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Robleto Karla - - 2004
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were presented with 7 daily sessions of tone-alone training after conditioning. Before the beginning of each of the first 4 extinction sessions, an artificial tear solution or tetracaine hydrochloride was administered to the cornea of rabbits in the control group (n = 6) and experimental group (n ...
Lind Johan - - 2004
Migrating birds must accumulate fuel during their journeys and this fuel load should incur an increased risk of predation. Migratory fuelling should increase individual mass-dependent predation risk for two reasons. First, acquisition costs are connected to the increased time a bird must spend foraging to accumulate the fuel loads and ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2004
Twenty-four females (mean age 38 years) with varying amounts of vocal training read aloud from a book for 45 min (70 dB at 40 cm distance). Symptoms of the throat and voice were ascertained with a questionnaire before, during and after the test. Fundamental frequency (F(0)) and sound pressure level ...
Riede Tobias - - 2004
Ring doves vocalize with their beaks and nostrils closed, exhaling into inflatable chambers in the head and neck region. The source sound produced at the syrinx contains a fundamental frequency with prominent second and third harmonic overtones, but these harmonics are filtered out of the emitted signal. We show by ...
Hirano Shigeru - - 2004
Vocal fold scarring remains a therapeutic challenge. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has strong antifibrotic activity and has proved to have therapeutic potential in restoration of scar tissues such as liver cirrhosis and lung fibrosis. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of HGF injection into scarred vocal folds in ...
Hambly C - - 2004
The effect of experimentally increased wing loading on the energy cost of flight was examined in cockatiels Nyphicus hollandicus. Five individuals were flown for periods of approximately 2 min, while carrying additional payload mass amounting to between 5 and 20% of unloaded body mass. The energy cost of flight was ...
Carding P N - - 2004
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity to change of three commonly used acoustic parameters as measured by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Programme (MDVP); jitter, shimmer and noise-to-harmonic ratio. A total of 231 subjects' voices were recorded and analysed. The sample comprised 145 dysphonic patients who received intervention (surgery ...
Hambly C - - 2004
Asymmetry is a difference in the sizes of bilaterally paired structures. Wing asymmetry may have an effect on the kinematics of flight, with knock-on effects for the energetic cost of flying. In this study the 13C-labelled bicarbonate technique was used to measure the energy expended during the flight of zebra ...
Schleich Cristian Eric - - 2004
Theoretical signaling models predict that to be honest, begging vocalizations must be costly. To test this hypothesis, oxygen consumption was measured during resting and begging (i.e., vocalizing) activities in pups of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum by means of open-flow respirometry. No statistical differences in individual oxygen consumption between resting ...
Bridge Eli S - - 2004
Large and medium-sized alcids have a very intense wing molt wherein many flight feathers are shed in rapid succession and wing surface area is reduced by as much as 40%. Although these birds are rendered flightless during wing molt, they must still use their wings to propel themselves underwater. A ...
Fallon K E - - 2004
This case concerns an elite road cyclist who complained of occasional dyspnoea and inspiratory difficulty during intense exercise. Clinical examination was normal and the final diagnosis was vocal cord dysfunction, a paradoxical closure of the vocal cords during inspiration which is highly associated with inspiratory stridor at high rates of ...
Moors Hilary B - - 2004
Many vocalizations produced by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are made up of repeated individual distinct sounds (elements). Patterning of multiple element calls was examined during the breeding season at Casey and Davis, Antarctica. Element and interval durations were measured from 405 calls all > 3 elements in length. The duration ...
Kozlovskaya Inessa B - - 2004
The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close ...
Gottlieb Daniel A - - 2004
Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% ...
Blomeley Frances J - - 2004
Four rats received training on a mixed FI 30-s FI 150-s schedule, where the different FI values were associated with different levers. During baseline, the reinforcer was a 30% concentration of condensed milk. During subsequent testing sessions, the reinforcer concentration was varied within sessions over values of 10, 30, 50, ...
Caiani E G - - 2004
Aim of the study was to evaluate by transthoracic Doppler the alterations in mitral inflow velocity pattern caused by acute changes in loading conditions occurring during parabolic flights. Each parabola included normogravity (1 Gz, 1 min), mild hypergravity (1.8 Gz, 20 sec), microgravity (0 Gz, 24 sec) and mild hypergravity ...
Popov D V - - 2004
The efficacy of countermeasure exercise for diminishing disturbances induced by microgravity in motor system and its visceral supply during different stages of long-duration flight was evaluated. The results of both bicycle and locomotor testing indicate that physical fitness of cosmonaut does not become worse in the course of the long-duration ...
Reilly Nicole - - 2004
We sought to profile the voice acoustical correlates of simulated, or feigned depression by neurologically and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. We also sought to identify the voice acoustical correlates of feigned sleepiness for these same subjects. Twenty-two participants were asked to speak freely about a cartoon, to count from 1 ...
Tafforin Carole - - 2004
This new ethological study focuses on the co-adaptation of the crew's spatial behavior to social isolation in a polar base thus simulating long-term living and working of a space team. The method consisted in drawing the subjects' position (n=13) on an observation map at the midday and evening meals at ...
Tautz Juergen - - 2004
Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion) that is experienced during flight. One ...
Brownlee Donald E - - 2004
Images taken by the Stardust mission during its flyby of 81P/Wild 2 show the comet to be a 5-kilometer oblate body covered with remarkable topographic features, including unusual circular features that appear to be impact craters. The presence of high-angle slopes shows that the surface is cohesive and self-supporting. The ...
Suthers Roderick A - - 2004
Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms ...
Blaber Andrew P - - 2004
Upon return from space many astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation due to spaceflight with further evidence to suggest that there might be pre-flight autonomic indicators of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. We used heart rate variability (HRV) to determine whether autonomic regulation of the ...
Nelson Emily S - - 2004
Experiments are sent to space laboratories in order to take advantage of the low-gravity environment. However, it is crucial to appreciate the distinction between the real microgravity environment and "weightlessness" or "simulated microgravity". The microgravity in space laboratories may be of much smaller magnitude than the gravitational acceleration on earth. ...
Smith Suzanne D - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Human vibration exposure data relative to military tactical and strategic aircraft operations are required for assessing the potential health risks and performance consequences when using helmet-mounted equipment. The objective of this study was to characterize cockpit seat and pilot helmet vibration in a jet aircraft during aircraft carrier flight ...
Roberts Stephen P - - 2004
We assessed the energetic and aerodynamic limits of hovering flight in the carpenter bee Xylocopa varipuncta. Using normoxic, variable-density mixtures of O(2), N(2) and He, we were able to elicit maximal hovering performance and aerodynamic failure in the majority of bees sampled. Bees were not isometric regarding thorax mass and ...
Greenleaf John E - - 2004
Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million ...
Albery William B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Modern, thrust-vectored jet aircraft have the capability of developing multi-axis accelerations, especially during the performance of "supermaneuvers." These "agile" aircraft are capable of unconventional flight. The human consequences of this agile flight environment are unknown. METHODS: This multi-axis acceleration environment was studied on the Dynamic Environment Simulator gimbaled centrifuge. ...
Shull Richard L - - 2004
By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of tile variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was ...
Sivasankar Mahalakshmi - - 2003
Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (Pth) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is ...
Erickson Molly L - - 2003
Clients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) tend to exhibit inter- and intraclient variability of signs and symptoms. This variability may result in inaccurate assessment of severity. Accurate assessment of severity requires knowledge concerning the factors that affect the expression of ADSD signs and symptoms. This study examined ADSD sign expression ...
Mittermayr Markus - - 2003
BACKGROUND: More than 1.5 billion passengers travel by aircraft every year. Leg edema, as a sign of venous stasis, is a well-known problem among passengers during and after long-haul flights. Until now, no studies have been done on the development of leg edema and fluid shifts under real flight conditions. ...
Allan G Michael - - 2003
Decompression illness (DCI) can occur in a variety of contexts, including scuba diving and flight in nonpressurized aircraft. It is characterized by joint pain, neurologic injury, and respiratory or constitutional symptoms. To prepare flight crews for accidental decompression events, the Canadian Armed Forces regularly conducts controlled and supervised depressurization exercises ...
Giannini A - - 2003
We present evidence, based on an ensemble of integrations with NSIPP1 (version 1 of the atmospheric general circulation model developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in the framework of the Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project) forced only by the observed record of sea surface temperature from 1930 to 2000, to suggest ...
Lee Yung-Hui - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Assessment of pilot workload during flight is an important aviation safety consideration. The aim of this study was to assess inflight pilot workload using both physiological and multidimensional subjective-ratings measurements (heart rate and NASA Task Load Index, respectively), comparing relative sensitivity during the four phases of flight: take-off, cruise, ...
Brown J R - - 2003
The role of proper flight line positioning was demonstrated to be critical for maximizing product efficacy when spraying in crosswinds by small-droplet spray strategies. Characterization studies indicated clearly that aircraft height, small drop emission distribution, and the ambient winds combine to dilute the spray cloud before impacting surface targets. A ...
Nightingale C C Eastman Dental Hospital, London, UK. - - 2003
To investigate the force retention, and rates of space closure achieved by elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. Randomized clinical trial. Eastman Dental Hospital, London and Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, 1998-2000. Twenty-two orthodontic patients, wearing the pre-adjusted edgewise appliance undergoing space closure in opposing quadrants, using sliding mechanics ...
- - 2003
EDs increasingly allow camera crews to videotape patients and staff for commercial productions, but even those who have had positive experiences caution that such projects are tricky. They require tight controls and oversight. Closely control the camera crew's movement and activities. Retain complete control over what may be videotaped and ...
Munin Michael C - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in predicting recovery after vocal fold paralysis and to determine what elements of laryngeal electromyography are most predictive of outcome. DESIGN: Cohort study with retrospective data review. SETTING: University voice center. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive sample of 31 patients with vocal fold paralysis diagnosed ...
Yiu Edwin M L - - 2003
Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is ...
Hawkey Adam - - 2003
As a direct consequence of exposure to microgravity, astronauts experience a set of physiological changes which can have serious medical implications when they return to earth. Most immediate and significant are the headward shift of body fluids and the removal of gravitational loading from bone and muscles, which lead to ...
Schneider Berit - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to objectify the vocal outcome in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Acoustic parameters were evaluated and compared to perceptual voice sound assessments before and after medialization thyroplasty using the titanium vocal fold medialization implant (TVFMI). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Twenty-eight patients underwent external medialization ...
Motel Tamara - - 2003
Vocal warm-up is thought to optimize singing performance. We compared effects of short-term, submaximal, vocal warm-up exercise with those of vocal rest on the soprano voice (n = 10, ages 19-21 years). Dependent variables were the minimum subglottic air pressure required for vocal fold oscillation to occur (phonation threshold pressure, ...
Dromey Christopher - - 2003
The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate ...
Hawkey Adam - - 2003
As a direct consequence of exposure to microgravity astronauts experience a number of physiological changes, which can have serious medical implications when they return to Earth. Most immediate and significant are the head-ward shift of body fluids and the removal of gravitational loading from bone and muscles, which lead to ...
Kimura Miwako - - 2003
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Many existing studies of vocal fold geometry are based on anatomical measurements made on histologically fixed laryngeal tissues using formalin. However, the validity of these geometric data is questionable because of the potentially significant tissue deformation associated with formalin fixation, particularly tissue shrinkage. Previous experiments have shown that valid ...
Milbrath Rochelle L - - 2003
Vocal warm-up (WU) exercises of varying types and durations have been suggested as a way of improving vocal function. However, limited research has been conducted to assess the effects of vocal WU exercises on normal or disordered voices. This study attempted to manipulate vocal function, assessed by phonation threshold pressure ...
Ruben John A - - 2003
In terms of their diversity and longevity, dinosaurs and birds were/are surely among the most successful of terrestrial vertebrates. Unfortunately, interpreting many aspects of the biology of dinosaurs and the earliest of the birds presents formidable challenges because they are known only from fossils. Nevertheless, a variety of attributes of ...
McCurdy Fredrick A - - 2003
In summary, we believe that both you and your organization should have a set of core values, a well-defined mission (core purpose), and a vision of the future. Ideally, your projects and activities should be congruent with your mission and values, you should be pursuing your vision, and all of ...
McClaran Steven R SR School of Health Promotion and Human Development, University of Wisconsin , - - 2003
More and more people seeking the expertise of personal trainers in recent years. With very few previous efforts evaluating the effectiveness of the personal training experience in the scientific literature, this study utilized movement in the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model (STM) to determine the efficacy of personal training. One ...
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