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Kassam Adam A - Spasticity Research Program, West Park Healthcare Centre, Toronto, Canada; - Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto; - Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada; - Division of Physiatry, Department of Medicine, University of - - 2014
Spasticity and clonus are common clinical signs of upper motor neuron lesions post-stroke. Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A injections have been shown to reduce spasticity and improve quality of life. Upper extremity clonus can have a significant impact upon activities of daily living and can pose challenges to comfort, self-care, hygiene, and ...
Ghosh Sanjib Kumar SK Department of Anatomy, ESI-PGIMSR & ESIC Medical College, Joka, Kolkata, West Bengal, - - 2014
Johann Vesling (1598-1649) was a German anatomist and surgeon who belonged to the golden period of the illustrious University of Padua. He made significant contributions to the advancement of anatomical knowledge during the 17th century and is remembered most for his remarkable anatomical work, the Syntagma Anatomicum, which was published ...
Romaní de Gabriel J J Servicio de Dermatología, Corporación Sanitaria ParcTaulí, Sabadell, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España. Electronic address: - - 2014
Darwinian medicine, or evolutionary medicine, regards some pathological conditions as attempts by the organism to solve a problem or develop defense mechanisms. At certain stages of human evolution, some diseases may have conferred a selective advantage. Psoriasis is a high-penetrance multigenic disorder with prevalence among whites of up to 3%. ...
Nimrouzi Majid M Essence of Parsiyan Wisdom Institute, Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran - - 2014
Nutrition has a crucial role in maintaining body health. Eating and drinking has a special place in Islamic doctrine and traditional Persian medicine. Traditional Persian medicine is a holistic medicine and provides great attention to the spiritual aspects of life as well as somatic aspects to maintain human health. In ...
Whatley Shawn D SD Department of Community and Family Medicine, Southlake Regional Health Centre, University of Toronto, Newmarket, ON, - - 2014
The character of medicine has changed over the last 100 years such that medicine is more interested in diseases than the people who suffer from them. Despite notable efforts to address this, the medical humanities do not challenge doctors' fundamental view of the world. Students adopt a metaphysic of physicalism during ...
Linder Deborah D Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in ...
Hill Derek L G DL IXICO Ltd., London, - - 2014
Regulatory qualification of a biomarker for a defined context of use provides scientifically robust assurances to sponsors and regulators that accelerate appropriate adoption of biomarkers into drug development. The Coalition Against Major Diseases submitted a dossier to the Scientific Advice Working Party of the European Medicines Agency requesting a qualification ...
Metcalfe Sarah - - 2014
I remember sitting in one of my genetics lectures in the early days of university and being in awe of the complexity of the human being but also at science’s ability to probe it. We were in the thick of The Human Genome Project’s culmination and all that it promised ...
Shreeve David R DR The Centre of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK - - 2014
Having excelled in histology, Dr Eugenia Cooper, following graduation in medicine in Manchester, embarked on a career spanning 44 years in anatomy and histology at Manchester University. Her inimitable character was readily remembered by those she had taught. She was the first female graduate to gain an MD with gold ...
Tam Teresa W TW Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8M5, Canada; Centre for Research in Biopharmaceuticals and Biotechnology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8M5, - - 2014
Rhododendron groenlandicum (Bog Labrador tea), R. tomentosum (Marsh Labrador tea) and Juniperus communis (Juniper) are used in medicinal teas by Canadian aboriginal cultures alone and in combination with conventional drug products. The safety of this combination had not been previously examined and this study was initiated to examine the potential ...
Shepherd Suzanne M SM PENN Travel Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Emergency Medicine , Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Whereas those who live in the native ranges of the large feline carnivores are well aware of the risks of cat and human encounters, North Americans and Europeans are increasingly exposed to exotic animals through travel, ecotourism, leisure pursuits in rural areas, occupational exposure, zoo and animal park visits, wild ...
Hespel Adrien-Maxence AM Clinical Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL - - 2014
Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current ...
Dias-Angelo Fernanda F Department of Administration, College of Economics, Business Administration and Accounting of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, - - 2014
Organizations are increasingly required to reduce their environmental impact through the adoption of environmental management, which requires the support of human resource practices. The objective of this study is to determine whether human resource management practices, especially training, are supporting environmental management practices at four hotels located in Brazil. This ...
Ghys L L Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, - - 2014
The occurrence of chronic kidney disease is underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the gold standard for evaluating kidney function. However, GFR assessment is time-consuming and labor-intensive and therefore not routinely used in practice. The commonly used indirect GFR markers, serum creatinine (sCr) ...
Desgrouas Camille C UMR-MD3, IRBA, Faculté de Pharmacie, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin CS30064 13385 Marseille cedex 5, Aix-Marseille Université, France; UMR-MD3, Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Ethnopharmacologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin CS30064 13385 Marseille cedex 5, Aix-Marseille Université, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Stephania rotunda Lour. (Menispermaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant that is grown in Southeast Asia. The stems, leaves, and tubers have been used in the Cambodian, Lao, Indian and Vietnamese folk medicine systems for years to treat a wide range of ailments, including asthma, headache, fever, and diarrhoea. To ...
Biggar Nigel - - 2014
As a science and practice transcending metaphysical and ethical disagreements, 'secular' medicine should not exist. 'Secularity' should be understood in an Augustinian sense, not a secularist one: not as a space that is universally rational because it is religion-free, but as a forum for the negotiation of rival reasonings. Religion ...
Gutenstein Marc M Department of Emergency Medicine, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New - - 2014
Human psychology, neuroscience and behavioural economics study the human mind, brain and behaviour. Scientific research has discovered a great deal about the factors that influence human perception, judgment and activity in the real world. In this article, I aim to provide an outline of the relationship between decision-making, cognition, emotion ...
Dutton Sharon C SC Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California. Electronic address: - - 2014
Radiologists today practice in diverse environments in addition to the traditional private practice model. Practice environments are evolving at a rapid rate, and the ACR Commission on Human Resources previously detailed the distribution of radiologists in practice in its workforce survey. Here, the commission describes the key practice options available ...
Donzelli Gianpaolo G Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health - University of - - 2014
Abstract The main purpose of medical humanities is to integrate scientific knowledge ofthe human body with humanistic knowledge of the patient's experiences within the context of their personal history. The healthcare dimension is created in line with a bio-psycho-social model of medicine that centres around the patient's person. In narrative ...
Derksen Maarten - - 2014
In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's ...
Casper Stephen T - - 2014
The attitudes that characterize the contemporary "neuro-turn" were strikingly commonplace as part of the self-fashioning of social identity in the biographies and personal papers of past neurologists and neuroscientists. Indeed, one fundamental connection between nineteenth- and twentieth-century neurology and contemporary neuroscience appears to be the value that workers in both ...
Mukherjee Ambarish - - 2014
Ayurveda has been the main guiding force in drug discovery from traditional medicine. In concept, this system is rooted in folk or ethnomedicine and in practice it shows further refinement and development in accordance with local traditions. Isolation of active principles from crude drugs, their pharmacological evaluation, therapeutic proving and ...
Caneva Laura L European Medicines Agency, Specialised Scientific Disciplines Department 7 Westferry Circus, Canary Wharf, London E14 4HB, United - - 2014
In this article we analyse the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of 59 medicinal products for human use authorized in the EU through the centralised procedure between 2011 and 2012, to establish whether company submissions are compliant with the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) guideline and complete in terms of data and ...
Mercer Simon S Anaesthetic Department, Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, - - 2014
Human factors or non-technical skills are now commonplace in the medical literature, having taken the lead from the airline and nuclear industries and more recently Formula One motor racing. They have been suggested as playing a vital role in the success of the trauma teams in recent conflicts. This article ...
Dalfardi Behnam - - 2014
Ibn Sina (980-1037 AD), known by his full name Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina and the Latin name 'Avicenna', was a Persian scholar who is primarily remembered for his contributions to the science of medicine. He authored Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). Sections of his work are ...
Giri S - - 2014
Bristly luffa (Luffa echinata), a member of the cucurbitaceae family is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, which has been used in the traditional system of medicine for variety of symptoms. The active constituents like cucurbitacin, saponin, echinatin, β-Sitosterol, oleanolic acid and flavonoids have important pathophysiological effects on human body. However, there ...
Crespi Bernard B Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, , Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada , V5A - - 2014
We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three ...
Robb Carolyn K CK School of Environment and Management, Royal Roads University, Victoria, British Columbia, - - 2014
The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most ...
Nóbrega Diego Borin DB University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. - - 2014
Serious human and animal infections caused by bacteria are usually treated with beta-lactams. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute the most clinically and economically important enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The spread of ESBLs represents a serious threat to healthcare systems, drastically undermining therapeutic ...
Buchholzer Marie-Luise ML Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), Kurt-Georg-Kiesinger-Allee 3, 53175 Bonn, Germany. BfArM is an independent higher federal authority within the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Health. Electronic address: - - 2013
For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude ...
Carter J - - 2013
The history of human and veterinary anaesthesia is both intertwined and parallel. Physicians and anaesthetists often first experimented on animals and developments from human anaesthesia have been incorporated into veterinary medicine. Within veterinary medicine, anaesthesia is a specialty discipline as it is in human medicine. Veterinary anaesthetists undertake additional training ...
Salgia Ravi - - 2013
The SS1P immunotoxin is combined with immunomodulatory therapy in order to improve its efficacy in human mesothelioma (Hassan et al., this issue).
Noorman Merel - - 2013
The prospect of increasingly autonomous military robots has raised concerns about the obfuscation of human responsibility. This papers argues that whether or not and to what extent human actors are and will be considered to be responsible for the behavior of robotic systems is and will be the outcome of ...
Destrez A - - 2013
Between-farm variation in animal reactions to humans can reflect different management styles and behavioral tendencies among farmers. Animals are well-known to discriminate among humans, but less clear is the key issue of whether they more or less easily generalize their experience from specific humans to others depending on management style. ...
Heringa Jilles - - 2013
The Commission has proposed a regulation 'on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use' to introduce one regulatory framework for clinical trials in the European Union. This regulation should replace the current clinical trials directive (2001/20/EC). In this article we describe and critically review the main provisions of the ...
Kamalo P P Dept of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of - - 2013
Hydrocephalus has been known to affect humans since the birth of human medicine as it is described by Hippocrates. The management of this condition is however still dodged by challenges due to a poor understanding of its pathophysiology. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt presents considerable problems especially with respect to infection and ...
Syed Shamsuzzoha B - - 2013
The global flow of knowledge, skills, and ideas has been a defining feature of human progress. Different regions and peoples have contributed to and, indeed, led innovation development at various times in human history. From Africa to Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, the current body of knowledge on ...
Sun Da-Zhi - - 2013
To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has ...
Roden D M - - 2013
This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics is devoted to genomic medicine, and a reader may reasonably ask what we mean when we use those words. In the initial issue of the journal Genomics in 1987, McKusick and Ruddle pointed out that the descriptor "genome" had been coined in 1920 ...
Burrows Jeremy N - - 2013
SUMMARY Malaria is a disease that still affects a significant proportion of the global human population. Whilst advances have been made in lowering the numbers of cases and deaths, it is clear that a strategy based solely on disease control year on year, without reducing transmission and ultimately eradicating the ...
Ronel Natti - - 2013
The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by ...
Campbell Madeleine L H - - 2013
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. ...
Adekoya B J - - 2013
There is a paucity of data onthe human resourcesand ophthalmic equipmentavailable for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma in Nigeria. This study is aimed at describing the ophthalmic human resources, as well as available and functioning equipment used in diagnosing and managing glaucoma in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a ...
Reverón Rafael Romero - - 2013
José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 ...
Grote Gudela - - 2013
It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that ...
Lee Chan-Kyu - - 2013
Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard ...
Bhatia Saloni - - 2013
Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the ...
Dugdale Lydia S - - 2013
The scenario could not have been more grim. Mrs. Carr had been fitted with a breathing tube for surgery, but the doctors were unable to wean her from the ventilator due to recurrent episodes of life-threatening infection. She could not eat because of the ventilator, so she received nutrition through ...
Doarn Charles R - - 2013
Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has interacted with numerous advisory committees. These committees include those established by NASA, the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, or through Congressional oversight. Such groups have had a relatively passive role while providing sage advice ...
Bag Anwesa - - 2013
Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fam. Combretaceae), is called the 'King of Medicine' in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of 'Ayurvedic Materia Medica' because of its extraordinary power of ...
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