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Results 251 - 300 of 647
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Krishna Kumar R - - 2005
Removal of 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) groups from primary and secondary hydroxyl functionality was investigated. It was observed that deblocking of DMT group from secondary hydroxyl group of molecules attached to solid support under acidic conditions occurred relatively slowly compared to primary hydroxyl group. Marginal difference in rate of detritylation was observed ...
You S J - - 2005
In this study, the performance and microbial community in a submerged membrane bioreactor were investigated for different hydraulic retention times. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, suspended solid and heterotrophic bacteria did not differ significantly with different hydraulic retention times but the total nitrogen removal efficiency increased ...
Lakosi L - - 2005
A non-destructive method for assaying transuranic neutron sources was developed, using a combination of gamma-spectrometry and neutron correlation technique. Source strength or actinide content of a number of PuBe, AmBe, AmLi, (244)Cm, and (252)Cf sources was assessed, both as a safety issue and with respect to combating illicit trafficking. A ...
Sarjeant K C - - 2005
The effect of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and psychrotrophic bacteria on commercial chicken breast meat was evaluated. Fresh chicken breast meat was purchased from a local poultry processor, inoculated with 8 log10 cfu/mL Salmonella, packaged in Styrofoam trays and over wrapped with ...
Venning A J - - 2005
The effect of vacuum pumping on the dose response of the MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter has been investigated. A delay of several days post-manufacture before irradiation was previously necessary due to the slow oxygen scavenging of ascorbic acid. The MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter was vacuum pumped before gelation to remove ...
Ezeji Thaddeus C - - 2005
The effect of factors such as gas recycle rate, bubble size, presence of acetone, and ethanol in the solution/broth were investigated in order to remove butanol from model solution or fermentation broth (also called acetone butanol ethanol or ABE or solvents). Butanol (8 g L(-1), model solution, Fig. 2) stripping ...
Bonjoch Xavier - - 2005
Bifidobacteria are one of the main groups of bacteria found in the intestine of humans and other animals. They have been proposed as indicators to identify the source of fecal pollution, since certain Bifidobacterium spp. are found only in humans. However, species identification remains difficult, and has limited their practical ...
Makihara Eri - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the facial thermographic changes before and after low-level laser irradiation applied to the temporomandibular joint in normal subjects. BACKGROUND DATA: Although this therapy has been reported to be effective in the pain management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative ...
Zhang ZhiJian - - 2006
A laboratory-scale experiment presents data that reveal the temporal characteristics of solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the aerated liquid swine manure for minimizing odor generation potential during 190-day storage. The performance of 15-day aeration of liquid manure with initial total solids (TS) content from ...
Bhargava Swapnil - - 2005
For many years, high broth viscosity has remained a key challenge in large-scale filamentous fungal fermentations. In previous studies, we showed that broth viscosity could be reduced by pulsed addition of limiting carbon during fed-batch fermentation. The objective in this study was to determine how changing the frequency of pulsed ...
Leitão Renato Carrhá - - 2006
With the aim of improving knowledge about the stability and reliability of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, several researchers have studied the effects of operational or environmental variations on the performance of such reactors. In general, anaerobic reactors are affected by changes in external factors, but the severity of the effect ...
Sánchez E - - 2005
A study of anaerobic digestion of piggery wastewater was carried out in a laboratory-scale sludge bed reactor as a secondary treatment. The effect of organic volumetric loading rates (BV) in the range of 1.0-8.1 g TCOD/ld on the process performance was evaluated. The best results were obtained at BV equal ...
Barley R W - - 2005
An assessment of the rate of biomass production both of the reeds in the aerobic cells and the algae in the rock filters, which form the final stage in the series of treatment cells, has been undertaken. The biomass production for the reeds was found to be highest for the ...
Emery Richard J - - 2005
The degradation of triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) in water, a toxic compound typically found in effluents from the pharmaceutical industry, by means of ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz has been investigated with emphasis on the effect of various parameters on conversion and acute toxicity. Experiments were carried out at liquid volumes ...
Versteeg P A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate two factors possibly influencing incidence of gingival abrasion during toothbrushing: (1) the abrasiveness of a dentifrice and (2) the possible influence of feedback of oral sensory perception. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this purpose, two separate, single blind, randomized clinical experiments were performed. The ...
Masurat P - - 2005
AIMS: To characterize the biofilms in an interim wet storage system (CLAB) for spent nuclear fuel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Planktonic cells and biofilms were analysed with fluorescence microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The organisms in the biofilms were filamentous, consisting of sheaths with series of rod-shaped cells in ...
Oishi Koji - - 2005
Precise estimation of induced activities in concrete shields for high-energy accelerator facilities is one of the most important issues that need to be solved, not only for the reduction of exposure for workers, but also for the reduction of radioactive wastes. Irradiation experiments have been performed by using the 500 ...
Prendergast J - - 2005
A laboratory sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR), operated for a period of 158 days, was used to treat domestic-strength synthetic effluent. The biofilm reactor comprised a bulk fluid reactor, a biofilm plastic module, a synthetic wastewater feed tank, and pneumatic devices with pneumatic controls. The reactor cycle time was 8 ...
Antal T K - - 2005
AIMS: To examine sulphur (S) deprivation in combination with the presence of methane (CH4) and changes in extracellular pH as a method to enhance in situ hydrogen (H2) generation during fermentation in the unicellular non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa alpicola and Synechocystis PCC 6803. METHODS AND RESULTS: The level of H2 production, ...
Searcy E M L - - 2005
This study evaluated the performance of a lab-scale, closed bed biofilter for the removal of odour in off-gas released from an industrial fermentation facility. This off-gas was emitted from the facility periodically after the sterilization of fermentation medium. The lab scale biofilter was operated for over two months, totalling 30 ...
Hanhan O - - 2005
In this study the effect of retention time and rotation speed in the denitrification process in two full-scale rotating biological contactors (RBC) which were operated parallel and fed with municipal wastewater is evaluated. Each rotating biological contactor was covered to prevent oxygen input. The discs were 40% submerged. On the ...
Vazquez J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, cross-over clinical study was to compare the 4-h and overnight effects of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride (TCF-AF) dentifrice and a commercially available breath freshening (CBF) dentifrice containing fluoride for their ability to control H(2)S-forming bacteria. METHODS: Following a 1 week washout period of brushing with a ...
Donlan R M - - 2005
Legionella pneumophila will infect biofilm-associated protozoa, and in this way might be protected from disinfectants in potable water systems. A base biofilm containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Flavobacterium spp. was grown on steel coupons in potable water prior to the addition of L. pneumophila and the protozoan H. vermiformis. ...
Abhijit Deshpande - - 2005
Electrochemical oxidation of low (BOD/COD) ratio pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated in this study, using cast iron electrode. The batch experimental results were assessed in terms of COD and BOD concentration while the recalcitrance was monitored in terms of change in the (BOD/COD) ratio during the process. The effects of operating ...
Kadlec R H - - 2005
This paper presents information on the hydraulic efficiency of wetlands and ponds, and examines the differences and similarities between degrees of mixing, short-circuiting and dead zones. It reports the pollutant removal performance of over 50 wetlands and ponds over the range of macrophyte cover from 100% (densely vegetated wetlands) to ...
Wood Nelson - - 2005
There is recent interest in recovery of periodontopathogenic bacteria from arterial and bronchial tissues to identify a link between periodontal and cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. This interest could provide a useful clinical correlation exercise for gross anatomy. Our objective was to perform a feasibility study to determine whether these bacteria ...
Abira A - - 2005
The capacity of a pilot project subsurface flow constructed wetland in the tropics to remove phenol from pre-treated pulp and paper mill wastewater was studied under varying hydraulic retention times (HRT) with batch loading. Initial 15 months results indicate that removal efficiencies for phenol were variable but on average reached ...
Jeya M - - 2005
AIMS: To optimize the media components for xylanase production by Aspergillus versicolor MKU3 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Medium optimization was carried out using De Moe's fractional factorial design with seven components. Maximum production of xylanase 3249.9 U g(-1) was obtained in SSF with an optimized medium containing ...
Xu Tao - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to assess two different published methods of plaque level evaluation on human subjects, and to determine whether both methods can produce similar findings to the point that the methods can be used interchangeably. METHODOLOGY: Healthy human volunteers entered into a number of double-blind, ...
Cilurzo Francesco - - 2005
The effects of electron beam or gamma-irradiation on technological performances (capsule hardness, expressed as deforming work and dissolution time) of empty 2-shell capsules made of gelatin or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were studied. Capsule structural changes induced by radiation treatment were investigated by capillary viscometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The capsules ...
Bai F W - - 2004
The quasi-steady-states, marked by small fluctuations of residual glucose, ethanol, and biomass concentrations, and sustainable oscillations marked by big fluctuations of these monitored fermentation parameters were observed during the continuous ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when very high gravity media were fed and correspondingly high ethanol concentrations reached. A high ...
Min Booki - - 2004
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate ...
Muriana Peter - - 2004
Surface pasteurization for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated for radiant heat prepackage pasteurization, submersed water postpackage pasteurization, and combinations of the two techniques on various types of ready-to-eat deli turkey products obtained from at least four different manufacturers. Products were inoculated either by in-package liquid inoculum or surface sponge-contact ...
Green M - - 2004
The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating liquid dairy wastes by a vertical bed equipped with an innovative passive aeration system. The vertical bed (32 liter) was operated by recirculating consecutive batches of liquid waste in the column. Batches of liquid waste were applied at ...
Williams Malcolm I - - 2004
The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush (Colgate 360 degrees) to two commercially available manual toothbrushes (Oral-B Indicator and Oral-B CrossAction) and a battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush PRO) for their ability to reduce hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue. After ...
Safferman Steven I - - 2004
The need to improve on-site wastewater treatment processes is being realized as populations move into more environmentally sensitive regions and regulators adopt the total maximum daily load approach to watershed management. Under many conditions, septic systems do not provide adequate treatment; therefore, advanced systems are required. These systems must remove ...
Xu Xinhua - - 2004
Electro-coagulation was used to treat refectory wastewater with high oil and grease contents. Different operational conditions were examined, including pH, current density, reaction time, conductivity, electrode distance and inlet concentration. The optimum current density was 10-14 A m(-2) within 30 min depending on the wastewater properties tested. Conductivity had little ...
Trombelli L - - 2004
Evidence indicates that incisor crown form correlates with clinical periodontal features. It was hypothesized that incisor crown form may explain subject differences in gingivitis expression. The present experimental gingivitis study aimed to assess the effect of incisor crown form on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and on individual susceptibility to ...
Nikawa H - - 2004
The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri against one of the major cariogenic organism, Streptococcus mutans, was studied. Yogurt products containing L.reuteri showed a significant growth inhibitory effect against S. mutans, whilst yoghurts with lactobaccilli other than L. reuteri did not show such inhibition. Further, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that consuming yogurt ...
Massieux B - - 2004
We investigated the effects of copper on the structure and physiology of freshwater biofilm microbial communities. For this purpose, biofilms that were grown during 4 weeks in a shallow, slightly polluted ditch were exposed, in aquaria in our laboratory, to a range of copper concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 10 ...
Narihiro T - - 2004
Microbial populations in terms of quantity, quality, and activity were monitored during 2 months of start-up operation of commercially available composters for fed-batch treatment of household biowaste. All the reactors, operated at a waste-loading rate of 0.7 kg day(-1) (wet wt), showed a mass reduction efficiency of 88-93%. The core ...
Zhelev Zhivko - - 2004
The present study describes an impressive enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of low-temperature synthesized CdSe nanocrystals (75 degrees C) during long-term UV-irradiation. The integrated PL-intensity of CdSe core and CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, dispersed in chloroform, enhanced about 3 and 6 times, respectively, during 9 h exposure to UV-light, without ...
Bouchez J C - - 2004
This article describes a new method for the early detection of alcoholic fermentation arrest. This methodology is based on the flow cytometric assessment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts stained with a carboxyfluorescein diacetate fluorescent viability probe. Multicomponent analysis of viable cell distribution constitutes a promising new tool to describe physiological and ...
DoliƄiska Romualda - - 2004
Grains of the Polish winter wheat variety Begra were subjected to gamma-radiation (grain harvested in 1996) within the dose range of 0.05-10 kGy and microwave heating (grain harvested in 1997) from 28 degrees C to 98 degrees C. Later the grains were divided into two parts, the first was used ...
Schmidt Torsten C - - 2004
The fate of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the subsurface is governed by their degradability under various redox conditions. The key intermediate in degradation of MTBE and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) which was often found as accumulating intermediate or dead-end product in ...
Hall Mary B - - 2004
Current prediction equations were used to evaluate the effects of rates of fermentation of fiber or starch in individual feeds on amounts of carbohydrate fermented ruminally and milk yield responses. The small predicted increases in carbohydrate fermented and milk response associated with doubling the rates of fermentation suggest that current ...
Okunuki Suguru - - 2004
A lab-scale-enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactor was operated for 204 days to investigate the correlation between phosphorus removing performance and bacterial community structure. The phosphorus removing performance was good from day 1 to 92 and from day 172 to 204. However, the removal activity was in a deteriorated state ...
Ren Zhen - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This investigation was done in order to find optimal indocyanine green (ICG) concentration and energy irradiance in laser vascular welding. BACKGROUND DATA: Many studies have shown that laser tissue welding with albumin solder/ICG may be an effective technique in surgical reconstruction. However, there are few reports regarding optimal laser ...
Maskow Thomas - - 2004
The microbial conversion of toxic substrates into valuable products in continuous culture requires the equivalent of a tight rope walk between formation of the desired product and intoxication of the microbial catalyst. The condition of the latter is reflected immediately by changes in heat flow rate and beta-dispersion in an ...
Sari Emel - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different anti-inflammatory drugs on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume and on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels of the GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 36 extraction patients, aged 17.6 +/- 2.5 years (mean +/- standard deviation), were ...
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