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Mori Kentaro K Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan, - - 2015
Several animal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models have been proposed for the investigation of cerebral vasospasm. We describe the experimental procedures of a canine double-SAH model and also examine the model based on the canine physiological parameters and occurrence of angiographic delayed cerebral vasospasm using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital ...
Hori Masatoshi M Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, D1, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate the usefulness of the statistical shape model (SSM) for the quantification of liver shape to evaluate hepatic fibrosis. Ninety-one subjects (45 men and 46 women; age range, 20-75 years) were included in this retrospective study: 54 potential liver donors and 37 patients with chronic liver disease. The subjects were ...
Nishio Mizuho M Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan; Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To evaluate paired inspiratory/expiratory computed tomography (CT; iCT/eCT) and deformable image registration for quantitative and qualitative assessment of airflow limitation in smokers. Paired iCT/eCT images acquired from 35 smokers (30 men and 5 women) were coregistered and subtraction images (air trapping CT images [aCT]) generated. To evaluate emphysema quantitatively, the ...
Skornitzke Stephan S Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, - - 2014
Objectives: To compare six different scenarios for correcting for breathing-motion in abdominal Dual-Energy (DE) CT-perfusion measurements. Methods: Rigid (RRComm(80kVp)) and non-rigid (NRComm(80kVp)) registration of commercially available CT-perfusion software, custom non-rigid registration (NRCustom(80kVp), demons algorithm), and a control group (CG(80kVp)) without motion-correction were evaluated using 80kVp images. Additionally, NRCustom was applied ...
Wang Guangli G From the Department of Radiology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of - - 2014
The objective of this study was to determine the capability of quantitative emphysema by computed tomography (CT) to assess pulmonary function impairment in a population of current smokers with and without airflow limitation. Seventy-six subjects (30 normal smokers; 8 with mild obstruction; 17 with moderate obstruction; 13 with severe obstruction; ...
Lillie Elizabeth M EM Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for Injury Biomechanics, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, - - 2014
Brain injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further ...
Joob Beuy B Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center; Bangkok Thailand - - - 2014
Sir, the report on "Quantitative serial T2 relaxometry and cerebral cysticercosis" is very interesting (1). Nalini et al. described possible values of quantitative serial T2 relaxometry and cerebral cysticercosis on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (1). This observation might imply a role for quantitative serial ...
Kong Feng F State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing, - - 2014
Eudaimonic well-being (EWB) is the fulfillment of human potential and a meaningful life. Previous studies have shown that personality traits, especially extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, significantly contribute to EWB. However, the neurobiological pathways linking personality and EWB are not understood. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to ...
Kretzschmar M M Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions ...
Sun L-Q LQ Department of Spine Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, - - 2014
Study design:Prospective study.Objectives:To investigate whether preoperative and postoperative changes of signal intensity (SI) and transverse area (TA) of the spinal cord reflect the surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Setting:The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, China.Methods:In 45 consecutive prospective patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed preoperatively ...
Xia Ying Y School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4027, Australia. CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Brisbane QLD 4029, - - 2014
Accurate segmentation of hip joint cartilage from magnetic resonance (MR) images offers opportunities for quantitative investigations of pathoanatomical conditions such as osteoarthritis. In this paper, we present a fully automatic scheme for the segmentation of the individual femoral and acetabular cartilage plates in the human hip joint from high-resolution 3D ...
Kijowski Richard R Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792-3252, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Osteoarthritis is characterized by a decrease in the proteoglycan content and disruption of the highly organized collagen fiber network of articular cartilage. Various quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been developed for noninvasive assessment of the proteoglycan and collagen components of cartilage. These techniques have been extensively used in clinical ...
Andersson Thord T Department of Biomedical Engineering (IMT), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, - - 2014
To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the water-signal performance of the consistent intensity inhomogeneity correction (CIIC) method to correct for intensity inhomogeneities METHODS: Water-fat volumes were acquired using 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3.0T symmetrically sampled 2-point Dixon three-dimensional MRI. Two datasets: (i) 10 muscle tissue regions of interest (ROIs) from 10 ...
Müller-Lutz Anja A From the Departments of *Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, and †Rheumatology, University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between semiquantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) parameters with delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cartilage (dGEMRIC). Fifteen patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the ArthroMark cohort were investigated at a 3-T MRI scanner. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) ...
Bielecki M J MJ Malgorzata J. Bielecki, Mag.med.vet., Tierklinik Haar, Keferloher Str. 25, 85540 Haar, Germany, Phone: +49 89 46148510, Fax: +49 89 4614851199, E-mail: - - 2014
Objectives: The main objectives were to evaluate the impact of femorotibial subluxation on the preoperative measurements for tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) by defining radiographic landmarks and testing the repeatability for assessing cranial tibial subluxation (CTS). Also, we aimed at developing a formula to calculate the necessary adjustment in measurement of ...
Wengert Georg Johannes GJ From the *Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, †Computational Imaging Research Lab, ‡MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2014
The purposes of this study were to introduce and assess an automated user-independent quantitative volumetric (AUQV) breast density (BD) measurement system on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the Dixon technique as well as to compare it with qualitative and quantitative mammographic (MG) BD measurements. Forty-three women with ...
Gürkov R R Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany, - - 2014
We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Menière's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Menière's disease were included in this study. Magnetic ...
Glatz Andreas A Brain Research Imaging Centre, Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK; SINAPSE Collaboration, Brain Research Imaging Centre, Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, - - 2014
Multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted (T2*w) hypointensities, which are believed to arise mainly from vascular mineralization, were recently proposed as a novel MRI biomarker for small vessel disease and ageing. These T2*w hypointensities are typically segmented semi-automatically, which is time consuming, associated with a high intra-rater variability and low inter-rater agreement. ...
Hague Cameron J CJ Departments of *Radiology ∥Radiology and Cardiology ¶Medicine, Division of Respirology, James Hogg Research Center & The Institute of Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital †James Hogg Research Center & The Institute of Heart and Lung Health Departments of #Radiology and Cardiology **Radiology, James Hogg Research Center & The Institute of Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC §Department of Radiology McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada ‡Department of Diagnostic Imaging, King Fahd Military Medical Complex, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi - - 2014
The purpose of this research is to examine the role that differing levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) have on the qualitative and quantitative assessment of smoking-related lung disease. Institutional board review approval was obtained. A total of 52 patients undergoing clinically indicated low-dose computed tomographic (CT) examinations of ...
Agiovlasitis Stamatis S Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, 233 McCarthy Gym, PO Box 6186, Mississippi State, MS 39762, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The altered gait patterns of adults with Down syndrome (DS) may contribute to their higher net metabolic rate (net-MR) during walking than adults without DS, leading to mobility limitations. This study examined the extent to which gait characteristics explain differences in net-MR during walking between adults with and without DS. ...
Neal David C DC aCenter of Excellence in Hip Disorders, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children bUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, - - 2014
A quantitative method to assess hip synovitis in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is not currently available. To develop this method, the areas of synovial enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced MRI (Gd-MRI) were measured by two independent observers. The volume of synovial enhancement was significantly increased in the initial and the fragmentation stages of ...
Bornefalk Hans - - 2014
Material basis decomposition in the sinogram domain requires accurate knowledge of the forward model in spectral CT. Misspecifications over a certain limit will result in biased estimates and make quantum limited (where statistical noise dominates) quantitative CT difficult. We present a method whereby users can determine the degree of allowed ...
Carbonell Felix F Biospective Inc., Montreal, QC, - - 2014
Conventional brain connectivity analysis is typically based on the assessment of interregional correlations. Given that correlation coefficients are derived from both covariance and variance, group differences in covariance may be obscured by differences in the variance terms. To facilitate a comprehensive assessment of connectivity, we propose a unified statistical framework ...
Alexiades George G *Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, U.S.A.; and †MED-EL Corporation, Innsbruck, - - 2014
Using a linear measurement of the cochlea on a single radiographic image can reliably estimate the complete and two-turn cochlear duct length (CDL) in a normal human temporal bone. CDL is measured from the middle of the round window to the helicotrema. Histologic studies have shown the length of the ...
Kaida Hayato H Division of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center and Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MDA-LDL) and vascular inflammation evaluated by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods/results: The study involved 106 consecutive patients (75 males and 31 female, mean age 62.5 ± 7.7 years) who ...
Kadono Yoshifumi Y Department of Integrative Cancer Therapy and Urology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan - - 2014
We investigated the relationship between a new index considering the estimated working space and difficulty of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using our database. Working height was calculated by the obstetric conjugate diameter minus the bladder and rectal wall thicknesses minus the thickness of postvesical fat minus the rectal fat thicknesses ...
Rautiainen J J Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate the sensitivity of seven quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters (adiabatic T1ρ, adiabatic T2ρ, continuous wave (CW) T1ρ, relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF), T2 measured with adiabatic double echo (DE) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and T1 during off-resonance saturation [magnetization transfer (MT)]) to detect early osteoarthritic changes ...
Jordan C D CD Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
To measure the variability of T1ρ relaxation times using CubeQuant, T2 relaxation times using quantitative double echo in steady state (DESS), and normalized sodium signals using 3D cones sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knee cartilage in vivo at 3 T. Eight healthy subjects were scanned at 3 T at baseline, 1 day, ...
Barr A J AJ Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds and NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds, - - 2014
Radiographic measures of osteoarthritis (OA) are based upon two dimensional projection images. Active appearance modelling (AAM) of knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate, 3D quantification of joint structures in large cohorts. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic measures of OA and 3D bone area (tAB). ...
Norman Daniel G DG WMG, The University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK, - - 2014
The femoral footprint of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a much-studied anatomic structure, predominantly due to its importance during ACL reconstruction surgery. A new technique utilising high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is described, allowing detailed three-dimensional (3D) quantitative analysis of this structure. Seven cadaveric knees were scanned using micro-CT, yielding ...
Owsijewitsch Michael M 1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg , Heidelberg , - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The change of emphysema distribution with increasing COPD severity is not yet assessed. Especially, involvement of the upper aspect of the lower lobe is unknown. The primary aim was to quantitatively determine regional distribution of emphysema in anatomically (lung lobes) and non-anatomically defined lung regions (upper/lower lung halves ...
Han Chengkun C Department of Neuroradiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Fujian, - - 2014
To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained using a b-value of 3000 s/mm(2) can be used to differentiate high-grade glioma (HGG) from solitary metastases (SM). Forty patients underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and standard and high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Minimum, maximum, and mean ADC values (ADCMIN ...
Takahashi Shigekiyo S Department of Cardiology, Gifu University Gradual School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194, - - 2014
Recently, a new generation of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) with 320-detector rows (DR) has become available in the clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cutoff values of Hounsfield unit (HU) for discrimination of plaque components by comparing HU of coronary plaques with integrated ...
Jarman Joshua P JP Medical Student, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, - - 2014
Quantitative MRI techniques were utilized to study intervertebral disc degeneration. Main focus was to develop a novel approach to quantify disc height loss associated with disc degeneration. Currently there is no universally accepted metric of degeneration based on measurement of disc height. Such quantitative imaging methods would complement qualitative visual ...
Font-I-Furnols Maria M 1IRTA-Product Quality,Finca Camps i Armet,17121 - - 2014
The aim of the present work was (1) to study the relationship between cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images obtained in live growing pigs of different genotypes and dissection measurements and (2) to estimate carcass composition and cut composition from CT measurements. Sixty gilts from three genotypes (Duroc×(Landrace×Large White), Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White), ...
Tan Stephanie S Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Hôpital Notre-Dame (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, QC, H2L 4M1, Canada, - - 2014
To determine the reliability of carpal angles measured on CT and MRI compared to radiography and assess if these measurements are interchangeable. Our institutional ethic research committee approved this study. For this retrospective study, two independent observers measured the scapholunate (SL), capitolunate (CL), radiolunate (RL), and radioscaphoid (RS) angles on ...
Koff Matthew F MF MRI Laboratory, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Tendinopathy affects individuals who perform repetitive joint motion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to qualitatively assess tendon health, but quantitative evaluation of inherent MRI properties of loaded tendon has been limited. This study evaluated the effect of cyclic loading on [Formula: see text] values of fresh and frozen ...
Kageyama Ken - - 2014
To evaluate the feasibility of gastric variceal (GV) volumetry using computed tomography (CT) images taken before balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) and to assess its correlation with the actual amount of 5% ethanolamine oleate and iodinated contrast medium (EOI) injected in B-RTO. Forty-seven consecutive patients with GV underwent B-RTO of ...
Meister B B Department of Urology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany, - - 2014
Residual calculi after stone therapy need to be treated if they are clinically significant, mainly depending on the size of the calculi. There are different ways to detect and measure the size of residual calculi as for example KUB or computed tomography. The Uro Dyna-CT (Siemens Healthcare solutions, Erlangen, Germany) ...
Sfoungaristos Stavros S Hadassah University Hospital, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
To create a model for prediction of stone radiopacity based on computed tomography (CT) parameters. We reviewed the medical records of 513 patients referred to our department for consultation for urolithiasis between March 2011 and December 2012. CT scan and kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) film were reviewed to identify the value of ...
Iwanaga Takashi T Department of Medical Imaging, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate - - 2014
Purpose: We compared the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) obtained by pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) and iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest (ROI) software for automated definition of ROIs in anatomic regions of the brain.Methods: Thirteen patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and ...
Aribisala Benjamin S BS From the *Institute of Cellular Medicine & Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne; †Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh; ‡Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne; and §Department of Neurosurgery, Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, - - 2014
The most commonly used summary metric in neuroimaging is the mean value, but this pays little attention to the shape of the data distribution and can therefore be insensitive to subtle changes that alter the data distribution. We propose a distributional-based metric called the normalized histogram similarity measure (HSM) for ...
Hur Bo Yun BY From the *Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center; and †Department of Radiology, ‡Institute of Radiation Medicine, and §Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of postcontrast, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) using multimaterial decomposition (MMD) for quantification of the hepatic fat fraction (HFF). Various degrees of fatty liver were produced in 16 rabbits divided into 4 groups, by feeding them a high-fat, high-cholesterol ...
Terrier Alexandre A Laboratory of Biomechanical Orthopedics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
During total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), humeral head subluxation may be difficult to manage. Furthermore, there is a risk for postoperative recurrence of subluxation, affecting the outcome of TSA. An accurate evaluation of the subluxation is necessary to evaluate this risk. Currently, subluxation is measured in 2 dimensions (2D), usually relative ...
Wang Hui - - 2014
While the assembled 1D magnetic nanoparticle (NP) chains have demonstrated synergistic magnetic effects from the individual NPs, it is essential to prepare new 1D NP chains that can combine the magnetism with other important material properties for multifunctional applications. This paper reports the fabrication and multifunctional investigation of a new ...
Lhommel Renaud R From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, †Pathology, ‡Neurology, §Hematology, and ¶Cardiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, - - 2014
We report here the case of a 56-year-old man with well-documented cardiac light chain amyloidosis successfully imaged with F-flutemetamol PET/CT in 2011. A matched pair healthy volunteer was imaged in the same conditions, and no specific heart uptake could be detected. The present report suggests the potential benefit of this ...
Liu Yang Y Center of Otolaryngology, PLA Navy General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
To assess the quality of three-dimensional volume rendered computer tomography (3D-CTVR), multi-planar reformation (MPR) and CT section plane in the fine diagnosis of ossicular chain in middle ear cholesteatoma. Sixty patients with middle ear cholesteatoma were selected in this retrospective study. All cases underwent pre-operative CT scan. The respective radiologic ...
G Neto Orlando O Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Professor José Aristodemo Pinotti Hospital, Center for Integral Assistance to Women's Health, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, - - 2014
To test the feasibility and reproducibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) evaluations of the fetal brains in cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). From May 2011 to June 2012, 24 patients with severe TTTS underwent MRI scans for evaluation of the fetal brains. Datasets were analyzed offline on axial ...
Oghli Mostafa Ghelich MG Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, - - 2014
Assessment of cardiac right-ventricle functions plays an essential role in diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). Among clinical tests, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now becoming the most valid imaging technique to diagnose ARVD. Fatty infiltration of the right ventricular free wall can be visible on cardiac MRI. ...
Ariani A A Department of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero- Universitaria di Parma, Parma, - - 2014
The pulmonary fibrosis extent in systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a prognostic value. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the gold standard to detect an interstitial lung disease (ILD). Semi-quantitative scores and quantitative methods can estimate the ILD. The first ones have a considerable inter-intraobserver variability, while quantitative scores, based on distribution ...
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