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Farley T A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine Louisiana pharmacy managers' attitudes and practices regarding needle and syringe sales to suspected injection drug users (IDUs) without prescriptions, and to assess which factors affect their decisions to sell nonprescription needles and syringes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: The six most populous cities of Louisiana. PARTICIPANTS: Pharmacy ...
Tsai T F - - 1998
This section should be of particular interest to the travel medicine physician as it reports many new manifestations of exotic viral infections, both in terms of new clinical expression or extension to new geographical territory. Included are descriptions of improved diagnostic methodologies for arboviral diseases, a discussion of safety issues ...
O'Grady M - - 1998
Drug therapy for 115 patients in Health Board contracted beds in a long-stay institution for the elderly were studied. The results were analysed for frequency, type and cost of medicines. 96.5% of patients received a total of 473 routine medicines, an average of 4.1 medicines per patient, females received a ...
Deehan A - - 1998
The appropriateness of the primary care setting to undertake health promotional activities has been emphasized, but little is known about the clinical work of GPs with patients misusing alcohol. This study examines how GPs managed alcohol-misusing patients. A 20% random sample of all general practitioners in England and Wales were ...
Kamat V R - - 1998
Studies of pharmaceutical practice have called attention to the role played by pharmacists and pharmacy attendants in fostering self-medication and medicine experimentation among the public. Left undocumented is the extent to which clients passively follow the advice of pharmacy personnel or question their motive or expertise. While research has focused ...
Johnson P - - 1998
"We show that older [UK] male pensioners have substantially lower incomes than younger pensioners.... We find that cohort differences more than account for the lower incomes of older pensioners in the sense that the mean income of older pensioners is actually higher than the mean income of the same cohort ...
Wilson R P - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The prescribing volume of benzodiazepines and of appetite suppressant drugs have been suggested as possible indicators of prescribing quality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation among general practices in the prescribing of benzodiazepines and appetite suppressants by examining the contribution to this variation of training status, partnership status, fundholding status ...
Asante M A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Prescriptions for ulcer-healing drugs (UHDs) and endoscopy costs represent major expenditures for dyspepsia in primary care. Healthcare expenditure for dyspepsia could be better understood if the factors contributing to the expenditure for dyspepsia could be identified. AIMS: To determine whether prescribing costs of UHDs and use of endoscopy in ...
Wagner R F RF - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Dermatologists' attitudes toward independent electrolysis practice by nonphysicians has historically ranged from the critical to the praiseworthy. It is hypothesized that dermatologists' attitudes toward independent electrolysis practice by nonphysicians is related to physicians' perception of licensing requirements for independent nonphysician electrologists (INE). METHODS: Nine hundred and thirty-seven fellows of ...
Ricciardi G - - 1998
We conducted a study to acquire information on the current behavior of a sample of Italian surgeons and anesthesiologists about prescribing, interpreting, and using routine preoperative investigations. Consultants in surgery and anesthesiology in 60 hospitals in northern, central, and southern Italy were interviewed. Prescription of these procedures by doctors were ...
Ripetskyj R T - - 1998
The superficial cells of dark-grown moss shoots give rise to negatively gravitropic protonemata, whatever the orientation of the shoot. Shoot orientation, however, does affect from which side of the shoot the protonemata form and the direction of their growth. Protonemata from horizontal shoots grow out at a near-right angle to ...
Gill P S - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To test whether Asian general practitioners who qualified in the Indian subcontinent prescribe items more often, more expensive items, and fewer generic drugs than their British trained Asian and non-Asian counterparts. DESIGN: Linkage study using data collected by questionnaire and from routine sources. SETTING: General practices in England. SUBJECTS: ...
Durward C - - 1997
Children who are taking long-term sugar-containing liquid medicines have an increased risk of developing dental caries. A recent survey of paediatric liquid medicines in New Zealand revealed that over half of the prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines for children contain sugar. Only one-third of the sugar-free medicines were labelled as ...
Hawdon G M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Many venomous marine creatures inhabit Australian waters, causing significant morbidity and occasional fatalities. No antivenom is available for most of these creatures. Little is known about the venom or syndromes produced by many of these creatures. OBJECTIVE: This article discusses the features of envenomation by some of the more ...
Hastings G - - 1997
BACKGROUND: A long-standing concern among dental health professionals has been about the harmful effects of sugered medicines on teeth, especially in children who regularly take such medications. AIM: To investigate parental attitudes, perceptions, and motivations to sugar-free medicines so that an effective promotional campaign could be mounted. METHOD: A qualitative, ...
Asante M A - - 1997
Direct access endoscopy services, Helicobacter pylori infection and more effective acid suppression therapy have influenced the management of dyspepsia in the past decade. Three hundred and ten GPs in south London were surveyed via postal questionnaire to determine the impact of these factors on the management of dyspepsia in general ...
Dybwad T B - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Registration studies have shown great variations in prescribing volume and prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines (BZDs) and minor opiates among GPs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to form a basis for hypotheses and build theories about prescribing, in order to investigate how high-prescribing doctors can legitimize their own prescribing pattern. METHODS: A ...
Wilson R P - - 1997
Since 1991, fundholding general practitioners in the UK have had a financial incentive to contain prescribing costs. Research has confirmed that fundholding practices have contained their prescribing costs more effectively than non-fundholding practices, but how much fundholders have actually saved by changing their prescribing is difficult to quantify. Fundholders are ...
Tamblyn R - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases the risk for hospitalization and death from gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation. OBJECTIVES: To 1) estimate the extent to which NSAIDs are prescribed unnecessarily and NSAID-related side effects are inaccurately diagnosed and inappropriately managed and 2) identify the physician and visit characteristics associated ...
Shum S - - 1997
Caffeine is used and abused on a daily basis in different beverages, OTC products, and as a prescribed medication. The strength varies widely from negligible in decaffeinated drinks to medicinal grade of 200 mg/tablet. A total of 7,655 exposures were recorded in 1995 by the AAPCC Toxic Exposure Surveillance System ...
Rafferty T - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare prescribing patterns in general practices before and after the introduction of fundholding in April 1993 to determine whether fundholding changed prescribing patterns among practices that joined the scheme. DESIGN: Analysis of prescribing data from the Drug Utilisation Research Unit's database for all practices in Northern Ireland during ...
Aveyard P - - 1997
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) have had to record information about chronic disease management and send this to the health authorities since the introduction of the new contract in 1990. AIM: To discover the relationship between practice emergency admission rates for asthma and the characteristics of the practice's patients and chronic ...
Wyatt W E - - 1997
This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained ...
McVea K L - - 1997
The practice of injecting vitamins and antibiotics by lay people is common among Hispanic migrant farmworkers in the U.S.A. This practice has recent roots in the Latin American cultures from which these farmworkers originate, but it presents a public health concern in its new context because of the high prevalence ...
Stolorow R D - - 1997
A critique is offered of four conceptions of neutrality that have been prominent in the psychoanalytic literature: neutrality as (1) abstinence, (2) anonymity, (3) equidistance, and (4) empathy. It is argued that once the psychoanalytic situation is recognized as an intersubjective system of reciprocal mutual influence, the concept of neutrality ...
Baines D L - - 1997
In April 1991, the fundholding and indicative prescribing schemes introduced budgets for expenditure on prescribed drugs into UK general practice. Although both schemes were designed to be equally effective at containing prescribing-cost inflation, several studies suggest that expenditure growth has been lower in fundholding practices, compared with nonfundholding practices. This ...
Baines D L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Both the government and the pharmaceutical industry are interested in increasing the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The reaction on the part of general practitioners is more circumspect. AIM: To investigate whether fundholding or dispensing status and patient exemption from, or prepayment of prescription charges influence the behaviour of ...
Whynes D K - - 1997
Fundholding general practices have been observed to be more successful than non-fundholders in controlling the growth of their prescribing costs. Debate persists over the likely duration of this fundholding effect. Regression analysis of changes in prescribing costs for a large sample of practices over 5 years supports the view that ...
Whynes D K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: An earlier paper published in this journal suggested that fundholding practices in Lincolnshire had managed to constrain the growth in their prescribing costs more successfully than had non-fundholders, largely on the basis of restricting the number of items prescribed per patient. At that time, insufficient data were available to ...
Baker R - - 1997
Maguire A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes in prescribing of liquid oral medicines used long-term in children and to observe any patterns of change in sugar-free prescribing. DESIGN: Prescribing patterns in 1992 were compared with those in 1987. Information on these and on the sweetening agent in each liquid oral medicine was ...
Cragg D K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare the process of out of hours care provided by general practitioners from patients' own practices and by commercial deputising services. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Four urban areas in Manchester, Salford, Stockport, and Leicester. SUBJECTS: 2152 patients who requested out of hours care, and 49 practice doctors ...
Choudhry A J - - 1997
Two hundred sixty-two randomly sampled general physicians of Lahore were interviewed to study the current practices and factors affecting the management of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) in children below 5 years of age. Among the physicians, 19% prescribed ORS alone, 61% ORS with some drug, 15% drugs alone and 5% ...
Harris C M - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the first five waves of English fundholding practices have reduced their prescribing costs relative to non-fundholding practices, and the duration of any reduction achieved. DESIGN: Analysis of item and cost data for all general practices in England in the six years from April 1990 to March ...
Goel P K - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Retail pharmacies are important sources of advice on pharmaceuticals in developing countries, where many purchasing decisions are unmediated by medical professionals. For childhood diarrhea, choice of drug sales in pharmacies has been found to be consistently poor, whether with or without prescription, as evidenced by a low use of ...
Bradley M - - 1996
Factors which influence the prescribing of sugar-free medicines by 47 general medical practitioners were examined by means of questionnaire. The doctors all practise in the Newry and Mourne district of the Southern Health and Social Services Board, Northern Ireland. Twenty-six (55%) of the doctors stated that they support the principle ...
Zermansky A G - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The need for patients on long-term medication to be periodically reviewed is well documented, but until now there have been no large-scale systematic studies of the process of repeat prescribing. AIM: To propose a model for the process and control of repeat prescribing in general practice, and to use ...
Baines D L - - 1996
The existence of significant disparities between the prescribing costs of dispensing and non-dispensing general practices has long been suspected, and received confirmation in a study of Lincolnshire, based on data for 1990-91. This study subsequently attracted much criticism. In this paper, we extend the analysis by considering annual cost and ...
Wilson R P - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in prescribing among general practices by examining the contribution to this variation of fundholding, training status, partnership status, and the level of deprivation in the practice population and to investigate the extent to which fundholding has been responsible for any changes in prescribing. DESIGN: Analysis ...
Griffin J P - - 1996
Since the inception of the National Health Service in 1948, successive British governments have taken various measures to restrain the growth of the medicines bill. A total of 10 different measures have been introduced with very limited success. The most effective measures have been those directed at increasing the level ...
Rothberg A D AD Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, - - 1996
The Department of Health has prepared an Essential Drugs List (EDL) for public sector implementation in 1996 and future extension to the private sector. Stakeholders have been consulted to ensure that the EDL achieves its objectives of safety, efficacy and quality at the lowest possible cost, while providing coverage for ...
Bateman D N - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a financial incentive scheme on prescribing in non-fundholding general practices. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Non-fundholding general practices in former Northern region in 1993-4. INTERVENTION: Target savings were set for each group of practices; those that achieved them were paid a portion of the savings. ...
Carlsten A - - 1996
A key issue in the debate on suicide prevention is the extent to which suicide rates are affected by the availability of means of committing suicide. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in rates of suicides committed by poisoning in Sweden between 1969 and 1992, and ...
Eccles M P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The experience from general practice fundholding suggests that financial incentives may influence prescribing; guidelines and hospital prescribing are two other suggested influences. AIM: A study was undertaken to establish general practitioners' attitudes to a financial prescribing incentive scheme, the presence and use of guidelines, and the influence of prescribing ...
DeZearn K - - 1996
A program to promote generic cimetidine as the preferred histamine H2-receptor antagonist (HRA) in the managed care organizations (MCOs) served by a pharmacy benefit management company is described. A pharmacy benefit management company conducted a literature review to substantiate the therapeutic equivalence of the HRAs and to set conservative criteria ...
Boixet M - - 1996
This paper presents the results of a survey carried out to investigate the benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing patterns of the general practitioners (GP) in the catchment area of a Drug Dependence Unit located in a general hospital in Mataro (Barcelona, Spain). The aims of the survey were: (i) to obtain descriptive ...
Paredes P - - 1996
Proper diarrhoea treatment has received greater attention during the last 10 years. However, the unjustified use of medicines to treat simple episodes of acute diarrhoea continues to divert attention and available resources away from appropriate treatment. A study to identify the factors determining prescribing practices for diarrhoea treatment was carried ...
Thomas D H - - 1996
Cost and convenience seem to be major factors in determining whether, given the choice, patients purchase a medicine over the counter or obtain it on prescription. With current arrangements, exemption from prescription charges provides an incentive to continue to obtain products on NHS prescription even when they are available over ...
Zhang J - - 1996
The talin-actin interaction was examined by using negative staining and cosedimentation assays. At pH 6.4 and low ionic strength, talin extensively crosslinked actin filaments into both networks and bundles. The bundles consist of parallel actin filaments with a center-to-center distance of 13 nm, and talin crossbridges spaced at 36-nm intervals ...
Thomas N - - 1996
In the US, managed-care organisations (MCOs) have turned to pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies to contain costs and provide total disease management packages. The demand for pharmacoeconomic research and information by purchasers of healthcare has contributed to the growth of PBM companies and to recent acquisitions by pharmaceutical manufacturers. PBMs ...
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