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Results 301 - 350 of 922
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Engan Harald K - - 2012
Acute dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation has been reported to lower resting blood pressure, reduce the oxygen (O(2)) cost of sub-maximal exercise, and improve exercise tolerance. Given the proposed effects of NO(3)(-) on tissue oxygenation and metabolic rate, it is possible that NO(3)(-) supplementation might enhance the duration of resting apnea. ...
Minshull Claire - - 2012
Abstract This study examined the concurrent effects of exercise-induced muscle damage and superimposed acute fatigue on the neuromuscular activation performance of the knee flexors of nine males (age: 26.7±6.1 years; height 1.81±0.05 m; body mass 81.2±11.7 kg [mean±s]). Measures were obtained during three experimental conditions: (i) 'fatigue-muscle damage', involving acute ...
Strak Maciej - - 2012
Background. Specific characteristics of particulate matter (PM) responsible for associations with respiratory health observed in epidemiological studies are not well established. High correlations among and differential measurement errors of individual components contribute to this uncertainty. Objectives. Investigate which PM characteristics have the most consistent associations with acute changes in respiratory ...
Smith Douglas C - - 2012
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are likely to benefit from regular exercise, but physical inactivity is more common among people with MS than among the general population. This small randomized study evaluated whether motivational interviewing (MI) affects adherence to and personal experience in an exercise program. Inactive people with MS ...
Tang Clarice Y - - 2012
: To determine whether an early rehabilitation program was safe and feasible for patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). : In this phase 1 randomized controlled trial, patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the hospital were randomly allocated to a low-intensity exercise ...
Lane A D - - 2012
Aortic reservoir function is a measure of the aorta's ability to distribute blood during diastole, attenuating the pulsatility of blood flow, and is important in balancing cardiac flow. Effects of acute high versus moderate exercise intensity on reservoir function and cardiac energetics is unknown. Eighteen athletes completed a interval (INT) ...
Wilkerson Daryl P - - 2012
Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve short distance time trial (TT) performance by 1-3 % in club-level cyclists. It is not known if these ergogenic effects persist in longer endurance events or if dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance performance to the same extent in better trained individuals. Eight well-trained ...
Mitchell Cameron J - - 2012
We have reported that the acute postexercise increases in muscle protein synthesis rates, with differing nutritional support, are predictive of longer-term training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we aimed to test whether the same was true with acute exercise-mediated changes in muscle protein synthesis. Eighteen men (21 ± 1 yr, 22.6 ± ...
Barna Bárbara F - - 2012
During exercise, intense brain activity orchestrates an increase in muscle tension. Additionally, there is an increase in cardiac output and ventilation to compensate the increased metabolic demand of muscle activity and to facilitate the removal of CO(2) from and the delivery of O(2) to tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis ...
Jiang Meng - - 2012
The early- to mid-term impact of bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMC) on diastolic function and exercise capacity after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains controversial. We performed a systematic analysis to assess whether BMC transfer is related to an early improvement in diastolic function and exercise capacity after AMI. Randomized controlled trials ...
Fogarty Mark C - - 2012
Pharmacological antioxidant vitamins have previously been investigated for a prophylactic effect against exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, large doses are often required and may lead to a state of pro-oxidation and oxidative damage. Watercress contains an array of nutritional compounds such as β-carotene and α-tocopherol which may increase protection against exercise-induced ...
Dalbo Vincent J - - 2012
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of pre-exercise ingestion of protein, carbohydrate, and a non-caloric placebo on serum concentrations of insulin and cortisol, and the intramuscular gene expression of myostatin- and ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related genes following a bout of resistance exercise. METHODS: Ten ...
Donges Cheyne E - - 2012
We determined myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), intramuscular signaling protein phosphorylation, and mRNA expression responses after isolated bouts of resistance exercise (RE), aerobic exercise (AE), or in combination [termed concurrent exercise (CE)] in sedentary middle-aged men. Eight subjects (age = 53.3 ± 1.8 yr; body mass index ...
Rossow Lindy M - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine (i) the cardiovascular responses to acute blood-flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise and (ii) the influence of applied BFR cuff type on the cardiovascular and perceptual responses. In a randomized, crossover design, 27 participants wore either a 5·0 cm wide elastic cuff or a 13·5 cm ...
Halvorsen Silje - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic dance on cardiorespiratory fitness in pregnant women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two primiparous women with a mean age of 30.6 [standard deviation (SD) 3.7] years randomised to exercise (n=34) and (n=28) control groups. INTERVENTION: Two aerobic dance classes per week and 30 ...
Goodall Stuart - - 2012
Inadequate cerebral O₂ availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be ...
Sharafi Hossein - - 2012
ABSTRACT:: Sharafi, H, and Rahimi, R. The effect of resistance exercise on p53, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in trained and untrained men. J Strength Cond Res 26(4): 1142-1148, 2012-Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that has been demonstrated in human and animal studies and plays an essential role to remove injured ...
Newlin Mia K - - 2012
To investigate the effects of acute exercise on serum hepcidin and iron (sFe) in active women. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, ferritin, and sFe in response to 2 different exercise durations were compared. Twelve women age 19-32 yr performed 2 treadmill runs (60 and 120 min) at 65% of VO2max. ...
Menon Manoj K - - 2012
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Quadriceps dysfunction in COPD may be mediated by inflammatory mechanisms or impaired satellite cell function. Resistance training is of proven efficacy in these patients, but data on muscle inflammatory and satellite cell response to resistance exercise in COPD is lacking. We aimed to examine the inflammatory and satellite cell ...
Fernandez-Gonzalo Rodrigo - - 2012
This study aimed to investigate the response of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway to an acute bout of eccentric exercise, and to assess whether eccentric training attenuated the effects induced by acute eccentric exercise. Twenty men (22.4 ± 0.5 yr) were divided into a control group (CG, n ...
Lundberg Tommy R - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study assessed the influence of an acute aerobic exercise bout on molecular responses to subsequent resistance exercise. METHODS: Nine physically active men performed ∼45 min one-legged cycle ergometry exercise, and 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions for each leg 6 hrs later. Thus, one limb was subjected ...
Mestre-Alfaro Antonia - - 2012
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of whole body heat in combination with exercise on the oxidative stress and acute phase immune response. Nine male endurance-trained athletes volunteered performed two running bouts of 45 min at 75-80% of VO2max in a climatic chamber in two ...
Liu Sam - - 2012
PURPOSE: Aerobic exercise is recommended as way to prevent hypertension. However, about 25% of the individuals receive minimal anti-hypertensive benefits associated with chronic exercise training. Thus, we attempt to identify those "non-responders" to chronic exercise based on their blood pressure (BP) responses to acute exercise (single-session). Our primary objective is ...
Barrès Romain - - 2012
DNA methylation is a covalent biochemical modification controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Exercise elicits gene expression changes that trigger structural and metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. We determined whether DNA methylation plays a role in exercise-induced gene expression. Whole genome methylation was decreased in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy ...
Roden M - - 2012
There is now evidence that a single bout of endurance (aerobic) or resistance exercise reduces 24 h post-exercise subcutaneous glucose profiles to the same extent in insulin-resistant humans with or without type 2 diabetes. However, it remains to be determined which group would benefit most from specific exercise protocols, particularly ...
Moreira Alexandre - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of (a) a drop jump protocol with 1 set/5 repetitions and (b) a drop jump protocol with 2 sets/5 repetitions on countermovement jump height performance in volleyball players at recovery times of (a) 2 min, (b) 6 min, ...
Chang Y K - - 2012
There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive function. This literature has been reviewed both narratively and meta-analytically and, although the ...
Cywińska Anna - - 2012
Acute phase proteins (APP) have been described as useful for assessing health in human and animal patients, as they closely reflect the acute phase reaction (APR). In humans and dogs a reaction analogous to APR has also been described after prolonged or strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was ...
Shave Rob - - 2012
Prolonged endurance exercise in humans has been associated with an acute impairment in diastolic and systolic cardiac function and the release of cardiac troponin. In this chapter, we review recent evidence from studies using novel echocardiographic parameters and highly sensitive cardiac troponin assays. We demonstrate that the mechanics of left ...
Simão Roberto - - 2012
Resistance training (RT) is now an integral component of a well rounded exercise programme. For a correct training prescription, it is of the utmost importance to understand the interaction among training variables, such as the load, volume, rest interval between sets and exercises, frequency of sessions, exercise modality, repetition velocity ...
Gundermann David M DM The Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Dept. of Nutrition and Metabolism, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, 301 Univ. Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-1124, - - 2012
Blood flow restriction (BFR) to contracting skeletal muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size in humans. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are largely unknown. We have previously shown that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) are stimulated following ...
Barnett Fiona - - 2012
BACKGROUND: This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states. METHODS: Twenty five sedentary younger (mean age 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute ...
Grachtrup Sabine - - 2012
Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is secreted by cardiac ventricular myocytes upon pressure and volume overload and is a prognostic marker to monitor the severity of precapillary pulmonary hypertension and the extent of right heart failure. Objectives: The impact of physical exercise on NT-proBNP levels in patients with left ...
Simic L - - 2012
We applied a meta-analytical approach to derive a robust estimate of the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching (SS) on strength, power, and explosive muscular performance. A computerized search of articles published between 1966 and December 2010 was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases. A total of ...
Iglesias-Soler E - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to compare acute mechanical and metabolic effects of 2 sessions of resistance training equated by volume and total resting time but with different set configuration: sets to failure (FS) vs. distribution of rest between each repetition (NFS). 10 male judoists completed a session consisting ...
Terzis Gerasimos - - 2012
Terzis, G, Karampatsos, G, Kyriazis, T, Kavouras, SA, and Georgiadis, G. Acute effects of countermovement jumping and sprinting on shot put performance. J Strength Cond Res 26(3): 684-690, 2012-The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of countermovement jumping and sprinting on shot put performance in experienced ...
Kon Michihiro - - 2012
Kon, M, Ikeda, T, Homma, T, and Suzuki, Y. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise under acute systemic hypoxia on hormonal responses. J Strength Cond Res 26(3): 611-617, 2012-Previous studies have shown that low-intensity resistance exercises with vascular occlusion and slow movement effectively increase muscular size and strength. Researchers have speculated ...
Kiyici F - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in soccer players after speed exercise. This study was carried out on 18 soccer players who do regular sports activities and are healthy. ...
Di Michele R - - 2012
This study aimed to assess the mechanical and metabolic responses of competitive runners throughout a high-intensity circuit training (HICT) workout, designed to improve explosive strength under acute metabolic fatigue. Eight high-level endurance runners (age: 21.8±3.7 y; body mass: 61.5±5.7 kg; height: 175.2±5.2 cm; 1500-m record: 3 min 54±7s) completed an ...
Nagrale Amit Vinayak - - 2012
Previous case reports, case series, and pilot studies have suggested that slump stretching may enhance the effects of spinal mobilization and stabilization exercises in patients with non-radicular low back pain (NRLBP). The purpose of this trial was to determine if slump stretching results in improvements in pain, disability, and fear ...
Singer Elisabeth - - 2012
This study sought to determine possible effects of different antiplatelet therapies on walking exercise performance in intermittent claudication. Aspirin, in contrast to clopidogrel, interferes with processes that increase collateral conductance in an ischemic animal model. Patients with stable intermittent claudication were recruited from 21 centers in Switzerland and Germany and ...
Hyodo Kazuki - - 2012
A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect ...
Tardioli Alex - - 2012
IntroductionTendons are metabolically active structures, and their biochemical, biomechanical and structural properties adapt to chronic exercise. However, abnormal adaptations may lead to the development of tendinopathy and pain. Acute and subacute adaptations might contribute to tendon pathology.Sources of dataA systematic search of peer-reviewed articles was performed using a wide range ...
Bade Michael J - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous studies on rehabilitation following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrated limited efficacy in increasing long-term outcomes. More recently, several rehabilitation approaches have demonstrated greater efficacy for increasing long-term strength and functional performance outcomes following TKA. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), applied to the surgical limb's quadriceps ...
Adlam David D Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, - - 2012
Clinical markers of cardiac autonomic function, such as heart rate and response to exercise, are important predictors of cardiovascular risk. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for enzymes with roles in cardiac autonomic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase. Synthesis of BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase I ...
Fukuda Taira - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the precise pattern of stroke volume (SV) response during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) compared with age-matched controls. Fourteen patients with CHF and 7 controls performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise testing with respiratory gas exchange measurement. Patients were classified into ...
Barros Marcelo P - - 2012
Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of ...
Freidenreich Daniel J - - 2012
Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or ...
Broderick Gordon - - 2012
Complex disorders like Gulf War Illness (GWI) often defy diagnosis on the basis of a single biomarker and may only be distinguishable by considering the coexpression of multiple markers measured in response to a challenge. We demonstrate the practical application of such an approach using an example where blood was ...
Neubauer Henning - - 2012
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases and is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Although the pulmonary and gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease remain in the focus of treatment, recent studies have shown expression of the CFTR gene product in skeletal muscle cells and ...
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