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Results 501 - 550 of 847
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Motel Tamara - - 2003
Vocal warm-up is thought to optimize singing performance. We compared effects of short-term, submaximal, vocal warm-up exercise with those of vocal rest on the soprano voice (n = 10, ages 19-21 years). Dependent variables were the minimum subglottic air pressure required for vocal fold oscillation to occur (phonation threshold pressure, ...
Dromey Christopher - - 2003
The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate ...
Hawkey Adam - - 2003
As a direct consequence of exposure to microgravity astronauts experience a number of physiological changes, which can have serious medical implications when they return to Earth. Most immediate and significant are the head-ward shift of body fluids and the removal of gravitational loading from bone and muscles, which lead to ...
Kimura Miwako - - 2003
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Many existing studies of vocal fold geometry are based on anatomical measurements made on histologically fixed laryngeal tissues using formalin. However, the validity of these geometric data is questionable because of the potentially significant tissue deformation associated with formalin fixation, particularly tissue shrinkage. Previous experiments have shown that valid ...
Milbrath Rochelle L - - 2003
Vocal warm-up (WU) exercises of varying types and durations have been suggested as a way of improving vocal function. However, limited research has been conducted to assess the effects of vocal WU exercises on normal or disordered voices. This study attempted to manipulate vocal function, assessed by phonation threshold pressure ...
Ruben John A - - 2003
In terms of their diversity and longevity, dinosaurs and birds were/are surely among the most successful of terrestrial vertebrates. Unfortunately, interpreting many aspects of the biology of dinosaurs and the earliest of the birds presents formidable challenges because they are known only from fossils. Nevertheless, a variety of attributes of ...
McCurdy Fredrick A - - 2003
In summary, we believe that both you and your organization should have a set of core values, a well-defined mission (core purpose), and a vision of the future. Ideally, your projects and activities should be congruent with your mission and values, you should be pursuing your vision, and all of ...
McClaran Steven R SR School of Health Promotion and Human Development, University of Wisconsin , - - 2003
More and more people seeking the expertise of personal trainers in recent years. With very few previous efforts evaluating the effectiveness of the personal training experience in the scientific literature, this study utilized movement in the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model (STM) to determine the efficacy of personal training. One ...
Aparicio José Miguel - - 2003
Bird tails are extraordinarily variable in length and functionality. In some species, males have evolved exaggeratedly long tails as a result of sexual selection. Changes in tail length should be associated with changes in feather structure. The study of the evolution of feather structure in bird tails could give insight ...
Guglielmo Christopher G - - 2003
We investigated the flexibility of body composition in relation to seasonally variable demands for endurance flight capacity and hyperphagia in a migratory shorebird. Migrating western sandpipers were sampled in spring and fall while refueling at a north temperate stopover and were compared with nonmigrating birds captured at a tropical wintering ...
Cevasco Andrea M - - 2003
Many of the noted problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) sometimes can be delayed, retarded, or even reversed with proper exercise and interaction with the environment. An overwhelming body of research efforts has revealed that music activity brings about the greatest degree of responsiveness, including exercise, in clients with AD; ...
Battley P F - - 2003
Background - Migratory birds perform some of the most phenomenal feats of endurance exercise in the animal world, making non-stop flights of up to 6,000 or even possibly 10,000 km. Birds combine extreme obesity with extreme physiological capacity (energy expenditure of >7 times BMR for 3-5 days). Adaptations associated with ...
Bacal Kira - - 2003
Neurovestibular symptoms experienced by astronauts in the post-flight period were examined using data from medical debriefs contained in the NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health database. Ten symptoms were identified (clumsiness, difficulty concentrating, persisting sensation aftereffects, nausea, vomiting, vertigo while walking, vertigo while standing, difficulty walking a straight line, blurred ...
Byerly D L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: During long-duration spaceflight, astronauts experience progressive muscle atrophy and often perform strenuous extravehicular activities. Post-flight, there is a lengthy recovery period with an increased risk for injury. Currently, there is a critical need for an enabling tool to optimize muscle performance and to minimize the risk of injury to ...
Goode Jeffrey H - - 2003
PROBLEM: There is concern in the aviation community that pilot schedules can lead to fatigue and increased chance of an aviation accident. Yet despite this concern, there is little empirical analysis showing the relationship between pilot schedules and commercial aviation accidents. This study attempts to demonstrate an empirical relationship between ...
Okouchi Hiroto - - 2003
Undergraduates were exposed to a mixed fixed-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. Values of the schedule components were adjusted so that interreinforcer intervals in one component were longer than those in another component. Following this, a mixed fixed-interval 5-s fixed-interval 20-s schedule (Experiment 1) or six fixed-interval schedules in which the values ranged ...
Erni Birgit - - 2002
Long-distance bird migration consists of a series of stopovers (for refuelling) and flights, with flights taking little time compared to stopovers. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that birds minimize the total time taken for migration through efficient stopover behaviour. Current optimality models for stopover include (1) the fixed expectation rule ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2002
The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations ...
Jónsdottir Valdis - - 2002
An increase in fundamental frequency (F(0)) and in sound pressure level (SPL) has been reported both after vocal loading tests and after a teacher's working day. This increase has been found to be greater among teachers with fewer voice complaints. The present study investigated speech changes during a teacher's working ...
Lane Helen W - - 2002
Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2002
Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space ...
Rantala Leena - - 2002
The purpose of this investigation was to study voice changes during a working day. The subjects consisted of 33 female primary and secondary schoolteachers who recorded their first and last lessons during one school day. The subjects were studied both as one group and two subgroups (those with many and ...
Nudds Robert L - - 2002
The doubly-labeled water technique and video were used to measure the effect of mass loading on energy expenditure and takeoff performance in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, that were making routine (nonalarm) short flights. Finches that carried 27% additional mass did not expend more energy during flight than unloaded controls. Carrying ...
Kozlovskaya Inessa B - - 2002
Physical exercises (PE) constitute the most important part of the Russian countermeasure system which is proved to be highly successful in fighting negative effects of weightlessness on the physiological systems of the body. To control the intensity and volume of the workload and also specific features of the regimens used ...
Caprioli Manuela - - 2002
Dormant rotifers (Macrotrachela quadricornifera) were exposed to several stresses on ground, on stratospheric balloons and on Shuttle, and their resistance was recorded iii terms of survival. On ground, active and dormant animals were exposed to temperature and gravity variations and to UV radiation. In all tests the dormant rotifers were ...
Suzuki Yoji - - 2002
If lower body negative pressure (LBNP) loaded on exercise in weightlessness environment is able to derive a comparable cardiovascular responses to these in the ground, it should be identified as an optimal LBNP for exercise in space. To investigate the LBNP, 7 young subjects were exercised 4 work rates stepping ...
Dogan Osman Senai - - 2002
A multiple probe across subjects design was used to examine whether or not the use of simultaneous prompting procedure would result in an increase on the percentage of correct responding of receptively identifying occupations from picture cards. Maintenance and generalization effects of simultaneous prompting were also investigated. Five occupations were ...
Jablonski David - - 2002
Because many survivors of mass extinctions do not participate in postrecovery diversifications, and therefore fall into a pattern that can be termed "Dead Clade Walking" (DCW), the effects of mass extinctions extend beyond the losses observed during the event itself. Analyses at two taxonomic levels provide a first-order test of ...
Cohen Steven L - - 2002
Response-contingent reinforcement was expected to increase the time spent riding a stationary exercise cycle by college women. A single-subject experimental design was used. Three college-age women rode a stationary cycle until they were either too tired to continue or until 45 minutes elapsed. Video clips were used to reinforce cycling ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2002
Pitch-synchronous changes in the anterior cricothyroid (CT) space were registered with ultrasonography (USG) for ten healthy subjects (5 males, 5 females) during the production of musical fifths throughout the whole voice range. One of the males and one of the females were trained amateur singers, the other subjects were choir ...
Gualandris-Parisot Lydie - - 2002
In vertebrates, only few experiments have been performed in microgravity to study the embryonic development from fertilization. To date, these concern only amphibian and fish. We report here a study on the embryonic development of Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian) eggs oviposited in microgravity. The experiment was performed twice on board ...
Cherek Don R DR Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas--Houston, Health Science Center, 77030, USA. - - 2002
Human participants earned money by responding on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule (initial value $50) or received money without responding on a fixed-time (FT) schedule. During the session, participants could terminate the PR schedule and initiate an FT 200-s schedule. In Experiment 1, increases in monetary value produced increased number of ...
Cowell Stephenie A - - 2002
Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and ...
Blinova E V - - 2002
The Decarto technique was used to study the orthogonal ECGs recorded in 23 subjects during parabolic flights (44 records). A parameter of the instantaneous decartograms, namely the activation area (AA), which is the total area of the depolarization front projection on the image sphere, was analyzed. We compared the values ...
Cohn J R - - 2001
Professional singers and other serious voice users are particularly susceptible to alterations in their vocal apparatus. As the support for vocalization, lung function is an essential element of the production of speech and song. Patients have been described who presented with voice complaints along with minimal or no abnormalities on ...
Weimerskirch H - - 2001
Many species of large bird fly together in formation, perhaps because flight power demands and energy expenditure can be reduced when the birds fly at an optimal spacing, or because orientation is improved by communication within groups. We have measured heart rates as an estimate of energy expenditure in imprinted ...
van der Torn M - - 2001
In order to improve voice quality in female laryngectomees and/or laryngectomees with a hypotonic pharyngo-oesophageal segment, a sound-producing voice prosthesis was designed. The new source of voice consists of either one or two bent silicone lips which perform an oscillatory movement driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows along ...
Trocki-Ables P - - 2001
Based on visual inspection of time (sec.) across 8 exercise sessions for each, 3 reinforcement techniques of mainly token exchange and verbal praise paired with token exchange, were mildly associated with improvement of the cardiovascular performances of 5 young boys with ADHD. Specific reinforcement techniques improved time for this 1-mile ...
Holmberg E B - - 2001
The aim of this study was to assess the effects on vocal function of voice therapy for vocal nodules. Perceptual and physiological progressive changes were examined during a strictly structured, behaviorally based voice therapy protocol in which 11 women with vocal nodules participated. Randomized audio recordings from pretherapy and from ...
Nagda N L - - 2001
Mucosal irritation remains a common complaint among travelers and flight attendants in aircraft cabins. Despite the fact that very low humidity is routinely encountered, few studies of its effects have been conducted in the cabin environment. The authors reviewed chamber and field studies in the experimental literature to explore whether ...
Watenpaugh D E - - 2001
Space flight exerts substantial effects on fluid volume control in humans. Cardiac distension occurs during the first 1-2 days of space flight relative to supine and especially upright 1g conditions. Plasma volume contraction occurs quickly in microgravity, probably as a result of transcapillary fluid filtration into upper-body interstitial spaces. No ...
Stein T P - - 2001
Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate ...
Ray C A - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to short-term microgravity or long-term hindlimb unloading induces cardiac atrophy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For the microgravity study, rats were subdivided into four groups: preflight (PF, n = 12); flight (Fl, n = 7); flight cage simulation (Sim, ...
Maybury W J - - 2001
The aerodynamic effect of the furled avian tail on the parasite drag of a bird's body was investigated on mounted, frozen European starling Sturnus vulgaris in a wind tunnel at flight speeds between 6 and 14 m s(-1). Removal of tail rectrices and dorsal and ventral covert feathers at the ...
Tobal N - - 2001
The objective was to identify the major cardiovascular changes induced by exposure to real or simulated 0 g (spaceflights: 6 days, 14 d, 21 d, 25 d, 6 months; Head Down Tilt: 10 h, 4 d, 5 d, 7 d, 30 d, 42 d), with a minimum of countermeasure (Daily ...
Ryba-White M - - 2001
The influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean roots to Phytophthora sojae was studied during the Space Shuttle Mission STS-87. Seedlings of soybean cultivar Williams 82 grown in spaceflight or at unit gravity were untreated or inoculated with the soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae. At 3, 6 and ...
Chan R W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the biomechanical properties of the human vocal fold cover (the superficial layer of the lamina propria). Study design: Vocal fold tissues were freshly excised from 5 adult male cadavers and were treated with bovine testicular hyaluronidase to selectively remove ...
Ramsdell C D - - 2001
Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. ...
Belke T W - - 2001
Six male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent variable-interval schedules of wheel-running reinforcement. The reinforcer associated with each alternative was the opportunity to run for 15 s, and the duration of the changeover delay was 1 s. Results suggested that time allocation was more sensitive to relative reinforcement rate than ...
Roy N - - 2001
Teachers commonly report voice problems and often seek medical assistance for voice-related complaints. Despite the prevalence of voice disorders within this occupation, there are no studies evaluating the effectiveness of treatment programs designed to remedy the voice problems of teachers. To assess the functional effects of two voice therapy approaches, ...
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