Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 892
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Sakai Mio - - 2005
A patient with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) who developed encephalopathy twice and underwent magnetic resonance examinations, including diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, is presented. Areas of abnormal intensity on DW images dramatically differed between the initial and second attacks, apparently attributable to the difference in myelination. Our observation demonstrates the age ...
Liu Yo-Tsen - - 2006
We correlated serial brain MRIs with neuropathological findings in a 16-year-old female whose autopsy was consistent with Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). Diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion coefficients mapping and neuropathology findings were suggested vasogenic edema in the periaqueductal and peri-the-fourth ventricular areas. This is the first documented case report to make this direct ...
Mihara M - - 2005
This paper reports a 59 year old woman with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed bilateral posterior thalamic hyperintensities, similar to the "pulvinar sign". Her symptoms included progressive psychiatric disturbance and resembled the initial symptoms of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ...
Tu Yi-Fang - - 2005
Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem ...
Seneviratne Janaka - - 2005
This case report describes a 59-year-old male who presented with headaches, seizures and hypertension followed by coma. Initial magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensities typical of Hypertensive Encephalopathy (HE), the follow up scans showed diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities which is a rare finding in HE. DWI hyperintensities are typically suggestive ...
Mendon?a Renato A - - 2005
Subacute spongiform encephalopathies are rare fatal diseases that affect the central nervous system, which is thought to be caused by prions, characterized clinically by a rapid progressive dementing course, along with generalized myoclonus. The prototype of these conditions in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). Although the final diagnosis depends on ...
Tanaka M - - 2005
Here we describe 2 patients with acute leukemia in whom human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis developed after cord blood transplantation. In patients 1 and 2, generalized seizure and coma developed on day 62 and day 15, respectively, after cord blood transplantation, which failed to engraft in patient 1. Magnetic resonance imaging ...
Maramattom Boby V - - 2005
Although acute intermittent porphyria presents with dramatic neurological findings, the diagnosis is difficult. An 18-year-old woman had a clinical picture of porphyric encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated multiple large contrast-enhancing subcortical white matter lesions, which regressed with glucose and hematin infusions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was normal, and MR spectroscopy ...
Prockop Leon D - - 2005
Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is a common cause of toxic brain damage, whereby effects range from transient neurological dysfunction to coma and death. A spectrum of severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings after CO brain toxicity, including globus pallidus and white matter lesions, is well documented. Reports of MR ...
Yakushijin Kimikazu - - 2005
In September 2000, a 22-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to high grade fever, liver enzymes elevation and pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was performed, and hemophagocytosis was present. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was positive in her peripheral blood, and we diagnosed the case as EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EB-VAHS) ...
Matsusue Eiji - - 2005
We correlated MR images with histologic findings in two autopsy-proven cases of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Cortical hyperintensities on T2-weighted images histologically revealed pseudolaminar spongy degeneration in the deep layers of the cerebral cortices and hyperintensities in the cerebral white matters showed tissue rarefaction associated with loss of myelin and axons ...
Sarkar N - - 2005
Japanese encephalitis is common human endemic encephalitis seen over various parts of the world. Usual presenting features include an encephalitic syndrome, symptoms of frontal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamic involvement. Characteristic radiological picture is bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia hypo density in the CT scan and hypo-intensity in T1 and ...
Solomou E - - 2005
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cirrhotic patients often demonstrate high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MRI) images in basal ganglia with accumulation of manganese being the predominant causing factor. In these patients, electrophysiological tests and especially electroencephalogram (EEG) are considered to be the most sensitive methods in detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. The ...
Schiff David - - 2005
The pathogenesis and neuropathology of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLE; a clinical and radiographical syndrome linked to malignant hypertension, eclampsia, immunosuppressive drugs, and chemotherapy) remain poorly understood. Autopsies on patients with hypertensive encephalopathy have demonstrated arteriolar fibrinoid necrosis with micro-infarcts and failed to show brain edema; nonetheless, magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) ...
Linguraru Marius George - - 2005
We present a method for the analysis of deep grey brain nuclei for accurate detection of human spongiform encephalopathy in multisequence MRI of the brain. We employ T1, T2 and FLAIR-T2 MR sequences for the detection of intensity deviations in the internal nuclei. The MR data are registered to a ...
Kawagishi Naoki - - 2005
We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency whose quality of life (QOL) improved greatly after a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency had been diagnosed when she was 2 years old and she finally underwent LDLT, with her father as the donor, when ...
Dasgupta N - - 2005
Lymphomas, both within and outside the central nervous system, are uncommon among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe a 58-year old Korean woman with SLE who presented with acute headache and confusion in the setting of prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy used to treat focal proliferative and ...
Coskun Abdulhakim - - 2005
Globus pallidus involvement is a well-known magnetic resonance (MR) imaging finding of acute kernicterus. However, it is not clear how early the involvement of globus pallidus occurs and whether or not it is seen in every case. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the globus pallidus involvement in 13 neonates with ...
Ahn K J - - 2004
Typically, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) involves the parieto-occipital lobes. When regions of the brain other than the parieto-occipital lobes are predominantly involved, the syndrome can be called atypical RPLS. The purpose of this study is to find radiological and pathophysiological features of atypical RPLS by using diffusion-weighted imaging (D-WI). ...
Mannan A A S R - - 2004
A 15-month-old female child presented with sudden onset cough and hyperventilation along with evidence of metabolic acidosis. She had past history of recurrent vomiting, episodes of abnormal posturing, difficulty in deglutition and regression of milestones since 12 months of age. CT scan of the brain revealed hypodense lesions in bilateral ...
Kobayashi Katsuji - - 2004
A severe intractable delirium caused by the basal forebrain vascular lesion and its dramatic recovery after donepezil administration were reported. A 68-year-old man had suffered for a month from delirium of mixed type caused by the right basal forebrain vascular lesion after surgery for craniopharyngioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ...
Takeda Naoya - - 2004
We describe a case of germinoma of the left basal ganglia. An 11-year-old boy, who demonstrated calcification of the left basal ganglia on CT scan following a head injury at the age of 3 years, presented with a weakness of the right upper extremity for 2 months. MRI demonstrated high ...
Finocchi Vanina - - 2005
Eclampsia is one of the main causes of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) a recent clinico-neuroradiological entity represented by characteristic MR findings of a symmetric bilateral subcortical/cortical hyperintensity in T2-weighted images, more often in parieto-occipital lobes, accompanied by clinical neurological alterations. Neuroradiological and clinical alterations are commonly completely reversible although ...
Belet Nur┼čen - - 2004
Twenty-four patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were examined with serial magnetic resonance imaging up to 4 years of age. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in the neonatal period, at the fourth month and the fourth year of age, and the findings were compared with the patients' neurodevelopmental outcome at the ...
Aydin Kubilay - - 2004
Cyclosporin encephalopathy is a well-known entity, which is clinically characterized by altered mental status, vision problems, focal neurological deficits and seizures. The exact pathophysiology of the cyclosporin encephalopathy has not yet been defined. We report the diffusion-weighted MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings in a case of cyclosporin encephalopathy. ...
Finelli Pasquale F - - 2004
Hemorrhage complicating acute carbon monoxide poisoning is usually confined to the basal ganglia. The authors report three people with acute carbon monoxide poisoning manifesting selective or prominent white matter involvement complicated by hemorrhagic infarction on CT and MRI in one and by subcortical T2*-weighted MRI abnormality in all three.
Kim Dong Wook - - 2004
We report the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings of two patients of diffuse encephalopathy associated with the use of metronidazole. Both patients showed characteristic abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and recovered incompletely after the discontinuation of metronidazole. We also suggest that MRI with DWI ...
Senbil Nesrin - - 2004
A 4-year-old male presented with only acute vision loss. His neurologic examination, funduscopic examination, and pupils were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal hyperintense, bilaterally symmetric lesions (on T(2)-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, images) in bilateral optic radiations, pulvinar region in the thalami, crus posterior of internal capsules, periventricular ...
Meissner B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess if clinical features, prion protein codon 129, and molecular subtype correlate with MRI basal ganglia hyperintensity in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS: The authors studied 219 patients including 153 confirmed CJD cases for their neurologic symptoms and MRI findings. The MRI was assessed by a blinded investigator ...
Aslan Sahin - - 2004
Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and toxicity is a potentially lethal disorder with immediate and delayed side effects. A 24-y-old driver was admitted to the University-based emergency department with altered mental status. He was found unconscious in the driver's seat of his vehicle in an indoor garage the morning before. An ...
Finelli P F - - 2004
A 48 year old woman, status post renal transplantation six years earlier, died after a two week illness characterised by fever, recurrent seizures, and coma. Widespread abnormalities were seen on neuroimaging. A diagnosis of septic encephalopathy was established on postmortem. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of bilateral basal ...
Bielefeldt-Ohmann Helle - - 2004
A male pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), approximately 5 years old, was found to be vision-impaired and to have profound behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity and self-injurious behavior that was not amenable to amelioration by environmental enrichment. Facial and skeletal dysmorphisms also were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography ...
Steinborn Marc - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a common complication in haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Various imaging findings have been described, mostly as case reports. Although there are a few retrospective studies on larger patient groups there is no report that focuses on MRI. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the CT and ...
Salviati Leonardo - - 2004
Mutations in SURF1, a gene involved in cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) assembly, cause COX deficiency and Leigh Syndrome (LS). Typical presentation is in the first year of life, with failure to thrive, psychomotor regression, ataxia, signs of brainstem dysfunction, and peripheral neuropathy. Progression is rapid and patients usually die of respiratory ...
Pooboni Suneel Kumar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE/PATIENT: Gas-containing encephalitis is rarely associated with neonatal meningitis. We report a case of a 19-day-old baby who presented with a rapid onset of septic shock complicated by progressively increasing gas accumulation within the brain and anterior chamber of the eye. We describe the evolution of the clinical picture and ...
Lury Kenneth M - - 2004
CT and MRI of the brain were performed in an acutely ill child with serology-proven eastern equine encephalitis. The studies showed lesions involving the basal ganglia and thalami according with findings described in the literature. In the correct clinical setting, these findings should prompt the obtaining of appropriate serologic confirmatory ...
Alioglu Z - - 2004
We report a 12-year-old male patient who developed transient motor and vocal tics twelve days after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Cranial magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the patient showed bilateral symmetric hyperintensity in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Tic disorder was successfully treated with haloperidol. Thirty-three months after CO poisoning, ...
Brilla Roland - - 2004
BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus WNV that has spread westwards across North America in recent years. It can cause a febrile illness and infection of the central nervous system, which is associated with poor outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical and neuroradiologic features of 39 consecutive ...
Song Yonung Min - - 2004
A 35-year-old Korean woman had Hashimoto encephalopathy of varying MR imaging appearance over 5 years that ranged from that of transient subcortical ischemia to that of gradually evolving multifocal signal intensity change accompanied by unilateral cerebellar atrophy. Thus, the MR imaging appearance of Hashimoto encephalopathy may simulate an ischemic stroke, ...
Albayram Sait - - 2004
Multiple, symmetrical brain lesions affecting the bilateral thalami and cerebral white matter, which often show a concentric structure on CT and MR images, characterize acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) of childhood. We describe the imaging findings of a 2-year-old child with ANE obtained with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. We discuss the significance ...
Nagata Motonori - - 2004
Hypertensive encephalopathy rarely presents with predominant involvement of the brain stem and relative sparing of the supratentorial regions. We describe the MR imaging features in a patient with reversible brain stem hypertensive encephalopathy. Extensive hyperintensity was predominantly seen in brain stem regions on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery and T2-weighted images. These lesions ...
Hantson Philippe - - 2005
Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia ...
Forton D M - - 2004
Fatigue is the commonest symptom in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), affecting individuals at all stages of disease. The pathogenesis of fatigue in PBC is unknown although rat models suggest a central nervous system (CNS) cause. We examined the hypothesis that a CNS abnormality related to cholestasis, rather than cirrhosis per ...
Sarkar Nupur - - 2004
This report describes an eleven-year-old boy with atypical features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare complication of measles. He had only visual symptoms for 2 months followed by rapid neurological worsening to a vegetative state in 10 days. A diagnosis of SSPE was made based on the history of ...
Lamy C - - 2004
The terms posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy, reversible posterior cerebral edema syndrome, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) all refer to a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headaches, confusion, visual disturbances, seizures, and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging. Clinical findings are not sufficiently specific to readily establish the diagnosis; in contrast, magnetic resonance ...
Celik Y - - 2004
Wernicke's encephalopathy, a neurologic disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is observed chiefly in chronic alcoholics. We performed magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an alcoholic patient who had developed Wernicke's encephalopathy. Although cranial MRI detected no pathology, brain SPECT revealed bilateral frontal and frontoparietal hypoperfusion as ...
Serkova Natalie J - - 2004
Proper management of chemotoxicity in transplant patients requires detailed knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms underlying immunosuppressant toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most significant clinical side effects of the immunosuppressive undecapeptide cyclosporine, occurring at some degree in up to 60% of transplant patients. The clinical symptoms of cyclosporine-mediated neurotoxicity consist ...
Kirova G I - - 2004
The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare, still well-defined autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, jaw keratocysts and a variety of other tumors and developmental anomalies. The nevi turn malignant with time, and thus, early diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment are imperative. This article ...
Yoshihara Satoshi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis as the result of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 is usually fatal when it is resistant to antiviral drugs. METHODS: We describe a patient who developed HHV-6 encephalitis after human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical transplantation using a reduced intensity regimen. RESULTS: The patient developed severe disorientation, amnesia, and tremors on day 28. ...
Michel Steven J - - 2004
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a multifactorial autosomal recessive inborn error of organic acid metabolism, often presenting with neurologic findings. We report the imaging findings in a case of a child with classic neurological and laboratory findings for MMA. Imaging studies demonstrated abnormalities within the basal ganglia, particularly the globi pallidi ...
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