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Results 501 - 550 of 923
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Shull Richard L - - 2006
Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a ...
Elsworth Charlotte C Movement Science Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University , Headington, Oxford, UK ; Rivermead Research Group, Oxford Centre for Enablement, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford, UK ; General Practice and Primary Care, University of Birmingham , Edgbaston, Birmingham, - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immobilising the knee and hip on the oxygen cost (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) to velocity relationship during treadmill walking. The study was a prospective experimental conducted in a Rehabilitation centre. Ten healthy individuals, five men and five women, with no gait abnormality ...
Smith Marcus S MS University of Chichester, Bishop Otter Campus, College Lane , Chichester, West Sussex, - - 2006
Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± ...
Fetterman J Gregor - - 2006
Pigeons received trials beginning with a sequence of two colors (blue-->yellow) on the center key of a three-key array. The colors lasted different lengths of time. At the end of the sequence pigeons chose between two keys based on a criterial ratio of the temporal sequence. One choice was reinforced ...
Zayzafoon Majd - - 2005
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. The affected systems that are of key importance to human space exploration are the musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, and cardiovascular systems. However, alterations in the immune and endocrine functions have also been described. Bone loss has been shown to be ...
Russo Frank A - - 2005
Musically trained and untrained participants provided magnitude estimates of the size of melodic intervals. Each interval was formed by a sequence of two pitches that differed by between 50 cents (one half of a semitone) and 2,400 cents (two octaves) and was presented in a high or a low pitch ...
Reis Victor M VM University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro , Vila Real, - - 2005
The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed ...
Groemer Gernot E - - 2005
We determined the feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (LG-TI) in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight and tested the hypothesis that LG-TI is similarly successful in the free-floating condition, with the patient's head gripped between the anesthesiologist's knees, as in the restrained condition, with the torso strapped to the surface. Three ...
Kaur Indreshpal - - 2005
As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days ...
Lehmann Fritz-Olaf - - 2005
The high power output of flight muscles places special demands on the respiratory gas exchange system in insects. In small insects, respiration relies on diffusion, and for elevated locomotor performance such as flight, instantaneous gas exchange rates typically co-vary with the animal's metabolic activity. By contrast, under certain conditions, instantaneous ...
Niven Jeremy E - - 2005
Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms ...
Sulica Lucian - - 2005
We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas ...
Rascón Brenda - - 2005
Resting insects are extremely tolerant of hypoxia. However, oxygen requirements increase dramatically during flight. Does the critical atmospheric P (O)(2) (P(c)) increase strongly during flight, or does increased tracheal conductance allow even flying insects to possess large safety margins for oxygen delivery? We tested the effect of P(O)(2) on resting ...
Kehoe E James - - 2005
Extinguishing a conditioned response (CR) has entailed separating the conditioned stimulus (CS) from the unconditioned stimulus (US). This research reveals that elimination of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response occurred during continuous CS-US pairings. Initial training contained a mixture of 2 CS-US interstimulus intervals (ISIs): 200 ms and 1,200 ...
Macias Brandon R - - 2005
The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data ...
Bharadwaj Shrikant R SR School of Optometry, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2006
Velocity and acceleration characteristics provide valuable information about dynamic control of accommodation. We investigated velocity and acceleration of disaccommodation (near-far focusing) from three starting positions. Peak velocity and peak acceleration of disaccommodation increased with the proximity of starting position however for a given starting position they were invariant of response ...
Wraight William M - - 2005
Chest drains are normally inserted in the fifth intercostal space in the mid-axillary line. The classical technique for chest drain insertion involves locating the drain in an interspace just superior to the inferior rib, so as to avoid the neurovascular bundle. While teaching thoracic wall anatomy on cadavers, considerable variation ...
Iwase Satoshi - - 2005
To test the effectiveness of centrifuge-induced artificial gravity with ergometric exercise, 12 healthy young men (20.7 +/- 1.9 yr) were exposed to simulated microgravity for 14 days of -6 degrees head-down bedrest. Half the subjects were randomly selected and loaded 1.2 G artificial gravity with 60 W (four out of ...
Muto Ayako - - 2005
We report on three patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) who showed laryngeal stridor in their 20s. The stridor appeared on feeding and emotional excitation, was exaggerated during respiratory infection and was life-threatening on some occasions. Adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration, observed by laryngoscopy, confirmed laryngeal dystonia ...
Moore Steven T - - 2005
Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None ...
D'Andrea Susan E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a promising countermeasure to the physiological deconditioning experienced in microgravity, but has not proven effective in eliminating the ongoing loss of bone mineral, most likely due to the lack of high-impact forces and loading rates during in-flight activity. We wanted to determine lower-extremity response to high-impact jumping ...
Stemple Joseph C - - 2005
Therapy approaches designed to improve the disordered voice may be equally effective when used to enhance the normal voice. A holistic approach to voice therapy is based on a continuum of voice wellness from the disordered voice to the elite voice of the healthy performer. Individuals take charge of the ...
Johansen Espen Borgå - - 2005
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 3-5% of grade-school children, is a behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It has been suggested that the symptoms are caused by altered reinforcement and extinction processes, behaviorally described as an abnormally short and steep delay-of-reinforcement gradient in ADHD. The ...
Huey Raymond B - - 2005
A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced ...
Makiyama Kiyoshi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of the adjustment of expiratory effort in the control of vocal intensity. STUDY DESIGN: An intensity-loading test was performed by using the airway interruption method. Three groups of subjects were used: a control group thought to resemble normal vocal fold closure, a group of patients ...
Prodi Nicola - - 2005
In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term "balance" refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission ...
Remage-Healey Luke - - 2005
It is well known that plasma androgens are rapidly released in response to aggressive or sexual stimuli in a broad array of vertebrates. However, experimental work on behavioral functions of rapid androgen elevation is rare. A combination of field-based behavioral experiments and lab-based neuroendocrinological approaches is beginning to show how ...
North Stephen T - - 2005
In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch (repeated-reinforcement condition) versus ...
Bele Irene Velsvik - - 2005
It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening ...
Strollo F - - 2005
Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, ...
Farnè Alessandro - - 2005
Recent findings from neurophysiology, neuropsychology and psychology have shown that peri-personal space is represented through an integrated multisensory processing. In humans, the interaction between peri-personal space representation and action execution can be revealed through the use of tools that, by extending the reachable space, modify the strength of visual-tactile extinction. ...
Thompson Rachel H - - 2005
A demonstration of the effects of reinforcement requires comparison of response rates in the presence of a contingency with those in another condition that controls for the influence of extraneous variables. We describe several control conditions that have been used in evaluating the effects of positive and negative reinforcement. The ...
Doughty Adam H - - 2004
Reinstatement refers to the recovery of previously extinguished responding by the response-independent delivery of a stimulus that was a reinforcer in training. Two experiments were conducted to examine relative reinstatement following the training of differential preextinction response rates, either with equal (Experiment 1) or unequal (Experiment 2) preextinction reinforcement rates. ...
Robleto Karla - - 2004
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were presented with 7 daily sessions of tone-alone training after conditioning. Before the beginning of each of the first 4 extinction sessions, an artificial tear solution or tetracaine hydrochloride was administered to the cornea of rabbits in the control group (n = 6) and experimental group (n ...
Lind Johan - - 2004
Migrating birds must accumulate fuel during their journeys and this fuel load should incur an increased risk of predation. Migratory fuelling should increase individual mass-dependent predation risk for two reasons. First, acquisition costs are connected to the increased time a bird must spend foraging to accumulate the fuel loads and ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2004
Twenty-four females (mean age 38 years) with varying amounts of vocal training read aloud from a book for 45 min (70 dB at 40 cm distance). Symptoms of the throat and voice were ascertained with a questionnaire before, during and after the test. Fundamental frequency (F(0)) and sound pressure level ...
Riede Tobias - - 2004
Ring doves vocalize with their beaks and nostrils closed, exhaling into inflatable chambers in the head and neck region. The source sound produced at the syrinx contains a fundamental frequency with prominent second and third harmonic overtones, but these harmonics are filtered out of the emitted signal. We show by ...
Hirano Shigeru - - 2004
Vocal fold scarring remains a therapeutic challenge. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has strong antifibrotic activity and has proved to have therapeutic potential in restoration of scar tissues such as liver cirrhosis and lung fibrosis. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of HGF injection into scarred vocal folds in ...
Hambly C - - 2004
The effect of experimentally increased wing loading on the energy cost of flight was examined in cockatiels Nyphicus hollandicus. Five individuals were flown for periods of approximately 2 min, while carrying additional payload mass amounting to between 5 and 20% of unloaded body mass. The energy cost of flight was ...
Carding P N - - 2004
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity to change of three commonly used acoustic parameters as measured by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Programme (MDVP); jitter, shimmer and noise-to-harmonic ratio. A total of 231 subjects' voices were recorded and analysed. The sample comprised 145 dysphonic patients who received intervention (surgery ...
Hambly C - - 2004
Asymmetry is a difference in the sizes of bilaterally paired structures. Wing asymmetry may have an effect on the kinematics of flight, with knock-on effects for the energetic cost of flying. In this study the 13C-labelled bicarbonate technique was used to measure the energy expended during the flight of zebra ...
Schleich Cristian Eric - - 2004
Theoretical signaling models predict that to be honest, begging vocalizations must be costly. To test this hypothesis, oxygen consumption was measured during resting and begging (i.e., vocalizing) activities in pups of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum by means of open-flow respirometry. No statistical differences in individual oxygen consumption between resting ...
Bridge Eli S - - 2004
Large and medium-sized alcids have a very intense wing molt wherein many flight feathers are shed in rapid succession and wing surface area is reduced by as much as 40%. Although these birds are rendered flightless during wing molt, they must still use their wings to propel themselves underwater. A ...
Fallon K E - - 2004
This case concerns an elite road cyclist who complained of occasional dyspnoea and inspiratory difficulty during intense exercise. Clinical examination was normal and the final diagnosis was vocal cord dysfunction, a paradoxical closure of the vocal cords during inspiration which is highly associated with inspiratory stridor at high rates of ...
Moors Hilary B - - 2004
Many vocalizations produced by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are made up of repeated individual distinct sounds (elements). Patterning of multiple element calls was examined during the breeding season at Casey and Davis, Antarctica. Element and interval durations were measured from 405 calls all > 3 elements in length. The duration ...
Kozlovskaya Inessa B - - 2004
The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close ...
Gottlieb Daniel A - - 2004
Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% ...
Blomeley Frances J - - 2004
Four rats received training on a mixed FI 30-s FI 150-s schedule, where the different FI values were associated with different levers. During baseline, the reinforcer was a 30% concentration of condensed milk. During subsequent testing sessions, the reinforcer concentration was varied within sessions over values of 10, 30, 50, ...
Caiani E G - - 2004
Aim of the study was to evaluate by transthoracic Doppler the alterations in mitral inflow velocity pattern caused by acute changes in loading conditions occurring during parabolic flights. Each parabola included normogravity (1 Gz, 1 min), mild hypergravity (1.8 Gz, 20 sec), microgravity (0 Gz, 24 sec) and mild hypergravity ...
Popov D V - - 2004
The efficacy of countermeasure exercise for diminishing disturbances induced by microgravity in motor system and its visceral supply during different stages of long-duration flight was evaluated. The results of both bicycle and locomotor testing indicate that physical fitness of cosmonaut does not become worse in the course of the long-duration ...
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