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Gundermann David M DM 1University of Texas Medical - - 2014
Restriction of blood flow to a contracting muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise (BFR exercise) stimulates mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle within 3 hours post-exercise. However, there is a lack of mechanistic data to provide a direct link between mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle ...
Schulz Christian M CM 1 Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, - - 2014
High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report ...
Scheele Camilla C Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious diseases and CMRC, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, - - 2014
The article by Rönn and co-authors, entitled "Extensive changes in the transcriptional profile of human adipose tissue including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation after a six months exercise intervention" (Rönn et al. 2014) presents a global transcriptional profiling of human adipose tissue in response to long-term endurance exercise training. The study ...
Kurdiova Timea T Institute of Experimental Endocrinology Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, - - 2014
Irisin, myokine secreted by skeletal muscle, was suggested to mediate some of exercise health benefits via "browning" of white adipose tissue. However, mounting evidence contradicts the regulatory role of exercise for muscle irisin production/secretion in humans. Thus, we explored the direct effect of exercise-mimicking treatment on irisin in human primary ...
Ling Charlotte C Department of Clinical Sciences, Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, Scania University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a ...
Adams Jose A JA Division of Neonatology and Department of Research, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exercise is a well known neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic strategy in animal models and humans with brain injury and cognitive dysfunction. In part, exercise induced beneficial effects relate to endothelial derived nitric oxide (eNO) production and induction of the neurotrophins; Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF). ...
Hao Limin L The Quartermaster Equipment Institute of General Logistics Department of People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100010, China. - - 2014
Carbohydrate consumption during exercise can improve performance and delay the onset of fatigue. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sports drink powder, Jxdrink, containing the high molecular weight polysaccharide Jxsac. Animal experiments including digestion and exhaustive swimming experiments were conducted to observe the physiological effects of ...
Virtanen Kirsi A KA Turku PET Centre, PO Box 52 | FI-20521 Turku, Finland; University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in response to cold is relatively well established in humans. Several hormones and factors are involved in this response, and Lee et al. (2014) now provide evidence for a role of irisin and FGF21 in BAT thermogenic activity in humans.
Lee Paul P Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2014
Rediscovery of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has boosted research interest in identifying BAT activators for metabolic benefits. Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat. Here we explored whether cold ...
Yu Chang Ho - - 2014
The objectives were to assess the trunk and leg muscle activities during the trunk tilt exercise by a 3D dynamic exercise device capable of active and passive movements, to study the evaluation of Root Mean Squire (RMS), and to investigation the influence of the trunk positions on these muscle activities. ...
Nielsen Søren S The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, - - 2014
MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to ...
Murray Danielle K DK Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre and Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia & Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada. - - 2014
Cognitive impairments are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can substantially affect a patient's quality of life. These impairments remain difficult to manage with current clinical therapies, but exercise has been identified as a possible treatment. The objective of this systematic review was to accumulate and analyze evidence for ...
Gilbert Matthew J H - - 2013
A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organisation level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to ...
Treebak Jonas T - - 2013
We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers exercised in the fasted or fed state and ...
Ydfors Mia M Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, - - 2013
Recently, a truncated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant, PGC-1α4, that originates from the alternative promoter was shown to be induced by resistance exercise and to elicit muscle hypertrophy without coactivation of "classical" PGC-1α targets involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. In order to test if distinct ...
Voss Michelle W - - 2013
Significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms through which exercise protects and restores the brain. In this feature review, we integrate animal and human research, examining physical activity effects across multiple levels of description (neurons up to inter-regional pathways). We evaluate the influence of exercise on hippocampal ...
Konopka Adam R - - 2013
Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal ...
Tanikawa Y - - 2013
In vivo measurement of time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT) were performed for human forearms under the exercises. The DOT images of oxygenation state were reconstructed, and the activities of the inner muscles were assessed.
Roudier Emilie E Faculty of Health, Angiogenesis Research Group, York University Toronto, - - 2013
High expression levels of human double minute-2 (Hdm2) are often associated with increased risk of cancer. Hdm2 is well established as an oncoprotein exerting various tumorigenic effects. Conversely, the physiological functions of Hdm2 in nontumor cells and healthy tissues remain largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that exercise training stimulates expression ...
Karamanou Marianna - - 2013
BACKGROUND: For more than 1500 years, the status of knowledge concerning the physiology of human respiration has remained almost unchanged. In the 18th century, the French chemist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier conducted breathing experiments on human and animal respiration. METHODS: The main bibliographic sources concerning Lavoisier's life and work on respiration ...
Kjaer Michael - - 2013
Mechanical loading can influence tendon collagen homeostasis in animal models, while the dynamics of the human adult tendon core tissue is more debatable. Currently available data indicate that human tendon adaptation to loading may happen primarily in the outer tendon region. A role of inflammation in this peri-tendinous adaptation is ...
Hötting Kirsten - - 2013
The human brain adapts to changing demands by altering its functional and structural properties ("neuroplasticity") which results in learning and acquiring skills. Convergent evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that physical activity facilitates neuroplasticity of certain brain structures and as a result cognitive functions. Animal studies have identified ...
Villanova L - - 2013
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent lysine deacetylases. Sirtuins acquired worldwide attention because of their ability to increase yeast, flies, worms and mice lifespan. Recently, this assumption has been challenged. However, their beneficial role on the quality of ageing is widely accepted. In this work we aimed to study how and if sirtuins ...
Hall Kara L - - 2013
Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of ...
Görgens Sven W - - 2013
Abstract Follistatin-like protein 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein of the follistatin family. Fstl1 is secreted by C2C12 cells, and Akt1 over-expression in skeletal muscle leads to its induction in muscle and increased circulating levels. So far, secretion of Fstl1 by human myotubes and the effect of exercise on its ...
Kelly Scott A - - 2013
Variation in voluntary exercise behavior is an important determinant of long-term human health. Increased physical activity is used as a preventative measure or therapeutic intervention for disease, and a sedentary lifestyle has generally been viewed as unhealthy. Predisposition to engage in voluntary activity is heritable and induces protective metabolic changes, ...
Raichlen David A - - 2013
The hunting and gathering lifestyle adopted by human ancestors around 2 Ma required a large increase in aerobic activity. High levels of physical activity altered the shape of the human body, enabling access to new food resources (e.g. animal protein) in a changing environment. Recent experimental work provides strong evidence ...
Smith Brennan K BK Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, 491 Gordon St., Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. - - 2013
In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as two subcellular populations known as subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. SS mitochondria preferentially respond to exercise training, suggesting divergent transcriptional control of the mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) have been ...
Hall Kara L - - 2013
Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of ...
Fedotovskaya O N - - 2013
Physical activity phenotypes are highly poligenic. Skeletal muscle-specific AMP deaminase isoform, encoded by AMPD1 gene, is stimulated after short-term highly intense exercise and is an important regulator of muscular energy metabolism in exercise. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms detected much lesser frequency of AMPD1 allele T and genotype TT ...
Hou Chien-Wen - - 2013
Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water ...
Hatch Gary E - - 2013
To determine the influence of exercise on pulmonary dose of inhaled pollutants, we compared biomarkers of inhaled ozone (O3) dose and toxic effect between exercise levels in humans, and between humans and rats. Resting human subjects were exposed to labeled O3 ((18)O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hours) and alveolar O3 ...
Agans Jennifer P - - 2013
Exercise and athletic participation are widely recognized as important aspects of healthy lifestyles and human development; yet most of the research on youth athletic participation, exercise, and leisure activity has not yet adopted a theoretical framework useful for understanding the development of individual engagement with these movement contexts. In order ...
Gladwell Valerie F - - 2013
The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review ...
Casiraghi Francesca - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) placed on the arm (SWA ARM) and on the back (SWA BACK) in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total ...
Maltseva D V - - 2012
The effects of 30-min medium-intensity exercise on the expression of genes encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) and its cochaperones HSP-70-binding protein 1 (HSPBP1) and Tag7 (PGLYRP1) in human leukocytes were studied. Transcription activities of HSPA1A and PGLYRP1 genes increased immediately after medium-intensity exercise, while activity of HSPBP1 gene remained ...
Raichlen David A DA School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. - - 2013
Endocannabinoids (eCB) are endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors that are densely expressed in brain networks responsible for reward. Recent work shows that exercise activates the eCB system in humans and other mammals, suggesting eCBs are partly responsible for the reported improvements in mood and affect following aerobic exercise in humans. ...
Kostic Milos D - - 2012
The assisted movement in humans with paresis of upper extremities is becoming popular for neurorehabilitation. We propose a novel method for trajectory selection and assistance control. This paper presents simulation of a planar two degrees of freedom robot that assists horizontal movement of the hand. The control assumes that during ...
Feros Simon A - - 2012
Rowing requires strength, power, and strength-endurance for optimal performance. A rowing based warm-up could be enhanced by exploiting the postactivation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon, acutely enhancing power output at the beginning of a race where it's needed most. Minimal research has investigated the effects of PAP on events of longer duration ...
Crow Justin F - - 2012
Crow, JF, Buttifant, D, Kearny, SG, and Hrysomallis, C. Low load exercises targeting the gluteal muscle group acutely enhance explosive power output in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 26(X): 000-000, 2012-The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of 3 warm-up protocols on peak power production ...
Gavin Timothy P - - 2012
Gavin, TP, Van Meter, JB, Brophy, PM, Dubis, GS, Potts, KN, and Hickner, RC. Comparison of a field-based test to estimate functional threshold power and power output at lactate threshold. J Strength Cond Res 25(X): 000-000, 2012-It has been proposed that field-based tests (FT) used to estimate functional threshold power ...
Galpin Andrew J - - 2012
Power is critical to muscle performance, specifically in athletic populations. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)) are intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that partially regulate exercise-induced skeletal muscle alterations. These pathways are highly responsive to exercise, but their reaction to ...
Hardee Justin P - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inter-repetition rest (IRR) on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in the power clean exercise in a multiple set protocol using peak power as an indication of fatigue. Ten resistance-trained males participated in four testing sessions which consisted of determination ...
Gundling Tom - - 2012
Since its inception in the early- to middle-nineteenth century, human origins studies have been informed by a variety of disciplines beyond physical anthropology and archaeology, most notably geology and biology. This study examines dramatic changes within human origins research that occurred in the mid-twentieth century largely as a consequence of ...
Brooks George A - - 2012
Human muscles, limbs and supporting ventilatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic systems are well adapted for walking, and there is reasonable transfer of efficiency of movement to bicycling. Our efficiency and economy of movement of bipedal walking (≈30%) are far superior to those of apes. This overall body efficiency during walking and ...
Suhr Frank - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human red blood cells (RBCs) was shown to depend on shear stress and to exhibit important biological functions, such as inhibition of platelet activation. In the present study we hypothesized that exercise-induced shear stress stimulates RBC-NOS activation pathways, NO signaling, ...
Comfort Paul - - 2011
Although previous research has been performed in similar areas of study, the optimal load for the development of peak power during training remains controversial, and this has yet to be established in collegiate level athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal load to achieve peak power ...
Mujika Iñigo - - 2011
The warm-up procedure in traditional rowing usually involves continuous low-intensity rowing and short bouts of intense exercise, lasting about 60 min. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a traditional and an experimental 30-min warm-up of lower intensity on indoor rowing time trial performance. METHODS: Fourteen highly-trained male rowers (age 25.9±5.3 ...
Glaister Mark - - 2011
The aims of this study were to evaluate perceptions of post-exercise recovery and to compare patterns of perceived recovery with those of several potential mediating physiological variables. 17 well-trained men (age: 22 ± 4 years; height: 1.83 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 78.9 ± 7.6 kg; and body fat: 11.1 ...
Pointon Monique - - 2011
This study examined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery of neuromuscular function following simulated team-sport exercise in the heat. Ten male team-sport athletes performed two sessions of a 2 × 30-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) in 32°C and 52% humidity, followed by a 20-min CWI intervention or passive recovery (CONT) ...
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