Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 911
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Nguyen Duong Duy - - 2009
This study evaluated the treatment effects of vocal function exercises on muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in tonal language speakers. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Forty female primary school teachers from Northern Vietnam, diagnosed with MTD, were randomly allocated into a treatment group (n = 22), which used a full vocal ...
Krug Andrew Z - - 2009
The long-term effects of mass extinctions on spatial and evolutionary dynamics have been poorly studied. Here we show that the evolutionary consequences of the end-Cretaceous [Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg)] mass extinction persist in present-day biogeography. The geologic ages of genera of living marine bivalves show a significant break from a smooth exponential ...
Van Rooyen Patrick - - 2009
Pigeons were trained in a duration-comparison procedure to peck one key if the comparison duration (c) was 1 sec shorter than a standard duration (s), and another key if c was 1 sec longer than s. During training, the s-c delay was 1 sec, and the total duration of an ...
Pascual-Figal Domingo A DA Unidad de Insuficiencia Cardiaca, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, - - 2009
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is a marker of damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier that could be useful for monitoring functional impairment in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Dyspnea-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 43 outpatients with chronic HF (age 51[10] years, 77% male, left ventricular ejection fraction ...
Herbst Christian T - - 2010
The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether the ability to change the degree of posterior glottal adduction (PGA) during phonation can be acquired more easily with the aid of electroglottographic (EGG) real-time feedback. The subject was a 37-year-old untrained female with habitually breathy voice. Before the experiment, ...
Baptistella Eduardo - - 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate the deposition of collagen fibers at pig's vocal folds after topical use of mitomycin or 5-fluorouracil, when partial exeresis of mucosa layer had been promoted by CO2 laser. METHODS: There were used 18 Larger white pigs which were anesthetized and submitted to mucosa fragment's exeresis, bilaterally, at ...
Patterson Jeremy A JA Department of Human Performance Studies, Wichita State University , Wichita, Kansas, - - 2009
It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient) post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT) for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite ...
Nevin John A JA Department of Psychology, University of New Hampshire, NH, USA. - - 2009
Three experiments assessed the relation between the differential outcomes effect and resistance to change of delayed matching-to-sample performance. Pigeons produced delayed matching-to-sample trials by responding on variable interval schedules in two components of a multiple schedule. In the same-outcome component, the probability of reinforcement was the same for both samples ...
Pützer Manfred - - 2008
The effect of deep brain stimulation on the two speech-production subsystems, articulation and phonation, of nine Parkinsonian patients is examined. Production parameters (stop closure voicing; stop closure, VOT, vowel) in fast syllable-repetitions were defined and measured and quantitative, objective metrics of vocal fold function were obtained during vowel production. Speech ...
Jantzen Benjamin - - 2008
In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. ...
Kreiman Jody - - 2008
It is widely assumed that changes in open quotient (OQ) produce corresponding changes in H1(*)-H2(*), but empirical data supporting this relationship are scant. To provide such data, high-speed video images and audio signals were simultaneously recorded from six speakers producing the vowel i while varying F0 from high to low ...
Oh Eunjin - - 2008
This study aimed to explore the effects of varying speaking rate on voice onset time (VOT) of stops in Korean and to see whether contrasts among stop categories are maintained despite these variations. Plain, tense, and aspirated stops in CVn words (C = three stop places, V = three vowels) ...
Gorman Stephen - - 2008
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Voice therapy can improve the vocal quality of elderly patients with voice problems, but the changes in vocal aerodynamics associated with physiologic voice therapy are not well documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in vocal aerodynamics as a result of the management program ...
Di Rienzo M - - 2008
This study explored the process of arterial baroreflex adaptation to microgravity, starting from the first day of flight, during the 16-day STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle mission. Continuous blood pressure (BP), ECG, and respiratory frequency were collected in four astronauts on ground (baseline) and during flight at days 0-1, 6-7, and ...
Amorim Ricardo - - 2008
Some consequences of promoting the object of noncommutativity theta(ij) to an operator in Hilbert space are explored. Its canonical conjugate momentum is also introduced. Consequently, a consistent algebra involving the enlarged set of canonical operators is obtained, which permits us to construct theories that are dynamically invariant under the action ...
Sivasankar Mahalakshmi - - 2008
PURPOSE: Airway drying is detrimental to phonation and is posited to exacerbate vocal fatigue. However, limited research has demonstrated the adverse phonatory effects of dehydration in speakers reporting vocal fatigue. We compared the negative phonatory consequences of short-term oral breathing at low, moderate, and high humidity in individuals reporting a ...
Hullár I - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine whether L-carnitine and its precursor L-lysine could have any beneficial effect in racing pigeons, and if so, whether this effect is influenced by the extent of exercise (short-distance flight: 135 km vs. long-distance flight: 580 km). Birds were divided into seven groups ...
Ohrui Nobuhiro - - 2008
Included in the Cooperative Cope Thunder exercises from Japan to Alaska is one of the longest distance flight missions carried out by Japan Air-Self Defense Force F-15 pilots. The magnitude of the flight stress of these pilots is considered to be quite high. The purpose of this study was to ...
Murray Kathleen - - 2008
Attempts to train a computer to mimic a vocal pathology expert's perception of perceivable voice problems have had limited success. A recent study successfully used a Cepstrum-based calculation (CPPs) to detect dysphonic speech, but it made significant false negative and false positive errors [1]. Appropriate training data could improve calculation ...
Wei Jianguo - - 2008
Inter-subject normalization is a key issue of group analysis of articulatory data to obtain a general description of kinematic properties of human speech production. Multisubject articulatory study however is scarce due to the difficulty of normalization in articulatory domain. In order to reduce intersubject variations among articulatory space, a simple ...
Winn Matthew - - 2008
This study provides new native speaker data regarding the vowel space and duration contrasts of Vietnamese monophthongs. These data add to existing empirical accounts and raise questions about descriptions aimed at adult language learners. In addition, specific acoustic measures target difficulties that English-speaking adults encounter when producing Vietnamese vowels. These ...
Kob Malte - - 2008
The girl's day is an annual event for young female pupils who wish to have their own experiences during a day in a potential future work place. In our department a team of 19 phoniatricians, speech therapists, phoneticians, engineers, audiometrists and assistants works on diagnosis and therapy of disorders of ...
Easterling Caryn - - 2008
Age-related sarcopenia or muscle wasting contributes to changes in the ability to perform activities of daily living, changes in deglutition, and changes in vocal function. The Shaker Exercise, an isometric and isokinetic exercise, has been shown to strengthen suprahyoid muscles and increase deglutitive anteroposterior (AP) upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening ...
Kędzierski W - - 2008
The effect of acute exercise was studied in a group of 42 clinically healthy young Standardbred trotters. These trotters had been divided into four groups according to their age. Their ages were from 1.5 to 3 years. Three jugular venous blood samples were collected via venipuncture from each horse. These ...
Chiang W C - - 2008
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is an uncommon condition which often mimics asthma in presentation and severity. We present nine- and 11-year-old female siblings with vocal cord dysfunction, which is a dysfunction of the larynx involving unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration. We evaluated the use of exercise ...
Titze Ingo I National Center for Voice and Speech, The Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Denver, Colorado, USA. - - 2008
Nonlinear source-filter coupling has been demonstrated in computer simulations, in excised larynx experiments, and in physical models, but not in a consistent and unequivocal way in natural human phonations. Eighteen subjects (nine adult males and nine adult females) performed three vocal exercises that represented a combination of various fundamental frequency ...
Zoidis Ann M - - 2008
Although humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves are reported to vocalize, this has not been measurably verified. During March 2006, an underwater video camera and two-element hydrophone array were used to record nonsong vocalizations from a mother-calf escort off Hawaii. Acoustic data were analyzed; measured time delays between hydrophones provided bearings ...
Manabe Kazuchika K Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, - - 2008
Budgerigars were trained to produce specific vocalizations (calls) using operant conditioning and food reinforcement. The bird's call was compared to a digital representation of the call stored in a computer to determine a match. Once birds were responding at a high level of precision, we measured the effect of several ...
Logan James G - - 2008
It is known that human individuals show different levels of attractiveness to mosquitoes. In this study, we investigated the chemical basis for low attractiveness. We recorded behaviors of Aedes aegypti toward the hands of human volunteers and toward the volatile chemicals produced by their bodies. Some individuals, and their corresponding ...
Triblehorn J D - - 2008
Through staged free-flight encounters between echolocating bats and praying mantids, we examined the effectiveness of two potential predator-evasion behaviors mediated by different sensory modalities: (1) power dive responses triggered by bat echolocation detected by the mantis ultrasound-sensitive auditory system, and (2) ;last-ditch' maneuvers triggered by bat-generated wind detected by the ...
Welch Kenneth C KC - - 2008
It is thought that the capacity of mammals to directly supply the energetic needs of exercising muscles using recently ingested fuels is limited. Humans, for example, can only fuel about 30%, at most, of exercise metabolism with dietary sugar. Using indirect calorimetry, i.e. measurement of rates of O(2) consumption and ...
Tamplin Jeanette - - 2008
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of vocal exercises and singing on intelligibility and speech naturalness for subjects with acquired dysarthria following traumatic brain injury or stroke. A multiple case study design was used, involving pre, mid, and post-treatment assessments of intelligibility, rate, naturalness, and pause time for ...
Hohlrieder Matthias - - 2008
The planning and execution of avalanche rescue missions to search for totally buried avalanche victims are mostly based on personal experience and preference, as evidence-based information from literature is almost completely missing. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify major factors determining the survival probability of totally buried ...
Kazi Rehan - - 2008
Twenty-seven total laryngectomy patients (19 males and 8 females) and 18 normal control subjects (10 males and 8 females) were subjected to electroglottography-based single voice recordings using sustained vowels and connected speech. The results showed poorer values and larger variability for all the voice measures for the total laryngectomy patients ...
Tanno Takayuki - - 2008
This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same rate of reinforcement. Response rates were higher under the VR ...
Kikukawa Azusa - - 2008
There are few in-flight studies of cognition-related cerebral oxygen status in helicopter pilots. Four male helicopter pilots volunteered for nine sorties during visual flight in a BK117 and UH-60J. The pilots' pre-frontal oxy-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentration were continuously monitored from the right/left sections of the forehead using near-infrared ...
Chivers Laura L - - 2008
Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n=15) or 14 (n=3) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, ...
Orlikoff Robert F - - 2008
Although effort closure techniques have a long history in the treatment of hypofunctional and psychogenic voice disorders, there have been surprisingly few studies of their specific laryngeal and phonatory effects. The present study was designed to provide preliminary data on physiologic changes in voice production associated with a weightlifting and ...
Butler Jolene A JA Research & Development, Edward Hines, Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, - - 2008
To test the reliability and validity of a physical activity instrument adapted for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI), the Physical Activity Instrument-SCI (PAI-SCI). Eligible participants completed the adapted PAI-SCI questionnaire at baseline and 1 week later. At baseline, they were also given an Actical accelerometer to wear on their ...
Baker Susan P SP Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2008
Many interventions have been implemented in recent decades to reduce pilot error in flight operations. This study aims to identify longitudinal trends in the prevalence and patterns of pilot error and other factors in U.S. air carrier mishaps. National Transportation Safety Board investigation reports were examined for 558 air carrier ...
Ruta Marcello - - 2007
As the most diverse group of early tetrapods, temnospondyls provide a unique opportunity to investigate cladogenetic patterns among basal limbed vertebrates. We present five species-level supertrees for temnospondyls, built using a variety of methods. The standard MRP majority rule consensus including minority components shows slightly greater resolution than other supertrees, ...
Kyonka Elizabeth G E - - 2008
Four pigeons responded in a concurrent-schedule procedure in which reinforcer rates and magnitudes changed unpredictably across sessions according to independent random series. Programmed relative reinforcement rates and magnitudes were always either 2:1 or 1:2. Pigeons' response allocation tended to stabilize within sessions and multiple regression analyses showed that it was ...
Watenpaugh Donald E - - 2007
Orthostatic intolerance follows actual weightlessness and weightlessness simulated by bed rest. Orthostasis immediately after acute exercise imposes greater cardiovascular stress than orthostasis without prior exercise. We hypothesized that 5 min/day of simulated orthostasis [supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP)] immediately following LBNP exercise maintains orthostatic tolerance during bed rest. Identical ...
Otsuka Yasutami - - 2007
This study investigated the flight responses induced by strenuous aerobatic demonstration flight and an air-to-air combat maneuvering flight in experienced pilots. Subjects were 54 military male pilots on a volunteer basis: 8 T-4 pilots (M= 35.8 yr., SD=4.9), 15 F-4 pilots (M=32.6 yr., SD=5.1), 13 F-15 pilots (M=33.8 yr., SD=1.0), ...
Hammond Sarah - - 2007
There are two modes of flight initiation in Drosophila melanogaster-escape and voluntary. Although the circuitry underlying escape is accounted for by the Giant fibre (GF) system, the system underlying voluntary flight initiation is unknown. The GF system is functionally complete before the adult fly ecloses, but immature adults initially fail ...
Pelletier David - - 2007
Although the adaptive value of flight may seem obvious, it is the most difficult behaviour of birds to monitor. Here, we describe a technique to quantify the frequency and the duration of flights over several months by implanting a data logger that records heart rate (fH), hydrostatic pressure (diving depth) ...
Lee Stuart M C - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Exercise capacity is reduced after both short- and long-duration exposures to microgravity. Previously, we have documented that supine treadmill exercise within lower-body negative pressure (LBNP(ex)) maintains upright exercise responses in men after 5 and 15 d of bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this ...
Hamdan A-L - - 2008
(1) To examine the vocal symptoms and acoustic changes perceived in the short period immediately after laryngeal mask airway, and (2) to compare these findings in patients using laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. A total of 27 patients were enrolled. They were evaluated pre-operatively and then at 2 and ...
Kelly Paul T - - 2007
Assessing the requirements for in-flight oxygen in passengers with pulmonary limitations can be a challenging task for clinicians. Aeromedical guidelines are available to help identify passengers that may require oxygen in flight. However, little is known about the actual in-flight response to passengers on oxygen. We measured the oxygen response ...
Edgar Julia - - 2008
Singers will often refrain from eating a meal before a performance because they believe it will interfere with breath support. As there are no objective data to support or refute this belief, the purpose of this study was to obtain pre- and postmeal data from professional and amateur singers to ...
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