Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 892
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Paksoy Yahya - - 2004
Two children with mental retardation, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and muscle rigidity are reported. They had a history of severe hyperbilirubinemia after birth as a result of Rh isoimmunization. The history and clinical picture suggested the diagnosis of kernicterus. The magnetic resonance imaging examination showed a bilateral signal intensity increase in the ...
Huang Chin-Chang - - 2004
Carbon disulfide (CS2) intoxication may induce peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. In our studies, abnormalities of the peripheral nerves including clinical symptoms and electrophysiological findings were still present 3 years after cessation of CS2 exposure. The data indicate that CS2 neuropathy may persist for a period of time. The ...
Eltahawy Hazem A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The response of patients with dystonia to pallidal procedures is not well understood. In this study, we assessed the postoperative outcome of patients with primary and secondary dystonia undergoing pallidotomy or pallidal deep brain stimulation. METHODS: Fifteen patients with dystonia had pallidal surgery (lesions or deep brain stimulation). These ...
Crimi Marco - - 2004
We describe a new mitochondrial DNA mutation in a male infant who presented clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of Leigh syndrome and died at the age of 9 mo. The patient's development was reportedly normal in the first months of life. At the age of 5 mo, he presented ...
Vidal José E - - 2004
Toxoplasmic encephalitis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in patients with AIDS. The definitive diagnosis requires direct demonstration of the tachyzoite form of Toxoplasma gondii in cerebral tissue. The presumptive diagnosis is based on serology, clinical and radiological features, and on response to anti-Toxoplasma therapy. Typically, patients have a ...
Sonmez Fatma Mujgan - - 2004
A previously healthy female, aged 4 years 3 months, developed brainstem encephalitis with clinical manifestations of fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis 1 week after bilateral parotitis. Twenty days after remission of encephalitis, she manifested new symptoms of ataxia, dysarthria, and fever. Magnetic resonance imaging ...
Donahue J E - - 2004
Detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in combination with findings on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in patients premortem. We present a case of classic, sporadic CJD, confirmed on autopsy and by Western ...
Neumaier-Probst E - - 2004
This article summarizes the magnetic resonance imaging features of glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) based on the cases presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency together with a review of previously reported neuroimaging characteristics of GA I. Previous reports have focused on characteristic findings, such as ...
Anderson James C - - 2004
Several cases of bilateral basal ganglia lesions seen in magnetic resonance imaging initiated a review of the anatomy, pathology, and differential diagnoses of this region. There are a variety of disease entities that present as symmetrical basal ganglia abnormalities. Although these findings may not indicate a specific diagnosis, knowledge of ...
Will R G - - 2004
The possibility that a new form of human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) had occurred in the UK was first raised by the identification of a small number of cases with unusual clinical characteristics. Atypical features included a young age at death, a predominantly psychiatric presentation, a relatively extended ...
Niemann B - - 2004
Toxic encephalopathy is a rarely described side effect of 5-fluorouracil which usually presents with cerebellar, neuropsychiatric, and focal neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are described as patchy white matter alterations. We report the 1st case of capecitabine-induced toxic encephalopathy with epilepsy-like symptoms and diffuse white matter alterations on magnetic ...
Smidt Martijn H - - 2004
We report a 3-year-old boy with influenza A virus-associated encephalopathy. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging, repeated isolation of influenza A virus from nasopharyngeal aspirate and seroconversion between acute and convalescent sera. The clinical picture was characterized by fever and aphasia followed by seizures and a ...
Elster Allen W - - 2004
Glutaric aciduria type I is a rare disorder of organic acid metabolism caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. We report the cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 5-month-old girl with this disorder who presented with an acute dystonic syndrome. CT findings demonstrated only subtle ...
Seok Jung Im - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although several cases of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy have been reported, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of brain changes in anterior commissure, basal ganglia, cerebellar white matter, and inferior olivary nuclei on magnetic resonance images. The precise mechanisms of action of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy have not been determined. OBJECTIVES: ...
Van Roost Dirk - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This is the first description of a severe and sometimes fatal complication after uneventful intracranial surgery. The clinical presentation and imaging features mimic those of global cerebral hypoxia. Extensive investigations were performed to discover the pathogenesis. METHODS: Seventeen cases of pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) were collected from our institution ...
Kavuk Ilker - - 2003
Wernicke's encephalopathy is a serious neurologic disorder caused by vitamin-B1 or thiamine deficiency. The classical triad of clinical symptoms described by Wernicke (gait ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion) are found in only a third of patients upon initial examination. Typical findings upon MR imaging in patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy are well ...
Yasuda Yuzuru - - 2003
A 45-year-old man developed severe arterial hypertension associated with unusual hyperintensity in the brainstem, around the right internal capsule and in the deep white matter around the bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images. The characteristic clinical findings were mild left hepiparesis and altered ...
Khong P L - - 2003
We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonatal encephalopathy, including hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal/neonatal stroke, metabolic encephalopathy from inborn errors of metabolism, congenital central nervous system infections and birth trauma. The applications of advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are emphasized.
Bertoni M - - 2003
A 35-year-old female with a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) presented with episodic dysphasia and a burst of axial jerks with abdominal muscle contraction and asymmetric blepharospasm as manifestations of encephalopathy associated with HT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed scattered supratentorial white matter hyperintense T2 foci. Brain single photon ...
Tarasów E - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious problem in patients with liver cirrhosis and precise pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for encephalopathy are not fully understood. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect specific morphological and metabolic abnormalities in the brain even in patients with early stages of ...
Weidauer S - - 2003
Posterior encephalopathy is characterised by headache, impairment of consciousness, seizures and progressive visual loss. MRI shows bilateral, predominantly posterior, cortical and subcortical lesions with a distribution. Our aim was to analyse the MRI lesion pattern and angiographic findings because the pathophysiology of posterior encephalopathy is incompletely understood. We report three ...
Sogut Ayhan - - 2004
Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form ...
Chung Sung Pil - - 2003
This report describes usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of the patient suspected of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic findings of symmetric hyperintense lesions predominantly located in the bilateral medial thalami, the periaqueductal regions, and the mamillary bodies. The diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy has ...
Jha S - - 2003
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of fatal viral encephalitis. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis and successful therapy to restrict morbidity and mortality. We report 4 patients of HSE, with interesting presentations, viz. brainstem involvement in an immunosuppressed patient, Kluver-Bucy Syndrome-a consequence ...
Einsiedel Lloyd - - 2003
Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) is caused by a flavivirus related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. We report a case of MVE resulting in quadriplegia and respiratory failure. MR imaging demonstrated thalamic hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, with similar involvement of the red nucleus, substantia nigra, and cervical cord. ...
Rosas Humberto - - 2003
We report a case of serologically proved West Nile virus encephalitis. Striking bilateral hyperintensities were noted in the basal ganglia and thalami on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR images, similar to previous accounts of the imaging findings in cases of Japanese encephalitis. Recognition of the MR imaging appearance of ...
Desai Nilesh K - - 2003
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In glutaric acidemia type I (GA I), a pediatric neurometabolic disease that may be mistaken for nonaccidental trauma, expeditious detection is critical as early treatment may substantially improve psychomotor dysfunction. In this study, we examine in depth the magnetic resonance (MR) findings, with special attention to the ...
Gill Danny S - - 2003
We report the initial and follow-up brain findings in a 42-year-old male patient with CNS involvement with African trypansomiasis. Initial MR imaging demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity in the basal ganglia bilaterally as well as involvement of the internal capsule, external capsule, and extreme capsule. Follow-up examination at 1 year revealed decreased ...
Kiemeneij I M - - 2003
A 24 year old woman presented with a sudden excruciating headache mimicking an acute vascular event. She had undergone a lung transplantation because of cystic fibrosis and was receiving maintenance treatment with tacrolimus and prednisone. Ancillary investigation excluded vascular causes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hyperintense lesions in the infratentorial and ...
Harrison N A - - 2003
We describe a case of chronic atypical herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis in an immunocompromised 68 year old man presenting with headache and cognitive changes without focal neurological or MRI findings. To our knowledge this is the first described case of herpes simplex encephalitis associated with normal MRI brain imaging ...
Faustino Patrícia C - - 2003
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics, psychiatric manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children and adolescents with Sydenham chorea (SyC). The imaging examination was repeated 1 year after the acute phase of SyC. There were 19 patients with a mean age ...
Takanashi Jun-ichi - - 2003
We present brain MR images in three patients with neonatal-onset hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from urea-cycle disorders (two sisters with deficiency of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase I reaction step and one boy with an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency). MR imaging revealed almost identical findings of injury to the bilateral lentiform nuclei and ...
Rugilo Carlos A - - 2003
Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine deficiency. Although the clinical picture has been well established for some time, clinical diagnosis is attained in only 20% of the cases. MR imaging techniques contribute to early diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy. We herein report MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopic findings for a ...
Huang Chin-Chang - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: In Wilson's disease (WD), brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) show increased signal intensity in T2 weighted images in the lenticular nuclei, thalamus and brainstem, including the substantia nigra. A poor therapeutic response to levodopa in WD suggests the mechanism of a postsynaptic abnormality. However positron emission tomography studies show ...
Kaufman Seth A - - 2003
Basal ganglia abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging predict neurodevelopmental impairment in newborns with perinatal depression. We determined the value of a clinical encephalopathy score as a predictor of abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in newborns with perinatal depression. We assigned a neonatal encephalopathy score to 101 newborns. The encephalopathy score, ...
Saltik Sema - - 2003
An etiologic evaluation of 86 patients with infantile spasms is presented and the place of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings within this spectrum is discussed. A total of 103 cranial MRIs, performed between 4 and 72 months of age, were analyzed and classified according to the etiologic and pathophysiologic ...
Mahant Neil - - 2003
We report on a patient with spontaneous and stimulus-sensitive myoclonic jerks and dystonia of the right leg that had been present since infancy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a linear area of gliosis confined to the left posterolateral putamen. This is the first report of focal myoclonus-dystonia of the lower limb ...
Shah Zarine - - 2003
Kernicterus (bilirubin encephalopathy) is a disease entity with a very high rate of mortality in neonates. The children who survive are left with neurological deficits such as choreoathetosis, sensorineural deafness and mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in this condition has specific findings which aid in the accurate ...
Seah Alvin B H - - 2003
A 23-year-old woman who presented with a branch retinal artery occlusion followed by encephalopathy showed, by brain magnetic resonance imaging, a nonenhancing lesion in the right parietal gray matter with normal diffusion-weighted imaging. Of 64 reported cases of cat-scratch encephalopathy with documented neuroimaging findings, only 12 (18.8%) have had abnormal ...
Utsumi Kouichi - - 2003
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is one of the most serious complications of immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical features include headache, altered mental functioning, seizures, cortical blindness and other visual disturbances, with hypertension. The neuroimaging studies reveal predominant posterior leukoencephalopathy. Usually, antihypertensive therapy and reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppressive agents have been ...
Takanashi Jun-Ichi - - 2003
The brain MR imaging characteristics of three patients with acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from late-onset ornithine transcarbomylase deficiency are presented. MR images revealed injury to the cortex, especially the cingulate gyrus and insular cortex, with sparing of the perirolandic and occipital cortices. These findings presumably reflect the distribution of brain ...
Thuerl Christina - - 2003
We report the case of a 26-year-old man with precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis that was diagnosed on the basis of MR imaging findings and was proved post mortem. In our MR imaging studies, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and diffusion-weighted echo-planar images clearly depicted bilateral ...
Chaudhuri A - - 2003
Fatigue is a common symptom of neurological diseases that affect basal ganglia function. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to study the metabolic functions of the basal ganglia in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to test the hypothesis that fatigue in CFS may have a neurogenic component. (1)H MRS ...
Cree Bruce C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses are common causes of aseptic meningitis, but they rarely cause life-threatening illness. We report a fatal case of coxsackievirus B4 meningoencephalitis in a woman who developed extrapyramidal symptoms suggestive of encephalitis lethargica. The exact causative agent of encephalitis lethargica has rarely been found, but most cases ...
Nakamura Hiroshi - - 2003
The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 22-year-old woman with hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy secondary to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Multiple lesions in the midbrain, cerebellum, occipital lobe, and basal ganglia showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images with widespread symmetrical distribution. Most of these findings ...
Tanji K - - 2003
A 63 year old man developed an amnesic syndrome coupled with an array of "frontal lobe" signs after bilateral small subcortical infarcts. His amnesia was characterised by severe difficulty in voluntary recall of recently memorised verbal and non-verbal materials, while his recognition for the same materials was less affected. The ...
Hirayama K - - 2003
A case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis presenting with topographical disorientation is reported. A 70 year old woman became unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes and could not recall the way to destinations she had known very well for years. She also showed attentional disturbance and severe anterograde amnesia. Her ...
Do Diana V - - 2002
PURPOSE: To report the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 28-year-old woman with preeclampsia and reversible cortical blindness. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: The patient presented at the 37th week of pregnancy with headache and hypertension. The next day, her visual acuity decreased to light perception ...
Córdoba Juan - - 2002
1H magnetic resonance (1H MR) studies of the brain in patients with liver diseases have shown several abnormalities that may be relevant for the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. 1H magnetic resonance imaging shows a typical pallidal hyperintensity on T1-weighted images. This abnormality appears to be secondary to the accumulation of ...
Spahr Laurent - - 2002
In hepatic encephalopathy, a progressive and diffuse impairment in brain function is associated with gradual alterations that can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). In some patients, a variety of movement disorders suggestive of extrapyramidal impairment points toward basal ganglia (BG) alterations. ...
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