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Agrawal Amit - - 2009
Intracranial complications of otitis media are associated with high mortality. Persistent otalgia or otorrhea while on oral antibiotics with associated neurological symptoms are ominous signs suggestive of a complication. A high index of suspicion and early diagnosis with radioimaging are essential for better outcome in these patients. We report a ...
Lee Seo-Young SY Department of Neurology, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-Do, - - 2009
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) in atypical locations is difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can help, but results to date are discrepant. We aimed to describe MRS findings in each phase of RPLS and evaluate their diagnostic potential. We performed MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging and conventional MR during 2 ...
Kobayashi Z - - 2009
The patient was a 17-year-old man, who developed Japanese encephalitis in the autumn of 1990 in Japan. He was admitted to our hospital 4 days after onset because of consciousness disturbance. On admission, neurological examination demonstrated left hemiparesis, neck stiffness, and Kernig's sign. He developed generalized tonico-clonic seizure, and required ...
Xu En - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Germ cell tumor of basal ganglia with abnormal constitutional karyotype has been rarely reported. CASE REPORT: A 9-year-old boy presented with precocious puberty and right hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in the left basal ganglia and ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy predominantly ...
Bernard Geneviève - - 2010
The authors report a patient with dystonia secondary to bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia, who improved dramatically with levodopa. The patient presented at the age of 4 years with progressive dystonia of the lower extremities and right upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed bilateral hyperintensities ...
Zanin Anna - - 2010
Several studies on opiates demonstrated that selected brain areas as cerebellum and limbic system have the greatest density of opioid receptors. Recently, few cases of severe cerebellitis following methadone poisoning have been reported in children. We present the case of a 30-month-old girl who developed a delayed encephalopathy after methadone ...
Rao Arekapudi Subramanyeswara - - 2009
Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations ...
Ruis Kristy A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the precision with which intrapartum metabolic acidemia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term and near-term infants can be identified by neonatal brain imaging. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-control study whose inclusion criteria were neonates born at > or =34 weeks gestation with a cord gas at ...
Zerr I - - 2009
Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem ...
Tung Chin-Sung - - 2010
Hemichorea-hemiballisum in patients with hyperglycemia and striatal hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is now an accepted clinical entity. Usually, both the clinical syndrome and neuroimaging abnormalities are reversible. A transient, reversible metabolic impairment within the basal ganglion has been considered a possible cause of this disorder. However, the pathophysiology ...
Garcia-Monco Juan Carlos - - 2010
The Reversible Splenial Lesion Syndrome represents a distinct clinicoradiological syndrome, associated with several disorders, including infection, high altitude cerebral edema, antiepileptic drug withdrawal, and severe metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia and hypernatremia). Clinical presentation is nonspecific, most frequently as an encephalopathy or encephalitis. Outcome is favorable in most patients unless there is ...
Nagato Masako - - 2010
A 14-year-old female had repeated vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, visual field deficit and lethargy at the onset of hypertensive encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test revealed a high level of IgG and protein. MRI demonstrated no supratentorial cerebral lesions but hyperintense lesions were observed from the lower pons to the Th8 ...
Sharma Pranshu - - 2009
The differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute encephalopathy is broad. Imaging can help in narrowing the differential in many cases. We pictorially review the more classic MRI features of several acute toxic and acquired metabolic encephalopathies. After completing this article, the reader will have knowledge of the more common ...
Faria Andréia V - - 2009
Rasmussen's encephalitis is a devastating syndrome of multifocal brain dysfunction and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance (MR) findings, associated with clinical data and electroencephalogram (EEG), may indicate the diagnosis and could be an indicative of prognosis. We studied 5 patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis, assessing clinical history and MR images. All patients ...
Lim C C Tchoyoson - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Radiologists may encounter bilaterally symmetrical abnormalities of the basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), typically in the context of diffuse systemic, toxic or metabolic diseases. A systematic approach and broad knowledge of pathology causing this uncommon group of conditions would be useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review uses ...
Borhani Haghighi Afshin A Department of Neurology, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. - - 2009
To describe a patient with a rare presentation of neuro-Behçet disease. A 42-year-old patient with definite Behçet disease was referred to Nemazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, South of Iran, with headache, biparesis, left central facial palsy, and urinary dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a ...
Gon?alves F G - - 2010
Lipoid proteinosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by multisystem involvement due to intracellular deposition of an amorphous hyaline material. Lipoid proteinosis is caused by mutations in the ECM1 gene. In many patients, skin and mucosa abnormalities are the first manifestation. When the CNS is affected, a wide variety of neurologic ...
Demir E - - 2009
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by persistent measles infection. Here, we report two neurologically handicapped cases presenting with atypical features of SSPE. Patient 1 who had mild mental retardation manifested acute encephalopathy with partial seizures and hemiplegia, mimicking encephalitis. He showed a fulminant course without myoclonia ...
Tsuji Masahiro - - 2009
A reversible splenial lesion of the corpus callosum has been recognized in patients with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with various infectious diseases. All reported cases of encephalitis/encephalopathy, by definition, present with neurologic signs, many of which involve seizures or mildly altered states of consciousness, such as drowsiness. We report an 8-year-old ...
Nucci-da-Silva Mariana Penteado MP Departament of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo, - - 2009
To report Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and/or Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in subjects with hypoxic encephalopathy caused by drowning in recent literature and to compare them with non-specific hypoxic encephalopathy. Systematic review of the Medline Database for bibliographic citations from 1996 to 2008. The studies included in this review ...
Bindu Parayil S - - 2009
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in three cases of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy with three diverse etiologies: infantile citrullinemia, acute hepatic encephalopathy, and proximal urea cycle disorder. All three patients exhibited diffuse extensive cortical signal changes and swelling. Neurologic outcome was poor in all three cases. Knowledge of the magnetic ...
Sahu Jitendra K - - 2010
We report the case of a 7-month-old child who presented with regression of milestones, seizures, altered sensorium, and vomiting. An elder sibling had died of similar complaints. Lead encephalopathy was considered because of presence of microcytic hypochromic anemia and dense metaphyseal bands on wrist radiogram. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ...
Rizzardi Giovanna - - 2009
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with thymoma diagnosed after finding of extra limbic encephalitis. She presented neurologic symptoms as seizure and aphasia; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple lesions located in insular, parietal and temporal lobes (in cortical and sub-cortical area). Brain biopsies confirmed ...
Aravind V K - - 2009
The development of extrapyramidal syndrome characterised by rigidity, bradykinesia, dysphagia and dysarthria in a male individual with four distinct episodes of (mania like) behavioural disturbances with fairly good remission in a time frame of five years, in a male individual, was suspected to develop the neurological manifestations of Wilson's disease ...
Sharief Ubaidullah - - 2009
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLS), also known as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, is characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. The clinical presentation is usually nonspecific and typically involves global encephalopathy, seizures, headache, or visual symptoms. MRI of the brain is essential to the ...
Adali E - - 2011
Eclampsia is rare in molar pregnancy. Sudden cortical blindness in eclampsia is an uncommon but very dramatic experience for the patient. Because of its rarity, blindness associated with eclampsia may pose a significant problem for the obstetrician. We describe cortical blindness and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) complicating molar pregnancy-related ...
Meissner B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: With respect to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), six molecular subtypes (MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1, and VV2) have been described, which vary with respect to age at disease onset, disease duration, early symptoms, and neuropathology. MRI signal alterations were reported to correlate with distinct Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) subtypes. This ...
Gelow Jill - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic stunned myocardium is an increasingly recognized cause of left ventricular apical ballooning, or takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We report the first case of neurogenic stunned myocardium as a result of limbic encephalitis. METHODS: This 73-year-old woman with anterograde and retrograde amnesia was investigated using electrocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and left ...
Steenweg Marjan E - - 2009
PURPOSE: To describe the pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities in l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) and to evaluate the correlation between imaging abnormalities and disease duration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images in 56 patients (30 male, 26 female; mean age +/- standard deviation, 11.9 years +/- 8.5) with genetically confirmed ...
Almubarak Salah - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To report a case series in which basal ganglia calcifications without mass effect proved to be germ cell tumors. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Four patients. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, biopsy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recognition of clinical ...
Netravathi M - - 2009
Wernicke's encephalopathy (W.E.), a potentially reversible condition caused by thiamine deficiency, is usually suspected in the setting of chronic alcoholism and might not be recognized when associated with other conditions. We describe a young pregnant woman who presented with rapidly evolving ataxia, diplopia and irrelevant speech following repeated vomiting. Characteristic ...
Velasco María Victoria - - 2009
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) related to bariatric surgery is the consequence of thiamine depletion occurring usually after restrictive surgical procedures with gastric outlet impairment causing frequent vomiting. We present a 35-year-old man with body mass index of 47.2 who developed a WE 7 years after a vertical banded gastroplasty. Late stenosis ...
Munoz Alberto - - 2009
Bilateral tuberculous mastoiditis (TOM) in an immunocompetent child is a very uncommon form of tuberculous infection presentation. This report shows the CT and MR imaging of bilateral tuberculous otomastoiditis consisting of aggressive signs of middle ear and mastoid involvement with bony destruction and periauricular collections with no signs of brain ...
Kandiah Nagaendran - - 2009
Hyperglycemic choreoathetosis (HC) is an uncommon syndrome often associated with hyperintensity of the basal ganglia on MRI. We performed a retrospective review of cases with HC to characterize the clinical, biochemical, and neuroimaging (CT, MRI, and MR spectroscopy) findings and to propose a mechanism for this syndrome. Seven HC patients ...
Jeong Yu Mi - - 2009
The high signal intensities in bilateral mesiotemporal lobes on T2-weighted images are typical findings of herpes encephalitis or paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. We report a case of neurosyphilis with mesiotemporal involvement on MRI. Positive antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when ...
Kono Yu - - 2009
Encephalopathy related to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES encephalopathy) is a rare (but well-documented) syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HES encephalopathy, particularly diffusion-weighted images (DWI) findings, have not been reported. We report a case of HES encephalopathy in a 79-year-old male presenting with a focal neurological deficit and cognitive ...
Jung Eun Young - - 2009
A 51-year-old Korean man with end-stage renal disease and who was on intermittent hemodialysis was admitted with progressive dysarthria, gait disturbance, and myoclonus. The liver function tests and the electrolyte and arterial gas analyses were normal. The Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a diffuse symmetric high signal intensity in the ...
Takanashi Jun-ichi - - 2009
Two newly proposed infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy syndromes, in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the diagnosis, have been reviewed. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is reported only in East Asian infants, characterized by a febrile seizure (usually >30 min) as the initial neurological symptom ...
Babington James R - - 2009
The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 52-year-old man with cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis C who developed episodic acute hepatic encephalopathy Type C following placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Brain MRI revealed hyperintense T2 signal and restricted diffusion distributed through the cerebral cortex. The ...
Pigeon Nicole - - 2009
Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is a recently described inborn error of metabolism characterized clinically by developmental delay and regression, recurrent petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis, and chronic diarrhea. We describe monochorionic twins presenting with hypotonia in infancy and diagnosed with ethylmalonic encephalopathy on the basis of biochemical findings. They are compound heterozygote for missense ...
Hart Anthony R - - 2009
We describe three cousins who presented with agitation, dysphasia and/or coma, and developed hemiplegia following initial onset of symptoms. Two cases followed minor head injuries, two were pyrexial and two were associated with neutrophilia. Two cases required ventilatory support on the intensive care unit. Magnetic resonance imaging in all three ...
Steinman Kyle J KJ MAS, University of California, Division of Child Neurology, 350 Parnassus Ave, Suite 609, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA. - - 2009
We have previously described patterns of neonatal brain injury that correlate with global cognitive and motor outcomes. We now examine, in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (presumed secondary to hypoxia-ischemia) without functional motor deficits, whether the severity and neuroanatomical involvement on neonatal MRI are associated with domain-specific cognitive outcomes, verbal and ...
Yoon Chang Hyo - - 2009
We report a 57-year-old woman with uremic encephalopathy who presented with dysarthria, dysphagia, hypophonia, and drowsiness. The patient's radiologic findings were rather unusual in that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal findings involving the basal ganglia bilaterally and frontal cortex unilaterally. After intensified hemodialysis, her symptoms and follow-up brain MRI ...
Goraya Jatinder - - 2009
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) typically presents with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. Atypical presentations are not unknown and may result in diagnostic delays. A 9-year-old girl presented with poor balance and ataxia following an episode of upper respiratory tract infection. Neurological examination revealed mild hemiparesis and ataxia. ...
Medici E - - 2009
A 39-year-old woman developed severe arterial hypertension associated with brainstem hyperintensity in T2-weighted images and hyperintense lesion in the left basal ganglia. Clinical findings were a sudden loss of consciousness, confusion, nausea, vomiting and headache. Rapid treatment of hypertension resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Rapid identification and appropriate diagnostics ...
McKeon Andrew - - 2009
To describe reversible extralimbic paraneoplastic encephalopathies with large, lobar lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Case series. Autoimmune Neurology Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Three patients had large confluent areas of signal abnormality on T2-weighted MRI, including frontal in 2 and frontal and occipital in 1. Patient 1, a woman ...
Fukuda Seiji - - 2009
The case is reported of a 2-year-old boy with a rotavirus-induced mild encephalopathy that presented as transient intensified signal on the splenium of the corpus callosum. The boy also experienced persistent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and sudden disturbance of consciousness. Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not manifest pleocytosis, electroencephalography demonstrated global ...
Senbil Nesrin - - 2009
We report a 3.5-year-old boy with sudden onset of episodic upward deviation of the eyes that led to diagnosis of paroxysmal tonic upgaze. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed right-hand side dominant bilateral hyperintense lesions in the mesencephalon and the thalamus on T2-weighted images. These lesions suggested a demyelinating pathology. Corticosteroid ...
P??rez-Due??as Bel??n - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Acute striatal necrosis is a devastating consequence of encephalopathic crisis in patients with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I), but the mechanisms underlying brain injury are not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To approach pathophysiological aspects of brain injury in GA-I by means of functional techniques in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PATIENTS ...
Vedeler C A - - 2009
Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) can arise both by paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic mechanisms. Patients with LE usually have a subacute onset of memory impairment, disorientation and agitation, but can also develop seizures, hallucinations and sleep disturbance. The following investigations may aid the diagnosis: analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance ...
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