Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 892
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Fukuzawa Takeshi - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To elucidate a quantitative relationship between hyperintensity of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) and portosystemic shunt (PSS) in portal hypertension. METHODS: Fifteen patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) and 44 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) underwent brain MRI to asses signal intensity at ...
Dorman David C - - 2006
High-dose manganese exposure is associated with parkinsonism. Because manganese is paramagnetic, its relative distribution within the brain can be examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Herein, we present the first comprehensive study to use MRI, pallidal index (PI), and T(1) relaxation rate (R1) in concert with chemical analysis to establish ...
Kurahashi Hirokazu - - 2006
Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is caused by various conditions, there have been no reports on PRES associated with bronchial asthma. We report a case with PRES during the treatment for severe asthmatic attack. A 4-year-old girl was treated for asthmatic attack with steroids. From the 10th hospital day, ...
Urbach Horst - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to analyze serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in patients with various forms of limbic encephalitis (LE) in order to evaluate whether, and at what time point, MRI findings support the diagnosis of LE. METHODS: Serial MRI scans (1 day to 15 years ...
Dimova Petia S - - 2006
A 10-year-old boy presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and hypersomnolence. An akinetic-rigid syndrome with tremor, dysphagia, dysphonia, and sialorrhea, as well as pyramidal signs, developed. Slightly elevated protein content was found in the cerebrospinal fluid and serological investigations were suggestive of a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...
Akiyoshi Kensuke - - 2006
A 7-year-old female suddenly exhibited high fever and convulsions, and entered a semi-coma. She also had thrombocytopenia, elevated aminotransferase, prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, and hemophagocytes in the bone marrow. The brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple low-intensity areas on the T1-weighted images, and high-intensity areas on ...
Yoshikawa Hideto - - 2006
It is recognized that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive method of detecting cerebral lesions in various neurologic disorders. This report presents two patients with acute encephalitis or encephalopathy who manifested similar serial changes on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Clinically, Patient 1, a 2-year-old male, was diagnosed as having ...
Vedolin Leonardo - - 2006
OBJECTS: The objectives were to present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings in three patients with deletion on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonclassical mitochondrial disorders (NCMD), correlating these findings with the percentage of deleted mtDNA. RESULTS: Our study confirms the high prevalence of white matter (WM), ...
Van Diest D - - 2007
We report 62-year-old female patient with coincident posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The first presentation of PRES was a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. A risk factor for PRES was acute arterial hypertension. The diagnosis of PRES was established by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and hypertension was treated ...
Ozelame Rodrigo V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Germinoma is the most common and least-malignant intracranial germ cell tumor, usually found in the midline. Germinoma that arises in the basal ganglia, called ectopic germinoma, is a rare and well-documented entity representing 5% to 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The association of cerebral and/or brain stem atrophy with ...
Matsuyama Takeshi - - 2006
Hanging is a devastating method of suicide and unfortunately is common in Japan. Although several CT findings of the head have been reported, there have not been any reports about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hanging. We report here interesting MRI findings in a patient after hanging. A 39-year-old woman ...
Doi Yoshimitsu - - 2006
Two patients presented with malignant hypertension associated with encephalopathy predominantly manifesting as brainstem lesion. T(2)-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed diffuse hyperintense areas in the pons and scattered lesions in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral subcortex without parieto-occipital lesions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging demonstrated these lesions ...
Ringelstein E Bernd - - 2006
Cerebral small vessel diseases are responsible for 20-30% of ischemic strokes as well as for a considerable proportion of cerebral hemorrhages and encephalopathies. Less known than the manifestations in old age are those in young women comprising posterior encephalopathy and Susac's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed us to identify ...
Ohsaka Misuzu - - 2006
An extremely rare case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy caused by human herpesvirus-6 variant type B infection is reported. The patient, a 14-month-old previously healthy female, presented with high fever and generalized tonic convulsion followed by rapid deterioration of consciousness. On the second day of the illness, the protein level of ...
Rushing Elisabeth J - - 2006
Primary germ cell neoplasms of the central nervous system typically develop as midline mass lesions during the first three decades of life. The authors present two cases with atypical clinicopathological features that stimulate discussion on the diagnosis and management of these tumors. The first patient was an 11-year-old boy of ...
Yamanouchi Hideo - - 2006
To establish a novel subtype of acute infantile encephalopathy, the clinical and radiologic features of nine infants with acute encephalopathy involving the bilateral frontal lobes were examined. These patients had convulsive status epilepticus with hyperpyrexia followed by a prolonged impairment of consciousness for 2-20 days. After the recovery of consciousness, ...
Fux Christoph A - - 2006
We describe a 15-year-old boy with acute transient encephalopathy complicating poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Based on advanced magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral alterations were related to cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction (ie, a vasogenic edema) and vasculitis was excluded. These insights into the pathophysiology improve patient management and argue against the therapeutic immunosuppression postulated by ...
Gokce Mustafa - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently proposed cliniconeuroradiological entity. The most common causes of PRES are hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, cyclosporin A neurotoxicity, and the uremic encephalopathy. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, edema has been reported in a relatively symmetrical pattern, typically in the subcortical white ...
Marshall Gad A - - 2006
Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) has been described as an encephalopathy, with acute or subacute onset, accompanied by seizures, tremor, myoclonus, ataxia, psychosis, and stroke-like episodes, with a relapsing/remitting or progressive course. HE patients have positive antithyroid antibodies, are usually in a subclinical hypothyroid state, have elevated cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) protein, ...
Vilensky Joel A - - 2006
Encephalitis lethargica (EL; epidemic encephalitis; von Economo's disease) often presented with a movement disorder, and the motor consequences of postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) were characteristic of the chronic sequelae of this condition. PEP was similar to Parkinson's disease but was more variable and had some distinct features such as oculogyric crises. ...
García-Cazorla Angels - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency is a rare metabolic disease. Recently, therapeutic possibilities have been introduced. We aimed to report the largest series of the B type of PC deficiency, focusing on some neurological aspects that have not yet been documented. METHODS: We retrospectively studied nine patients with the severe ...
Protopsaltis John - - 2006
Brain MRI was performed in an immunocompromized febrile and lethargic patient, revealing an asymmetric bilateral temporal lobe involvement, strongly suggestive of herpetic encephalitis. Nevertheless, PCR in CSF for Listeria monocytogens was positive. This case implies that Listeria might be considered in patients with clinical and imaging suspicion of herpetic encephalitis.
Jin Kazutaka - - 2006
We report a rare case of fulminating adult-onset measles encephalitis. A 34-year-old man developed a comatose state after measles eruptions and ultimately akinetic mutism. Titers of anti-measles IgM antibodies were elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months after onset revealed widespread hyperintense lesions ...
Velissaris Dimitris - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy have significant impairment of their daily activities. Sleep disturbances and increased signal on T1-weighted brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are commonly encountered in this clinical entity. The prevalence of these abnormalities in patients with subclinical encephalopathy is unknown. METHODOLOGY: Sleep history and brain MRI ...
Zhang Yumei - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanisms of aphasia by observing cerebral blood flow and metabolism changes in language functional areas of the brain using imaging, in order to develop a language rehabilitation plan for aphasia patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients who suffered from Broca's or Wernicke's aphasia secondly to cerebral infarction were ...
Swenson Andrea J - - 2006
Although brain magnetic resonance imaging is a more sensitive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of coma, noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) may demonstrate highly specific findings in some cases of coma. We present a case of thiamine deficiency-induced coma associated with acute necrosis of fornices documented on CT and review ...
Fong Chin-Shih - - 2005
Hypertensive encephalopathy rarely presented with widespread edema in the cerebral white matters, deep structures and whole brainstem. A 80-year-old woman manifested as high arterial blood pressure, visual disturbance, severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal-intensity lesions in the cerebral white matter, ...
Yaguchi Masamitsu - - 2005
We report a 51-year-old Japanese man with chronic alcoholism who complained of mental confusion following respiratory and intestinal infections. The splenium of the corpus callosum showed hyperintensity on both diffusion-weighted MR images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and hypointensity on T1-weighted images. These findings were resolved on MR images obtained ...
Fujiwara Yoichiro - - 2005
Two cases of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) are reported. One was a 26-year-old woman, who had pre-eclampsia and developed cortical blindness and subsequent eclampsia at 28 weeks' gestation. The other was a 27-year-old woman, who had no pre-eclampsia and developed loss of consciousness and subsequent systemic convulsion at 36 ...
Tawankanjanachot Itthipol - - 2005
Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis with stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare mitochondrial disorder that affects adults. MELAS syndrome can mimic cerebrovascular disease, encephalitis or toxic-metabolic encephalopathy. The authors reported two patients who presented with auditory symptoms before the onset of encephalopathy and stroke-like episodes. The first patient was a 28 ...
Bauwens Deborah - - 2005
We report the case of a patient who received two infusions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreserved autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) after myeloablative chemotherapy for a relapsing lymphoma. A 49-year-old man presented an episode of tonic-clonic seizure over a few minutes after the start of each infusion and developed a ...
Lee Phil Hyu - - 2006
Parkinsonian syndromes associated with basal ganglia pathology have very rarely been reported in patients with end-stage renal failure. The nature and pathophysiology of the basal ganglia lesion responsible for parkinsonism were unknown. A 48-year-old man who had advanced renal failure developed disturbance of balance and gait and decreased spontaneity. Brain ...
Philpot Stephen J - - 2005
A 74-year-old woman developed vertigo and jerk nystagmus to the left with normal cerebral imaging. Three days later she developed fever, altered mental state and left medial temporal lobe hypodensity, confirmed on lumbar puncture to be due to herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. We propose that the patient had vestibular ...
White Matthew L - - 2005
Wernicke encephalopathy is a neurologic disorder that results from thiamine deficiency. It is associated with a classic triad of symptoms consisting of ataxia, ocular motor cranial neuropathies, and changes in consciousness. We report 3 cases of Wernicke encephalopathy in which MR imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging, was performed at the onset ...
Rosendal F - - 2005
Twenty percent of the patients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine A (CsA) develop neurological side effects such as tremor, paresthesias, headache, seizures, visual disorders, paresis, and coma-CsA encephalopathy. The encephalopathy resolves on CsA discharge; autopsies of recovered patients are normal. Characteristic lesions are seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the period ...
Ohtake Takayasu - - 2005
We report a rare case of manganese (Mn)-induced parkinsonism in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis therapy who complained of gait disturbance and dysarthria. His symptoms and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain were thought to be caused, at least in part, by long-term ingestion of a health ...
Zhong Chunjiu - - 2005
We investigated the correlation of MR imaging features with the pathological evolution and prognosis of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy. A retrospective review and analysis was conducted of 6 cases of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy, consisting of MR imaging features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes after thiamine administration. One patient died, 1 patient entered ...
Wada Akihiko - - 2005
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is useful against various immune system disorders and viral infections. It is generally safe, and serious adverse reactions are uncommon. We report a rare case of acute encephalopathy following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for human herpes virus 6 infection in a child. MR imaging findings suggest that the ...
Michowitz Yoav - - 2005
Wernicke's encephalopathy is a common complication of thiamine deficiency among alcoholics. However, there are few reports of this disorder in non-alcoholics. We present a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a non-alcoholic, 68-year-old patient with recurrent vomiting attributed to biliary colics. Establishing the diagnosis in this patient was complicated by our ...
Sener R N - - 2005
A 3.5-year-old girl with tyrosinemia is reported. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed multiple hepatic nodules. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral high-signal changes confined to the globus pallidus on T2-weighted images. Globus pallidus lesions likely represented neuropathologic changes such as astocytosis, delayed myelination, and status spongiosus (myelin ...
Gibbs Wende N - - 2005
A case of biopsy-proven acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is reported. The early computed tomography scans showed extensive bilateral hypodensities with mass effects and foci of microhemorrhages. Bilateral asymmetric hyperintensities in the mesiotemporal and frontal lobes and massive edema were found on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images in a ...
Hirai Ryo - - 2005
We report a 75-year-old man who developed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), presenting with bilateral hippocampal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, and this case was simultaneously complicated by small cell lung carcinoma. We identified a new anti-neuronal antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid of this patient. Our findings suggest that HSE and ...
Klos Kevin J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: An atypical form of parkinsonism has been described in patients with chronic liver disease, associated with increased T1 signal in the basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic resonance imaging signal changes are characteristic of manganese accumulation, which has been neuropathologically confirmed. Manganese neurotoxicity may result in additional ...
Deogaonkar Milind M Department of Neuroscience, Mailcode NB20, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. - - 2005
Primate models are commonly used in Parkinson's disease research to study stereotaxic strategies that demand accurate localization of the structures in basal ganglia. We demonstrate a method to construct an extensive tabular database of 3D stereotaxic co-ordinates of various basal ganglia structures from high-quality magnetic resonance (MR) images of 47 ...
Negro Aurelio - - 2005
We describe a case of a severe, immediate postpartum HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, low platelet count) with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLS) characterized by generalized seizure, altered mental status, and visual loss in a 37-year-old primigravid woman. Magnetic resonance brain imaging showed diffuse subcortical edema, which resolved completely ...
Cotton F - - 2005
We report unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a diabetic patient with neglected hypertension and hyperglycemia, presenting with seizures and coma. Outcome was fatal despite intensive care. The MRI findings included bilateral insular and temporo-occipital grey and white matter involvement, and numerous, scattered, lacunar-like lesions involving the peripheral and ...
Tan E K - - 2005
Hemidystonia is frequently due to an underlying structural lesion in the basal ganglia and thalamus. It has been suggested that a preserved corticospinal tract may be required for hemidystonia to manifest. We provide the first report of a patient who presented with rapid-onset hemidystonia precipitated by an acute pontine infarct ...
Bencsik Anna A - - 2005
Because of its sensitivity, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) is used more often in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). PrPsc IHC requires a combination of pretreatments (chemical, heating, and enzymatic). The method of application may depend on the ...
Rangi P S - - 2005
A 49-year-old woman who had previously received treatment with cytotoxic drugs for metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) presented with a witnessed tonic-clonic seizure, headache, confusion and blindness, 6 days after the uneventful administration of a general anaesthetic and 2 months after cessation of chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed relatively symmetrical, ...
Filipo Roberto - - 2005
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a life-threatening consequence of HSV infection of the central nervous system. Although HSV encephalitis is rare, mortality rates reach 70 per cent in the absence of therapy and only a minority of individuals return to normal function. Antiviral therapy is most effective when started ...
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