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Watanabe A - - 1998
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) accompanied by an impairment of consciousness from orientation disorder (grade II) to coma (grade IV) is considered to be overt HE and is treated as an emergency. However, subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) can be detected by sensitive and quantitative neuropsychological examinations in cirrhotic patients without overt HE. ...
Cullen A - - 1998
Two term infants suffering severe asphyxial events were found to have diffusely high attenuation of the cortical gyri on CT scanning within 12 days. The findings are consistent with haemorrhagic necrosis or microcalcification. This feature has rarely been described in the literature. The evolution of the CT appearance, the possible ...
Kimura S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Influenza-related encephalopathy or encephalitis is not rare in children. However, it is not well understood why the brain lesion develops from influenza infection. The purpose of this study was to clarify its pathogenesis by analyzing the clinical and neuroradiological findings in patients having influenza-related brain lesions. METHODS: The clinical ...
Rosenbaum T - - 1998
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders represent remote effects of cancer without invasion of tumor cells into the nervous system. Limbic encephalitis is a distinct entity mostly associated with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. We present the cases of two teenage girls who were admitted with clinical symptoms typical for limbic encephalitis. In ...
Domingues R B - - 1998
The early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is essential because early introduction of antiviral therapy can significantly reduce the mortality of this disease. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples is a rapid, noninvasive, specific, and highly sensitive method for HSE diagnosis. Neurodiagnostic methods have ...
Takahashi W - - 1998
A 59-year-old woman suffered from prolonged hypotension with myocardial infarction. Sixteen days after the episode, she showed bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural tremor. MRI revealed low signa intensities in the bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen on the T1-weighted image and high signal intensities on the T2-weighted image. PET with 18F-FDG ...
Schneider J S - - 1998
This case study describes the long-term after-effects of hydrogen sulphide exposure in a previously health 27-year-old male. Upon hospital admission the patient had a Glasgow Coma Score (CGS) of 3; with emergency treatment including hyperbaric oxygen treatments, he progressed to a GCS of 15 on day 7. Although both CT ...
Harris J C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of brain in a series of patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS), with emphasis on basal ganglia measurements. DESIGN: Routine readings of MRI studies, repeated reading in random order blinded to subject diagnosis, and 3-dimensional volumetric measures of basal ganglia ...
Apaydin H - - 1998
Posthemiplegic focal limb or hemidystonias are rare movement disorders usually due to vascular lesions of the contralateral basal ganglia. The pathogenesis of posthemiplegic dystonia is unknown and its management is usually difficult. In this paper, we report two patients who suffered from a single limb dystonia and hemidystonia, respectively. In ...
Port J D - - 1998
Several cerebral pathologic processes thought to result from derangements in vascular autoregulatory mechanisms show reversible abnormalities on computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. The hypertensive encephalopathies are characterized by intracranial abnormalities due to subacutely elevated blood pressure; these entities include hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and cyclosporine toxicity. Imaging studies ...
Bakshi R - - 1998
PURPOSE: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is an increasingly recognized brain disorder most commonly associated with malignant hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, or the use of immunosuppressive agents. When associated with acute hypertension, RPLS typically occurs concurrently with the fulminant clinical syndrome of hypertensive encephalopathy. We describe occipital lobe seizures, in ...
Filippi C G - - 1998
PURPOSE: To determine whether protease inhibitors cause regression of periventricular white matter signal intensity abnormalities in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy and whether the changes on magnetic resonance (MR) images correlate with cognitive improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images were retrospectively and prospectively analyzed in 16 adult patients ...
Lövblad K - - 1998
With the advent of chemotherapy, mortality rates in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have decreased, but complications in the central nervous system have appeared. These include direct involvement of the brain itself and the development of chemotherapy-related encephalopathy as a delayed reaction. In most reported cases, this encephalopathy is believed to ...
Kashihara K - - 1998
We describe a patient with central nervous system lupus and choreatic movements in whom both basal ganglia showed high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images, while the signal on T2-weighted images remained low. Within 8 months after onset, the choreatic movements had disappeared, with a corresponding decrease in the hyperintense ...
Bokura H - - 1998
We studied clinicopathological correlations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of postmortem brains and pathological findings in 12 patients to identify simple criteria with which to distinguish lacunar infarctions from enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces. In vivo MRI was also available for 6 of the 12 patients. We focused on small, silent, ...
Takanashi J - - 1998
A 17-year-old male was diagnosed as having Alexander disease from the clinical manifestations (psychomotor deterioration and megalencephaly), neuroradiologic findings (frontal dominant leukodystrophy), and elevation of alpha B-crystallin and heat shock protein 27 in the cerebrospinal fluid. He exhibited increased attenuation on computed tomography and T1 and T2 shortening on magnetic ...
Hutzelmann A - - 1998
We report the case of a 75-year-old woman suffering from Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD). As brain biopsy was refused, diagnosis had to be based on clinical examination, EEC and findings on cranial MRI. Over a 4-month period MRI examinations demonstrated progressive cortical atrophy and bilateral enhanced signal intensity on T2-weighted images ...
Pagnan L - - 1998
Wernicke's encephalopathy is an uncommon disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency which is clinically characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbances of consciousness, each finding being variably present. The disease is caused by malnutrition or malabsorption, and is often associated with prolonged alcohol intake, neoplasm and extensive inflammatory ...
Meltzer C C - - 1998
PURPOSE: Our goal was to describe the MR imaging appearance and clinical pathologic correlates of bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHODS: Medical records and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively in nine cases of bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensity on long-repetition-time MR images. Opportunistic infections of the central ...
Nagata K - - 1998
Germinomas occurring in the thalamus and basal ganglia sometimes cause atrophy of the cerebral hemisphere on the affected side. The authors present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a germinoma that developed in the basal frontal lobe and cerebral basal ganglia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy not only of ...
Diez-Tejedor E - - 1998
Cocaine abuse is a well known cause of cerebrovascular complications. An inflammatory vasculopathy hypothesis has been proposed, but the medical literature has only reported a few pathological confirmations. We report a case with a biopsy demonstrating cerebral inflammatory vascular changes that are associated with cocaine abuse. A 21-year-old male, a ...
Manfredi M - - 1997
Eclampsia is a rare condition peculiar to pregnant and puerperal women, characterized by clinical pre-eclampsia (hypertension, proteinuria, edema) and generalized seizures. Three cases of eclamptic encephalopathy are reported: CT and MRI demonstrated transient abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions of the posterior areas of the brain - namely, parieto-occipital ...
Sabbah P - - 1997
We report a case of human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. After the febrile period of parasite dissemination, the patient had meningeal involvement but normal CT. MRI showed the appearances of meningitis. After two periods of arsenical treatment, a severe encephalopathy occurred suggesting post-therapeutic reactive encephalitis (PTRE). Nevertheless, ...
Chang M H - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: A hyperintense putamen on either CT or MRI as a finding associated with chorea has occasionally been described and is almost always associated with non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. The cause of the hyperintensity of the striatum in these images is still controversial. Some reports have found that calcification was responsible whereas ...
Videbech P - - 1997
A review of the literature on primarily magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with affective disorders is presented. Several studies have indicated an increased ventricle/brain ratio and other signs of cerebral atrophy, as well as an increased frequency of lesions (so-called signal hyperintensities) in the brains of unipolar and ...
Maeda H - - 1997
In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, the globus pallidus and putamen show high intensity on T1-weighted MRI. While the causes of this high signal have been thought to include paramagnetic substances, especially manganese, no evidence for this has been presented. Autopsy in four cases of hepatic cirrhosis permitted measurement of metal ...
Matsushita E - - 1997
A 4-year-old boy was admitted with disturbed consciousness following a convulsion. He developed bilateral pyramidal tract signs and showed a decerebrate posture. Laboratory findings revealed severe liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. On the eighth day eight in hospital he developed parkinsonism. However, 5 months from onset he had recovered ...
Caparros-Lefebvre D - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Striatal necrosis has been related to various clinical syndromes, with acute or chronic progression, and juvenile or late occurrence, but the most common type is Leigh's encephalopathy. METHODS: Between 1967 and 1995, six out of seven related patients with chronic familial dystonia were examined. MRIs were performed in four, ...
Huang C R - - 1997
The cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies of three Japanese encephalitis (JE) patients, 24 to 37 years of age, are reported. The initial findings of CT study were limited but initial MRI studies revealed multiple lesions involving the brainstem, basal ganglia and bilateral thalami. Follow-up MRI ...
Hoon A H AH - - 1997
Experienced clinicians recognize that some children who appear to have static cerebral palsy (CP) actually have underlying genetic-metabolic disorders. We report a series of patients with motor disorders seen in children with extrapyramidal CP in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities provided important diagnostic clues in distinguishing genetic-metabolic disorders from ...
Krieger S - - 1997
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deterioration of hepatic encephalopathy is a major concern with the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. Symmetric hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver cirrhosis anticipates hepatocerebral disease. It is hypothesized that hepatic encephalopathy and basal ganglia signal intensity progress in patients with cirrhosis ...
Singer H S - - 1997
We present the case of an adolescent boy who developed a variety of simple and complex motor and vocal tics (Tourette-like syndrome), along with inattentiveness and obsessive-compulsive behaviors after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermia. A single photon emission computed tomography study 2 months after surgery showed reduced ...
Deresiewicz R L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis occurs principally along the east and Gulf coasts of the United States. Recognition of the neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis could hasten the diagnosis of the illness and speed the response to index cases. METHODS: We reviewed all cases of eastern equine encephalitis reported in ...
Barkovich A J - - 1997
PURPOSE: To determine characteristic MR imaging features of Zellweger syndrome. METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory records, and MR studies of six patients with Zellweger syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. MR studies were examined for the state of myelination; the presence, extent, and morphologic appearance of cerebral cortical anomalies; the status of the ...
Sell J J - - 1997
Infections arising from free-living amebae are rare. They generally cause recognizable disease only in chronically ill, debilitated patients who are immune suppressed. Only about 70 cases of granulomatous amebic encephalitis have been reported. We present an unusual case of granulomatous encephalitis in a 35-year-old man. Neurologic examination and laboratory tests ...
Jardine D S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) affects children under 1 year of age and is characterized by seizures, shock and certain laboratory abnormalities, including coagulation abnormalities. It has a high mortality and many of the survivors are neurologically abnormal. OBJECTIVE: To describe abnormalities observed on initial and follow-up CT ...
Pradhan S - - 1997
We report a teenage girl with acute endosulfan poisoning who developed psychosis, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic jerks, cortical blindness and limb rigidity. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral reversible lesions localized to caudate nucleus, putamen and occipital cortex; internal capsule and thalamus were spared. This selective involvement may have ...
Bhagavatula K - - 1997
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is an angiocentric lymphoproliferative process that involves the lungs. In a 52-year-old-man with lymphomatoid granulomatosis who presented with encephalopathy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated unusual multiple areas of enhancement that were both punctate and linear. These findings may be relatively specific for inflammation of deep ...
Fujioka M - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very few reports are available on serial changes in the human brain after severe hypoglycemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sequential neuroradiological changes in brains of patients after hypoglycemic coma compared with those after cardiac arrest previously studied with the same methods. METHODS: ...
Kobari M - - 1997
We report a family with brain calcification, predominantly in the basal ganglia, and no evident cause such as abnormal calcium or phosphorus metabolism. The proband, a 48-year-old man, had intellectual decline, parkinsonism, and mild cerebellar ataxia. He had bilateral and symmetric calcification of the basal ganglia, thalamus, dentate nucleus, cerebral ...
Aylward E H - - 1997
Cross-sectional MRI studies demonstrating an association between caudate atrophy and symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have been assumed to reflect longitudinal changes in basal ganglia, but such neuropathologic progression has never been directly demonstrated. Subjects in the current study were 23 HD patients ...
Emery E S - - 1997
MRI of the brain of a 3-year-old boy performed 3 days after the onset of hemichorea (Sydenham Chorea) revealed abnormal signal and enlargement of the contralateral caudate and putamen. Follow-up imaging 40 months later showed a persistent cystic appearance of the caudate and putamen. This case is the first report ...
Jones B V - - 1997
We present five cases of hypertensive encephalopathy in children, three with MR imaging findings and two with CT findings alone. One of the five patients had MR perfusion imaging, which showed perfusion abnormalities that support the concept of vasodilation as the major contributor to the syndrome. Hypertensive encephalopathy is rarely ...
Yamamoto K - - 1997
A case of acute encephalopathy with selective bilateral symmetrical striatal lesions is reported. The patient was a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who became obtunded after a febrile illness and fell into a state of delirium with severe pain in the feet. He showed abnormal postures: hyperextension of the neck and ...
Pfluger T - - 1997
We report the MR imaging findings in two children with glutaric aciduria type I (GA I). It is important to consider this disorder in the differential diagnosis in a child presenting with an unclear hydrocephalus or atrophy. The imaging findings consist of basal ganglia changes, frontotemporal atrophy, and retarded myelination. ...
Huin E - - 1996
Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis is a distinctive clinical syndrome and has characteristic CT and MR features. We describe two patients who presented with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, severe hyponatremia, and had quick correction of hyponatremia. Low T1 and high T2 signal alterations were seen in the basal ganglia and caudate nuclei ...
Clifford D B - - 1996
Six patients are presented who died with active cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis in whom brain MR scans within 25 days of death failed to reveal distinctive findings suggesting the diagnosis of CMV encephalitis. While MR scanning is crucial to evulation of AIDS patients developing neurologic complications, it is not sensitive to ...
Chan S - - 1996
PURPOSE: To investigate the basis for multifocal hypointense lesions within the brain as identified on T2*-weighted gradient-echo MR imaging in patients with no known or presumed cause of these lesions. METHODS: In the first of a two-part study design, we retrospectively reviewed a case series of 38 patients whose gradient-echo ...
Kimura S - - 1996
We analyzed follow-up magnetic resonance images (MRI) in eight children with clinical postinfectious encephalitis (PIE), and discussed their pathogeneses. Three categories of MRI findings were apparent: (1) multifocal lesions in the white matter with/without basal ganglia involvement consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (three patients); (2) single or multifocal lesions ...
De Salles A A - - 1996
There is a renewed interest in basal ganglia surgery for improvement of motor symptoms in cerebral palsy. Rigidity, choreoathetosis, and tremor can be improved or abolished by a well-placed radiofrequency lesion, either in the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus or ventroposterior pallidum. The target is chosen based on the predominance ...
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