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Rudwill Floriane F University of Strasbourg, IPHC, 23, rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg, France; CNRS, UMR 7178, 67087, Strasbourg, - - 2014
Physical inactivity leads to a cluster of metabolic disorders that have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. To test whether physical inactivity increases hepatic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. Sixteen normal-weight healthy women (body mass index=21.2±0.5 kg.m(-2) ) were studied under controlled energy balance conditions during a previous ...
Tuazon Marc A MA Rutgers - - 2014
Precise regulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and secretion is critical for health and exercise could play a significant role. We compared one session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. continuous exercise (CE) on hepatic TG metabolism. Female and male mice were assigned to CE, HIIE, or sedentary control (CON). ...
Salanova Michele M Center of Space Medicine Berlin, Neuromuscular Group, Institute of Anatomy, and Center for Muscle and Bone Research (ZMK), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; michele.salanova@charite.de - - 2014
In the present bed rest (BR) study, 23 volunteers were randomized into 3 subgroups: 60 d BR control (Ctr); BR with resistive exercise (RE; lower-limb load); and resistive vibration exercise (RVE; RE with superimposed vibration). The aim was to analyze by confocal and electron microscopy the effects of vibration on ...
Perry Christopher G R CG School of Kinesiology & Health Science, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
In this issue, the investigation by Lundberg et al revisited a classic question of how muscle hypertrophy occurs following resistance exercise but not endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle. A recent study suggested the master transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α, known for regulating multiple transcriptional programs encoding mitochondrial and other metabolic proteins following ...
Hatchard Taylor T School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 136 Jean-Jacques Lussier Room 2076A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, - - 2014
Physical exercise and fitness have been proposed as potential factors that promote healthy cognitive aging. Some of the support for this hypothesis has come from animal research. Animal studies are also used to propose the physiological mechanisms underlying the cognitive performance improvement associated with exercise. In the present review and ...
Formenti Federico F a Nuffield Division of Anaesthetics, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Oxford , John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford , OX3 9DU , - - 2014
Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than ...
Simonov M M Mikhail Simonov, Istituto Superiore Mario Boella, Via P. C. Boggio 61, Turin 10138, Italy, E-mail: - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "New Methodologies for Patients Rehabilitation". Background: The article presents the approach in which the rehabilitative exercise prepared by healthcare professional is encoded as formal knowledge and used by humanoid robot to assist patients without ...
Cher Pei Hua PH 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, - - 2014
This study explores recent claims that humans exhibit a minimum cost of transport (CoTmin) for running which occurs at an intermediate speed, and assesses individual physiological, gait and training characteristics. Twelve healthy participants with varying levels of fitness and running experience ran on a treadmill at six self-selected speeds in ...
Dempsey Jerome A JA John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, - - 2014
We review the substantial recent progress made in understanding the underlying mechanisms controlling breathing and the applicability of these findings to selected human diseases. Emphasis is placed on the sites of central respiratory rhythm and pattern generation as well as newly described functions of the carotid chemoreceptors, the integrative nature ...
Zarros Apostolos A University of Glasgow Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Box 318 111 West George str. G2-1QX Glasgow Scotland, - - 2014
The roots of physiology - on the basis of a systematic study of the human body's functions and their correlation to anatomy - date back to the works of Aristotle. The pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander the Great was a one-man university, and his contributions to the ...
Abd El-Kader Shehab M SM Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz - - 2014
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and psychological health. The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic exercise training in patients with CHC. Fifty CHC patients were included in ...
Shahhaidar Ehsaneh - - 2014
Remote health monitoring is increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in chronic disease management. Continuous respiratory monitoring could be a powerful tool in managing chronic diseases, however it is infrequently performed because of obtrusiveness and inconvenience of the existing methods. The movements of the chest wall and abdominal area during ...
Kostrzewa E E Department of Translational Neuroscience, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, - - 2014
Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region for voluntary exercise levels. First, a panel of mouse chromosome substitution strains ...
Lundberg Tommy R TR Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, - - 2014
A truncated PGC-1α splice variant (PGC-1α4) has been implicated in the regulation of resistance-exercise (RE) induced muscle hypertrophy, and basal expression levels said to be augmented in response to concurrent aerobic (AE) and RE training.The current study investigated human muscle truncated and non-truncated PGC-1α transcripts in response to both acute ...
Elsen Manuela M M Elsen, Paul-Langerhans-Group for Integrative Physiology, German Diabetes Center, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
The discovery of irisin as an exercise-regulated myokine inducing browning of WAT has attracted a lot of interest as a potential new strategy to combat obesity and its associated disorders, such as type 2 diabetes. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relevance of irisin in humans. The regulation of FNDC5 ...
Huh Joo Young JY Section of Endocrinology, Boston VA Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Irisin is a recently identified myokine, suggested to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise by inducing browning of white adipocytes and thus increasing energy expenditure. In humans, the regulation of irisin by exercise is not completely understood. We investigated the effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise, a moderate-intensity ...
Semmler J G - - 2014
It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of ...
Gundermann David M DM Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Division of Rehabilitation - - 2014
Restriction of blood flow to a contracting muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise (BFR exercise) stimulates mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle within 3 h postexercise. However, there is a lack of mechanistic data to provide a direct link between mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle ...
Schulz Christian M CM 1 Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, - - 2014
High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report ...
Scheele Camilla C Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious diseases and CMRC, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, - - 2014
The article by Rönn and co-authors, entitled "Extensive changes in the transcriptional profile of human adipose tissue including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation after a six months exercise intervention" (Rönn et al. 2014) presents a global transcriptional profiling of human adipose tissue in response to long-term endurance exercise training. The study ...
Kurdiova Timea T Institute of Experimental Endocrinology Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, - - 2014
Irisin, myokine secreted by skeletal muscle, was suggested to mediate some of exercise health benefits via "browning" of white adipose tissue. However, mounting evidence contradicts the regulatory role of exercise for muscle irisin production/secretion in humans. Thus, we explored the direct effect of exercise-mimicking treatment on irisin in human primary ...
Ling Charlotte C Department of Clinical Sciences, Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, Scania University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a ...
Adams Jose A JA Division of Neonatology and Department of Research, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exercise is a well known neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic strategy in animal models and humans with brain injury and cognitive dysfunction. In part, exercise induced beneficial effects relate to endothelial derived nitric oxide (eNO) production and induction of the neurotrophins; Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF). ...
Hao Limin L The Quartermaster Equipment Institute of General Logistics Department of People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100010, China. - - 2014
Carbohydrate consumption during exercise can improve performance and delay the onset of fatigue. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sports drink powder, Jxdrink, containing the high molecular weight polysaccharide Jxsac. Animal experiments including digestion and exhaustive swimming experiments were conducted to observe the physiological effects of ...
Virtanen Kirsi A KA Turku PET Centre, PO Box 52 | FI-20521 Turku, Finland; University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in response to cold is relatively well established in humans. Several hormones and factors are involved in this response, and Lee et al. (2014) now provide evidence for a role of irisin and FGF21 in BAT thermogenic activity in humans.
Lee Paul P Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2014
Rediscovery of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has boosted research interest in identifying BAT activators for metabolic benefits. Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat. Here we explored whether cold ...
Yu Chang Ho - - 2014
The objectives were to assess the trunk and leg muscle activities during the trunk tilt exercise by a 3D dynamic exercise device capable of active and passive movements, to study the evaluation of Root Mean Squire (RMS), and to investigation the influence of the trunk positions on these muscle activities. ...
Nielsen Søren S The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, - - 2014
MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to ...
Murray Danielle K DK Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre and Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia & Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada. - - 2014
Cognitive impairments are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can substantially affect a patient's quality of life. These impairments remain difficult to manage with current clinical therapies, but exercise has been identified as a possible treatment. The objective of this systematic review was to accumulate and analyze evidence for ...
Pence Brandt D BD Department of Kinesiology & Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, Illinois. ; Integrative Immunology & Behavior Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, - - 2014
Significance: Impaired cutaneous wound healing is a major health concern. Obesity has been shown in a number of studies to impair wound healing, and chronic nonhealing wounds in obesity and diabetes are a major cause of limb amputations in the United States. Recent Advances: Recent evidence indicates that aberrant wound ...
Rowlands David S DS School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, 63 Wallace Street, Wellington 6140, New Zealand. - - 2014
Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan) has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated ...
Gilbert Matthew J H - - 2013
A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organisation level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to ...
Treebak Jonas T - - 2013
We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers exercised in the fasted or fed state and ...
Ydfors Mia M Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, - - 2013
Recently, a truncated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant, PGC-1α4, that originates from the alternative promoter was shown to be induced by resistance exercise and to elicit muscle hypertrophy without coactivation of "classical" PGC-1α targets involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. In order to test if distinct ...
Voss Michelle W - - 2013
Significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms through which exercise protects and restores the brain. In this feature review, we integrate animal and human research, examining physical activity effects across multiple levels of description (neurons up to inter-regional pathways). We evaluate the influence of exercise on hippocampal ...
Konopka Adam R - - 2013
Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal ...
Tanikawa Y - - 2013
In vivo measurement of time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT) were performed for human forearms under the exercises. The DOT images of oxygenation state were reconstructed, and the activities of the inner muscles were assessed.
Roudier Emilie E Faculty of Health, Angiogenesis Research Group, York University Toronto, - - 2013
High expression levels of human double minute-2 (Hdm2) are often associated with increased risk of cancer. Hdm2 is well established as an oncoprotein exerting various tumorigenic effects. Conversely, the physiological functions of Hdm2 in nontumor cells and healthy tissues remain largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that exercise training stimulates expression ...
Karamanou Marianna - - 2013
BACKGROUND: For more than 1500 years, the status of knowledge concerning the physiology of human respiration has remained almost unchanged. In the 18th century, the French chemist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier conducted breathing experiments on human and animal respiration. METHODS: The main bibliographic sources concerning Lavoisier's life and work on respiration ...
Kjaer Michael - - 2013
Mechanical loading can influence tendon collagen homeostasis in animal models, while the dynamics of the human adult tendon core tissue is more debatable. Currently available data indicate that human tendon adaptation to loading may happen primarily in the outer tendon region. A role of inflammation in this peri-tendinous adaptation is ...
Hötting Kirsten - - 2013
The human brain adapts to changing demands by altering its functional and structural properties ("neuroplasticity") which results in learning and acquiring skills. Convergent evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that physical activity facilitates neuroplasticity of certain brain structures and as a result cognitive functions. Animal studies have identified ...
Villanova L - - 2013
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent lysine deacetylases. Sirtuins acquired worldwide attention because of their ability to increase yeast, flies, worms and mice lifespan. Recently, this assumption has been challenged. However, their beneficial role on the quality of ageing is widely accepted. In this work we aimed to study how and if sirtuins ...
Hall Kara L - - 2013
Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of ...
Görgens Sven W - - 2013
Abstract Follistatin-like protein 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein of the follistatin family. Fstl1 is secreted by C2C12 cells, and Akt1 over-expression in skeletal muscle leads to its induction in muscle and increased circulating levels. So far, secretion of Fstl1 by human myotubes and the effect of exercise on its ...
Kelly Scott A SA Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH 43015, - - 2013
Variation in voluntary exercise behavior is an important determinant of long-term human health. Increased physical activity is used as a preventative measure or therapeutic intervention for disease, and a sedentary lifestyle has generally been viewed as unhealthy. Predisposition to engage in voluntary activity is heritable and induces protective metabolic changes, ...
Raichlen David A - - 2013
The hunting and gathering lifestyle adopted by human ancestors around 2 Ma required a large increase in aerobic activity. High levels of physical activity altered the shape of the human body, enabling access to new food resources (e.g. animal protein) in a changing environment. Recent experimental work provides strong evidence ...
Smith Brennan K BK Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, 491 Gordon St., Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. - - 2013
In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as two subcellular populations known as subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. SS mitochondria preferentially respond to exercise training, suggesting divergent transcriptional control of the mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) have been ...
Hall Kara L - - 2013
Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of ...
Fedotovskaya O N - - 2013
Physical activity phenotypes are highly poligenic. Skeletal muscle-specific AMP deaminase isoform, encoded by AMPD1 gene, is stimulated after short-term highly intense exercise and is an important regulator of muscular energy metabolism in exercise. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms detected much lesser frequency of AMPD1 allele T and genotype TT ...
Hou Chien-Wen - - 2013
Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water ...
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