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Results 401 - 450 of 1001
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de Barros Carla Maria Teixeira - - 2007
To characterise the therapeutic profile of orphan medicines. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2 months in a convenience sample of seven hospital pharmacy services, in the region of Lisbon. Data were collected, from pharmaceutical service's records. A total of 18 orphan medicines, were dispensed to 355 patients with rare ...
Henry Stephen G - - 2007
The evidence-based medicine movement has remained both well known and controversial since its inception. The authors reframe the evidence-based medicine debate by pointing out an underappreciated epistemological deficiency: evidence-based medicine as currently conceptualized cannot accommodate concepts that resist quantitative analysis and therefore cannot logically differentiate human beings from complex machines. ...
Wadland William C - - 2007
PURPOSE: We undertook a study to assess the impact of comparative feedback vs general reminders on practice-based referrals to a tobacco cessation quit line and estimated costs for projected quit responses. METHODS: We conducted a group-randomized clinical trial comparing the impact of 6 quarterly (18 months) feedback reports (intervention) with ...
Salmond Susan W - - 2007
Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires a shift from the traditional paradigm of clinical practice grounded in intuition, clinical experience, and pathophysiological rationale. In the EBP paradigm, clinical expertise is combined with integration of best scientific evidence, patient values and preferences, and the clinical circumstances. This primer article provides a summary of ...
Khoja T A - - 2007
A questionnaire survey was made of primary health care physicians in Asir region, Saudi Arabia in 1999 to explore their awareness of and attitude towards evidence-based medicine. The 272 respondents welcomed the principles of evidence-based medicine. Awareness and use of extracting journals, review publications and databases was low. Pharmaceutical company ...
Sprang Ginny - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study surveyed the practice patterns of behavioral health providers to determine the degree to which providers in this study utilized evidence-based approaches when dealing with traumatized individuals and the extent to which these practice methods vary as a result of population density or provider characteristics. METHOD: A survey ...
Johnson Teela - - 2007
Homeopathy has been the cause of much debate in the scientific literature with respect to the plausibility and efficacy of homeopathic preparations and practice. Nonetheless, many consumers, pharmacists, physicians, and other health care providers continue to use or practice homeopathic medicine and advocate its safety and efficacy. As drug experts, ...
Chima Cinda S - - 2007
Although the role of nutrition as a therapy for the sick has been recognized for centuries, the science of nutrition is a relatively young discipline. The first modern attempt to document and standardize appropriate nutrition care was the diet manual. The evolution from "diet manual" to "practice manual" is less ...
Lode Hartmut - - 2007
Physicians' treatment choices are influenced by a number of factors, including guidelines, evidence-based medicine, past experience and, to a certain extent, habit. Evidence-based medicine is the foundation of clinical practice guidelines. This article reviews the influence of evidence and guidelines on physicians' treatment choices. As examples, the role of evidence ...
Smellie W S A - - 2007
This ninth best-practice review examines two series of common primary care questions in laboratory medicine: (i) potassium abnormalities and (ii) venous leg ulcer microbiology. The review is presented in question-and-answer format, referenced for each question series. The recommendations represent a précis of guidance found using a standardised literature search of ...
Alkhalifa, MS; ;
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a rapidly expanding subject. The aim of this editorial is to give an overview and address some of the practical issues relevant to the developing world. EBM may be defined as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the ...
Bailey Diana M - - 2007
The purpose of this article is to present activities that can be used to integrate evidence-based practice (EBP) into clinicians' daily work so that they may be better informed when planning intervention with their clients. The article includes a short history of EBP, a description of an eight-step EBP process ...
Minei Joseph P - - 2007
The development of evidence-based guidelines has gained popularity as a strategy to reduce variation in practice and to orient clinical care around documentable best practices. Based on available data, the new European guidelines for the management of bleeding in the trauma patient do deliver a number of sound recommendations. However, ...
Kumar Dhavendra - - 2007
The concept of 'evidence-based medicine' dates back to mid-19th century or even earlier. It remains pivotal in planning, funding and in delivering the health care. Clinicians, public health practitioners, health commissioners/purchasers, health planners, politicians and public seek formal 'evidence' in approving any form of health care provision. Essentially 'evidence-based medicine' ...
Dey Pranab - - 2007
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a ...
Sarin Pankaj - - 2007
Implementation of best care practices is difficult because the status quo is often perpetuated; many providers treat patients based on anecdotal experience rather than evidence-based medicine. Our goal was to develop and evaluate an electronic feedback system that feeds back practice and outcome data combined with educational material to anesthesiologists. ...
Young Gregg - - 2007
Evidence-based medicine--the use of "current best evidence" in making medical decisions--is becoming the standard system for health care delivery. In applying evidence-based medicine, the podiatric profession lags behind in several key ways. Major problems include a scarcity of high-level evidence for most podiatric issues and a lack of database resources ...
Torbenson Michael - - 2007
At least 661 unique patent medicine manufacturers promoted their nostrums in Baltimore from 1863 to 1930. The industry saw its greatest growth from 1880 to 1900 and peaked in 1907. Overall, about 7% of these companies were owned by women and 4% by African-Americans. Based on the short life span ...
McIntyre Judy D - - 2007
An avulsion injury is a challenge to manage, and there are many factors to consider to obtain the best prognosis in each scenario. In 2001, Lee and colleagues published decision analysis paradigms for the management of avulsed permanent teeth for the purpose of providing busy clinicians with user-friendly, reference-based flow-charts ...
McCaffrey David - - 2007
Deciding the best option for your practice is by no means straightforward. It would be easy to look at the financial effects and simply decide to withdraw from the DTSS; however, consideration should be given to other factors such as the dentist's duty of care to patients, whether the practice ...
Gravas Stavros - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to provide new clinical data on transurethral microwave thermotherapy, evaluate it in the perspective of evidence-based guidelines and daily practice and investigate the driving forces that determine the current position of thermotherapy for the management of benign prostatic obstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Stanton Marietta - - 2007
This article examines evidence-based practice (EBP) and emphasizes how the case manager can find and use research about best practices. EBP should be a mainstay of care but fear about accessing and lack of time to purse EBP material may deter many case managers from integrating best practices into their ...
Robb Gillian - - 2007
AIMS: To summarise evidence and key recommendations for general practitioner diagnosis and management of acute soft-tissue knee injuries, based on the New Zealand guideline. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed the guideline by critically appraising and grading retrieved literature using the Graphic Appraisal Tools for Epidemiology, Clinical decision rules and the ...
Kudo Masatoshi - - 2007
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death not only in Japan but worldwide. Clinical Practice Guidelines for HCC were published in 2001 by the European Society of Study of the Liver (EASL) and in 2005 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease ...
Poolman Rudolf W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume (The Journal) recently initiated a section called "Evidence-Based Orthopaedics." Furthermore, a level-of-evidence rating is now used in The Journal to help readers in clinical decision-making. Little is known about whether this recent emphasis has influenced surgeons' perceptions about and competence ...
Dodd Barbara - - 2007
Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based ...
Staunton Marie - - 2007
Evidence-based medicine originated at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where it was defined as "the integration of current best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values" by the Evidence-based Medicine Working Group led by Drs Gordon Guyatt and David Sackett. From this developed the McMaster University and National Health Service ...
Loewy Erich H - - 2007
This article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, and traps to which evidence-based medicine (EBM) may lead and suggests that, to be ethically valid, EBM must be aimed at the patient's best interests and not at the financial interests of others. While financial considerations are by no means trivial, it is hypocritical ...
Kakar Puneet - - 2007
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a condition of genuine clinical concern. This arrhythmia increases patient morbidity and mortality, most notably due to stroke, thromboembolism and heart failure. Consequentially, there is a strong impetus to acquire a greater understanding of its natural history and course in order to provide crucial evidence-based treatment ...
Takada Tadahiro - - 2007
There are no evidence-based-criteria for the diagnosis, severity assessment, of treatment of acute cholecystitis or acute cholangitis. For example, the full complement of symptoms and signs described as Charcot's triad and as Reynolds' pentad are infrequent and as such do not really assist the clinician with planning management strategies. In ...
Smellie W S A - - 2007
This eighth best practice review examines four series of common primary care questions in laboratory medicine: (i) sodium abnormalities; (ii) faecal occult blood testing; (iii) warfarin management; and (iv) sputum cytology in diagnosis of bronchopulmonary malignancy. The review is presented in question-answer format, referenced for each question series. The recommendations ...
Dhoray Shanta - - 2007
It is accepted that if fisheries resources are to remain renewable and able to sustain livelihoods, appropriate management practices must be implemented. Even while fisheries management grapples to resolve single-species issues, the biological and economic interactions among species mandate that to be effective, management techniques must be based on more ...
Foster C - - 2006
Medicine is increasingly a science and decreasingly an art. It is increasingly evidence-based. It now has right answers and wrong answers in a way inconceivable even a decade ago. The growth of evidence-based medicine is partly a consequence of genuine demonstration of optimal practice, and partly a consequence of increased ...
Al-Omari Fahad K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness, attitude and practice of evidence base medicine (EBM) among Al-Taif Consultant Physicians and to define the perceived barriers for practicing EBM. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study conducted during December, 2004, at all governmental hospitals in Western region of Saudi Arabia at Al-Taif Governorate. Two ...
Newbould Jennifer - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we seek to clarify what is known about self-care in chronic illness and the impact of lay-led self-management programmes. The main focus of the paper is the specific 'lay-led' interventions developed by Kate Lorig and her collaborators in the USA, and in the context of the ...
Mayer Lloyd - - 2006
Infliximab therapy should be optimized to minimize immunogenicity, to prevent infusion reactions, and to maintain clinical response. Based on best available evidence, strategies include minimizing the formation of ATI by administering infliximab as a multidose induction therapy followed by scheduled maintenance regiment, the use of concurrent immunomodulators, and possibly premedicating ...
Kosko Jilleen - - 2006
Over the past 30 years, there has been a resurgence in the use of storytelling and narrative in medicine. At first glance, the trend to incorporate art forms into medicine appears to run counter to the rise of the more objective and positivist evidence-based medicine movement. In the present article, ...
Aylott Marion - - 2006
As the focus on evidence-based healthcare delivery gains momentum, nurses need to critically reflect on their traditional practice base. Assessment is the cornerstone of safe and effective practice and goes hand in hand with the process of prioritising a sick child's needs. This article begins with a practical and critical ...
Jenicek Milos - - 2006
Despite its well-deserved strengths, Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)'s shell still remains half-full. Its strong points are clouded in persisting philosophical gaps and mostly ideological advancements of its concepts and rules. Further clarification of its logic and critical use of evidence is required. In this non-systematic essay and review, several present and ...
Dunbar Alston E AE - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Collaborative quality improvement techniques were used to facilitate local quality improvement in the management of pain in infants. Several case studies are presented to highlight this process. METHODS: Twelve NICUs in the Neonatal Intensive Care Quality Improvement Collaborative 2002 focused on improving neonatal pain management and sedation practices. These ...
Nicholl Michael C - - 2006
PROBLEM: Frequent obstetric perineal morbidity in a hospital setting with service providers inexperienced in getting evidence into practice. DESIGN: Clinical practice improvement methodology in a tertiary referral obstetric unit. STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE: To cease active instruction to push in the second stage of labour; encourage the adoption of the left ...
Parsons Myra - - 2007
This article discusses the influence that professional socialisation can have on midwifery practice. Differences in beliefs and practices regarding the oral intake of labouring women were the basis for this paper's discussion. Midwives should be aware of the problems that may be caused by the socialisation processes experienced during the ...
- - 2006
Bronchiolitis is a disorder most commonly caused in infants by viral lower respiratory tract infection. It is the most common lower respiratory infection in this age group. It is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining small airways, increased mucus production, and bronchospasm. The American Academy ...
Bianco M A - - 2006
Authors report the available scientific evidence on the role of proton pump inhibitors and upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy in the management of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Relative indications, advantages and pitfalls of various diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cost-effective management of this condition are discussed. The most recent evidence-based guidelines ...
Stewart Lee - - 2006
The aim of this paper is to describe a strategy--a partnership between a clinician manager and nurse academic--developed for the purpose of utilizing clinical governance literature to enhance management practice. The partnership is an initiative that has been implemented to fill a growing need for more collaboration between the tertiary ...
Brown Peter R - - 2006
Rodents cause significant damage to lowland irrigated rice crops in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A four-year study was conducted in 1999-2002 to examine the effectiveness of applying rodent control practices using the principles of ecologically based pest management. Four 100-150 ha study sites adjacent to villages were selected ...
Barry M - - 2006
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition that is difficult to diagnose. However, once correctly diagnosed, its management is straightforward and evidence-based. The purpose of this article is to familiarise clinicians with both the symptoms and diagnostic criteria for RLS and to elucidate secondary and often curable causes of ...
Garrison Louis P LP - - 2006
Progress toward personalized medicine in the five years following the sequencing of the human genome has been slower than many expected. We focus on two potential factors that might be important in explaining this disappointing progress: the limitations of genetic prediction and the lack of appropriate economic incentives. Clinical application ...
Sur Roger L - - 2006
PURPOSE: We investigated the attitudes and opinions of urologists toward evidence-based medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April of 2005 we contacted members of the American Urological Association listed with an e-mail address to participate in a web based survey. Participants were asked to characterize their level of agreement with statements ...
Janda Matthias - - 2006
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents in the perioperative phase is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. For the management of aspiration, differentiation between acid-associated aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia as a consequence of a secondary bacterial contamination is of crucial importance. The incidence of aspiration in elective surgery is ...
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