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is therefore of interest. We assessed diaphragm strength in 20 patients with severe stable COPD (mean FEV1 0.61, mean thoracic gas volume [Vtg] 5.31) and seven normal control subjects, measuring both maximal sniff ...
te Nijenhuis F C - - 1996
We studied the effect of forced inflation at different alveolar volumes (VA) on carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) in anaesthetized, paralysed and mechanically ventilated healthy pigs. An inspiratory pause procedure (equivalent of the single-breath technique) consisting of a pause between an inflation and expiration, both at a constant flow rate, ...
Appendini L - - 1996
To investigate the mechanisms underlying ventilator-dependence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to assess the effects of the combination of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and pressure-support ventilation (PSV) on inspiratory muscle effort, we investigated respiratory mechanics in eight ventilator-dependent COPD patients. The patients' breathing pattern, lung mechanics, ...
Paulson T E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Animal models suggest that high-frequency ventilation with low tidal volumes and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) minimize secondary injury to the lung. We hypothesized that using a high-frequency pressure-control mode of ventilation with high PEEP in children with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) would be associated with improved ...
Fernández Mondéjar E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on extravascular lung water and on lymphatic drainage through the thoracic duct during hydrostatic pulmonary edema. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. SUBJECTS: Eighteen beagle dogs weighing between 10 and ...
Dambrosio M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on right ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Seven mechanically ventilated flow-limited COPD patients (PEEPi = 9.7 +/- ...
Huang S J - - 1996
The effects of direct lytic factor (DLF) on respiratory ventilation, gas exchange as well as hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized dogs. After an intravenous DLF dose of 1 mg/kg, the initial manifestation of intoxication was observed as follows: (1) Increase in airway impedance characterized by slowed air flow rate and ...
Ludwigs U - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) with volume-controlled ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (VCV PEEP) at equal levels of end-expiratory alveolar pressure. The primary focus of the study was on pulmonary epithelial permeability. Histologic and gravimetric indicators of lung injury were also studied. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. ...
Pizov R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the hemodynamic changes due to mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be assessed by the respiratory-induced variations in the arterial pressure waveform during normovolemia and experimental acute ventricular failure. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled experimental study. SETTING: Institutional experimental laboratory. SUBJECTS: Adult mongrel dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Experimental ...
Cohen E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The application of 10 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP10) to the ventilated lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) has an unpredictable effect on PaO2. It was hypothesized that patients with a low PaO2 (< 80 mmHg) during OLV may benefit from application of PEEP. DESIGN: Prospective, open. SETTING: ...
Robichaud J A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated circumferential pressure effect on soleus motoneuron reflex excitability in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: A university neuromuscular research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Six men with SCI, clinical level above L1. OUTCOME MEASURES AND INTERVENTION: Soleus motoneuron reflex excitability was assessed by measuring the average change in ...
Yang K L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To design an intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) lung model that has the property of air flow limitation. DESIGN: Mechanical lung model study of intrinsic PEEP. SETTING: Lung models were set up in the research laboratory. INTERVENTIONS: Intrinsic PEEP lung models were created with and without flow limitation. In ...
Papadakos P J - - 1996
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that high levels of inflation pressure and high levels of PEEP may be injurious to lung tissue and other organ systems. Limiting peak alveolar pressures below 35 cm H2O may help in avoiding these injuries. The findings have led to the development ...
Valta P - - 1996
Mean airway pressure (Pao) has been advocated as a useful index for monitoring hemodynamic performance and risk for barotrauma during mechanical ventilation. This is based on the assumption that Pao closely reflects mean alveolar pressure (Palv). In the present study we have compared Pao with Palv in 12 sedated, paralyzed, ...
Ranieri V M - - 1996
Deviation of end-expiratory lung volume from the elastic equilibrium volume of the respiratory system is recognized as a cardinal feature in mechanically-ventilated patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute ventilatory failure (AVF). The presence of dynamic hyperinflation implies that alveolar pressure remains positive throughout expiration. At the ...
Gültuna I - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects, especially the end-expiratory lung volume (EEV) and ventilation inhomogeneity during diminished early expiratory flow ventilation (DEEF), which resembles pursed-lips breathing, with the conventional intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in postoperative mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: A prospective study measuring ...
Ranieri V M - - 1996
Conflicting data are available on the relative contribution of the chest wall (cw) to the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure of the total respiratory system (PEEPi,rs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In order to assess the chest wall and lung contribution to the elastic properties of the respiratory ...
Yokota K - - 1996
The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible relationships between the magnitude of autopositive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) and measured PaO2 during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Forty-one adults received OLV anesthesia using a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg and a respiratory rate of 12 breaths/min. Auto-PEEP was quantified using an end-expiratory ...
Lien T C - - 1996
BACKGROUND: If nasal pressure support ventilation (NPSV) can be used at the early stage of acute exacerbation of severe COPD, profound ventilatory failure may be prevented without the complication from delayed intubation. To our knowledge, no study has focused on this group of patients. METHODS: In this prospective study, BiPAP ...
Beuret P - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE; To evaluate interactive effects of volemic status and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in assist-controlled mechanical ventilation (MV). DESIGN: Three successive protocols applied in randomized order to each participant. SETTING: Clinical investigation laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one young, healthy adults. INTERVENTIONS: The ...
Burchardi H - - 1996
In the fluid-filled lungs of early adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the dependent parts are compressed and atelectatic; whereas, the nondependent areas remain aerated and functional. Ventilating these considerably restricted lungs carries the risk of overinflation and ventilatory-induced lung injury (baro-volutrauma). The consequences for adjusting mechanical ventilation are: 1) reducing ...
Borelli M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the role that improvement in arterial oxygenation has, consequent on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), in the reduction of cardiac index (CI) determined by applying PEEP. DESIGN: 2 x 2 factorial trial. SETTING: Department of intensive care medicine at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 13 patients on mechanical ...
Roeggla M - - 1996
Many factors contribute to the risk of late death after successful rescue in a rock climbing accident. One factor may be hemodynamic and respiratory compromise by free suspension in a rope between fall and rescue. The risk probably results from using a chest harness alone or the combination of a ...
Azar G - - 1996
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been shown to cause a depression of mesenteric blood flow (MBF) and redistribution of blood flow away from the mesenteric vascular bed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether two commonly used vasoactive agents, dopamine, a known mesenteric vasodilator and inotrope, and dobutamine, with its inotropic ...
Sakamoto H H Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, - - 1996
To investigate the validity of ETCO2 in porcine neonates, which have been frequently used as an experimental model for human neonates, the relationship between arterial (PaCO2) and end-tidal PCO2 (ETCO2) in porcine neonates was examined under different respiratory conditions by regulating both inspiratory flow and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). ...
Vigil A R - - 1996
Controversy exists regarding the routine use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in mechanically ventilated patients. We hypothesized that nonhypoxic patients receiving 5-cm H2O PEEP would have improved shunt and PaO2/F10(2) ratios (P/F), without an increased dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) versus patients receiving no PEEP. Forty-four trauma patients ...
Hirakawa A - - 1996
The effects of ventilation at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on extravascular lung water (EVLW) and cardiopulmonary function were studied in dogs with experimental severe hydrostatic pulmonary edema, which was generated by inflating a left atrial balloon and simultaneously injecting warm 5% glucose solution into the pulmonary artery. The EVLW was ...
Konyukov Y A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The triggering capability of both the pressure and flow triggering systems of the Servo 300 ventilator (Siemens-Elema, Sweden) was compared at various levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), airway resistance (R(aw)), inspiratory effort and air leak, using a mechanical lung model. DESIGN: The ventilator was connected to a two ...
Lichtwarck-Aschoff M - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Prolongation of inspiratory time is used to reduce lung injury in mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to isolate the effects of inspiratory time on airway pressure, gas exchange, and hemodynamics, while ventilatory frequency, tidal volume, and mean airway pressure were kept constant. DESIGN: Randomized experimental trial. ...
Kondoh M - - 1996
To examine the adverse effects of peritoneal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both hemodynamic and respiratory alterations were continously monitored in 17 adult patients using noninvasive Doppler ultrasonography and a continuous spirometric monitoring device. During the surgery, which was performed under inhalational general anesthesia, intraabdominal pressure was maintained ...
Moore R M - - 1996
Colonic luminal pressure (median, range) measured during ventral midline celiotomy in 69 horses with strangulating obstruction (SO) of the large colon (SO; > or = 270 degrees large colon volvulus; 27 cm H2O: 2 to 80 cm H2O) was greater (P = .0023) than that measured in 37 horses with ...
Imanaka H - - 1996
Tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) has been recommended as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation in the presence of elevated Pa CO2. Based on our initial clinical experience with continuous flow TGI and pressure control ventilation (PCV), we were concerned about elevation in peak airway pressure as TGI was applied. In a ...
Breen P H - - 1996
Six chloralose-urethane anesthetized dogs (23 +/- 2 kg) underwent median thoracotomy (open pleural spaces) and constant mechanical ventilation with O2. We conducted measurements at baseline and during 25 min of ventilation with 3.3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP3) or 10.7 cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 11), including breath-by-breath values in the first ...
Leatherman J W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of low measured auto-end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) during mechanical ventilation of patients severe asthma. DESIGN: Observational clinical study. SETTING: Medical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated county hospital. PATIENTS: Four mechanically ventilated patients with severe asthma who had low measured auto-PEEP despite marked increase in both ...
Beydon L - - 1996
Respiratory mechanics, using flow interruption, was previously studied during the complete breath in healthy ventilated man, numerical techniques relieving constraints regarding flow pattern. The classical linear model of non-Newtonian behaviour was found to be valid. The present study was extended to subjects with critical lung disease. Subjects with acute lung ...
Cereda M - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the decay of respiratory system compliance (Cpl,rs) due to low tidal volume (VT) ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) patients. SETTING: General ICU in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight ALI patients with a lung injury score greater than ...
Markström A M - - 1996
Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is commonly used in clinical practice. Several studies have used IRV in order to recruit collapsed alveoli. In a randomised trial in twelve surfactant depleted piglets, the lungs were ventilated with sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent end-expiratory collapse, and the effects of increased inspiration-to-expiration ...
Smiseth O A - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether right atrial pressure could be used to estimate pericardial pressure during positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). BACKGROUND: Because of elevated intrathoracic pressure during PEEP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure may not accurately reflect left ventricular preload. An estimate of pericardial pressure during PEEP would allow ...
Zinman R - - 1996
Piston driven volume-cycled home ventilators increase work of breathing in the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. A 2-year-old trisomy 21 patient with chronic lung disease due to recurrent aspiration pneumonia required a ventilator rate of 6-8 breaths per minute awake and 15 asleep, with peak pressure of 32 cm H2O ...
Nishimura M - - 1995
Patient-triggered ventilation (PTV) has not been feasible for infants because of large trigger pressures and long delay times with pressure-triggered systems. Recently, four infant ventilators with flow triggering have become available. We questioned if delay times, trigger pressures, and trigger work with these ventilators would be acceptable for PTV in ...
Meldrum D R - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Perihepatic packing has been shown to result in pathologic intra-abdominal hypertension. Although now recognized as impairing abdominal organ perfusion, the extent to which perihepatic packing affects cardiopulmonary function has not been elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed a 3-year experience with 11 patients who sustained major hepatic injuries requiring perihepatic packing ...
Theissen J L - - 1995
Positive pressure ventilation with PEEP has been reported to reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and thus increase venous admixture. This effect was investigated in six chronically instrumented unanesthetized healthy sheep. The change in left pulmonary arterial blood flow (Qlpa, ultrasonic transit time) in response to unilateral lung hypoxia (10 min ...
Nava S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) is now widely used in the process of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of PS on respiratory pattern and diaphragmatic efforts in patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SETTING: Intermediate ...
van den Berg B - - 1995
The application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to reduce inspiratory work of breathing in intubated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This effect is caused by a decrease in elastic work related to a reduction in intrinsic PEEP. The aim of this study was to relate ...
Sydow M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of low-level PEEP (5 cm H2O) and the two different CPAP trigger modes in the Bennett 7200a ventilator (demand-valve and flow-by trigger modes) on inspiratory work of breathing (Wi) during the weaning phase. DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. SETTING: The intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Six ...
Kacmarek R M - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and maintenance of increased mean airway pressure (MAP) has been associated with improved oxygenation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, attention has been directed toward elevating MAP by establishing auto-PEEP when ventilating with an inverse inspiratory to expiratory ratio in opposition to ...
Barnas G M - - 1995
We measured cardiorespiratory variables and 133xenon washout from a nonperfused lung region (XeW) in six anesthetized/paralyzed dogs, mechanically ventilated with 60% O2 at different positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP). XeW in this technique represents directly measured acinar gas transfer (3). Measurements were repeated after induction of lung injury by lavaging the ...
Ranieri V M - - 1995
BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the ventilatory approach is based on tidal volume (VT) of 10-15 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). To avoid further pulmonary injury, decreasing VT and allowing PaCO2 to increase (permissive hypercapnia) has been suggested. Effects of 10 cmH2O of PEEP on ...
Furutani E - - 1995
In order to reduce intraoperative blood loss and spare blood transfusion, we developed a blood pressure control system using a state-predictive controller. Using adult mongrel dogs, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded from a femoral artery while trimethaphan camsilate was infused at constant rates. A pure delay plus a ...
Groeneveld A B - - 1995
The interaction between activated neutrophils and pulmonary endothelium is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its relation to ARDS severity, which may support a pathogenetic role, is unclear. Therefore, circulating inflammatory mediators, including the neutrophil chemoattractant and activator interleukin 8 (IL-8), the ...
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