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Heymann Nicole - - 2006
During elevated locomotor activity such as flight, Drosophila satisfies its increased respiratory demands by increasing the total spiracle opening area of the tracheal gas exchange system. It has been assumed that in a diffusion-based system, each spiracle contributes to oxygen flux into and carbon dioxide flux out of the tracheal ...
Iellamo Ferdinando - - 2006
One of the most important features of prolonged weightlessness is a progressive impairment of muscular function with a consequent decrease in exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the impairment in musculo-skeletal function that occurs in microgravity results in a potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex mechanism and also affects baroreflex ...
Schreiber Sebastian J - - 2006
A discrete-time host-parasitoid model including host-density dependence and a generalized Thompson escape function is analyzed. This model assumes that parasitoids are egg-limited but not search-limited, and is proven to exhibit five types of dynamics: host failure in which the host goes extinct in the parasitoid's presence or absence, unconditional parasitoid ...
Vertigan Anne E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory function in a group of patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. METHODS: Participants included 15 people with a diagnosis of MTD referred to speech pathology for management of their voice disorder, fiberoptic evidence of glottal or ...
Hiryu Shizuko - - 2006
We examined the intra-individual variation in resting frequency of the constant-frequency component of the second harmonic of the pulse (F (rest)) over 4 years in a laboratory colony of the Taiwanese leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros terasensis). Patterns of change in F (rest) were observed when individuals were added to or removed ...
Howard David M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: When a soprano, alto, tenor, bass (SATB) quartet sings unaccompanied, or a capella, the members of the group will tend to make use of non-equal-tempered intonation to govern their tuning. If the music they are performing visits different keys and they do maintain non-equal-tempered tuning, then the pitch center ...
Goodyer Eric - - 2006
The ability to measure the biomechanical properties of the vocal fold in vivo is both an aid to diagnosis and enhances our knowledge of how the vocal folds operate. This paper details a new instrument that is capable of taking readings of the spring rate of the vocal fold in ...
Colwill Ruth M - - 2006
The effect of the passage of time on the association between an instrumental response and its outcome was examined in three experiments with rats using outcome devaluation. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats were initially trained to make one pair of instrumental responses for different outcomes (e.g., lever press-->pellets and ...
Ding L-W - - 2006
The cuff-leak test was widely used for the prediction of post-extubation stridor, but controversial results limit its clinical application. The current study used real-time ultrasonography to evaluate the air-leak and hypothesised that the air-column width, measured by ultrasonography, may be correlated to the development of post-extubation stridor. From June 1, ...
Magwere Tapiwanashe T Department of Biology, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2006
In this study, the effect of flight activity on mortality rates and lipoxidative damage in Drosophila was determined to identify mechanisms through which oxidative damage affects life span. The results showed that flies allowed flying throughout life had higher mortality rates and decreased median and maximum life spans compared to ...
Gottlieb Daniel A - - 2006
Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two ...
Derenne Adam - - 2006
The preratio pause is a characteristic feature of performances under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, even though the pause is not required by the schedule and it reduces the reinforcement rate. To investigate the reduction of pausing, five rats trained on fixed-ratio schedules were exposed to timeout punishment of pauses that ...
de la Piedad Xochitl - - 2006
Three pigeons chose between random-interval (RI) and tandem, continuous-reinforcement, fixed-interval (crf-FI) reinforcement schedules by pecking either of two keys. As long as a pigeon pecked on the RI key, both keys remained available. If a pigeon pecked on the crf-FI key, then the RI key became unavailable and the crf-FI ...
Shull Richard L - - 2006
Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a ...
Elsworth Charlotte C Movement Science Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University , Headington, Oxford, UK ; Rivermead Research Group, Oxford Centre for Enablement, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford, UK ; General Practice and Primary Care, University of Birmingham , Edgbaston, Birmingham, - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immobilising the knee and hip on the oxygen cost (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) to velocity relationship during treadmill walking. The study was a prospective experimental conducted in a Rehabilitation centre. Ten healthy individuals, five men and five women, with no gait abnormality ...
Smith Marcus S MS University of Chichester, Bishop Otter Campus, College Lane , Chichester, West Sussex, - - 2006
Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± ...
Fetterman J Gregor - - 2006
Pigeons received trials beginning with a sequence of two colors (blue-->yellow) on the center key of a three-key array. The colors lasted different lengths of time. At the end of the sequence pigeons chose between two keys based on a criterial ratio of the temporal sequence. One choice was reinforced ...
Zayzafoon Majd - - 2005
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. The affected systems that are of key importance to human space exploration are the musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, and cardiovascular systems. However, alterations in the immune and endocrine functions have also been described. Bone loss has been shown to be ...
Russo Frank A - - 2005
Musically trained and untrained participants provided magnitude estimates of the size of melodic intervals. Each interval was formed by a sequence of two pitches that differed by between 50 cents (one half of a semitone) and 2,400 cents (two octaves) and was presented in a high or a low pitch ...
Reis Victor M VM University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro , Vila Real, - - 2005
The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed ...
Groemer Gernot E - - 2005
We determined the feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (LG-TI) in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight and tested the hypothesis that LG-TI is similarly successful in the free-floating condition, with the patient's head gripped between the anesthesiologist's knees, as in the restrained condition, with the torso strapped to the surface. Three ...
Kaur Indreshpal - - 2005
As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days ...
Lehmann Fritz-Olaf - - 2005
The high power output of flight muscles places special demands on the respiratory gas exchange system in insects. In small insects, respiration relies on diffusion, and for elevated locomotor performance such as flight, instantaneous gas exchange rates typically co-vary with the animal's metabolic activity. By contrast, under certain conditions, instantaneous ...
Niven Jeremy E - - 2005
Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms ...
Sulica Lucian - - 2005
We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas ...
Rascón Brenda - - 2005
Resting insects are extremely tolerant of hypoxia. However, oxygen requirements increase dramatically during flight. Does the critical atmospheric P (O)(2) (P(c)) increase strongly during flight, or does increased tracheal conductance allow even flying insects to possess large safety margins for oxygen delivery? We tested the effect of P(O)(2) on resting ...
Kehoe E James - - 2005
Extinguishing a conditioned response (CR) has entailed separating the conditioned stimulus (CS) from the unconditioned stimulus (US). This research reveals that elimination of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response occurred during continuous CS-US pairings. Initial training contained a mixture of 2 CS-US interstimulus intervals (ISIs): 200 ms and 1,200 ...
Macias Brandon R - - 2005
The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data ...
Bharadwaj Shrikant R SR School of Optometry, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2006
Velocity and acceleration characteristics provide valuable information about dynamic control of accommodation. We investigated velocity and acceleration of disaccommodation (near-far focusing) from three starting positions. Peak velocity and peak acceleration of disaccommodation increased with the proximity of starting position however for a given starting position they were invariant of response ...
Wraight William M - - 2005
Chest drains are normally inserted in the fifth intercostal space in the mid-axillary line. The classical technique for chest drain insertion involves locating the drain in an interspace just superior to the inferior rib, so as to avoid the neurovascular bundle. While teaching thoracic wall anatomy on cadavers, considerable variation ...
Iwase Satoshi - - 2005
To test the effectiveness of centrifuge-induced artificial gravity with ergometric exercise, 12 healthy young men (20.7 +/- 1.9 yr) were exposed to simulated microgravity for 14 days of -6 degrees head-down bedrest. Half the subjects were randomly selected and loaded 1.2 G artificial gravity with 60 W (four out of ...
Muto Ayako - - 2005
We report on three patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) who showed laryngeal stridor in their 20s. The stridor appeared on feeding and emotional excitation, was exaggerated during respiratory infection and was life-threatening on some occasions. Adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration, observed by laryngoscopy, confirmed laryngeal dystonia ...
Moore Steven T - - 2005
Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None ...
D'Andrea Susan E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a promising countermeasure to the physiological deconditioning experienced in microgravity, but has not proven effective in eliminating the ongoing loss of bone mineral, most likely due to the lack of high-impact forces and loading rates during in-flight activity. We wanted to determine lower-extremity response to high-impact jumping ...
Stemple Joseph C - - 2005
Therapy approaches designed to improve the disordered voice may be equally effective when used to enhance the normal voice. A holistic approach to voice therapy is based on a continuum of voice wellness from the disordered voice to the elite voice of the healthy performer. Individuals take charge of the ...
Johansen Espen Borgå - - 2005
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 3-5% of grade-school children, is a behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It has been suggested that the symptoms are caused by altered reinforcement and extinction processes, behaviorally described as an abnormally short and steep delay-of-reinforcement gradient in ADHD. The ...
Huey Raymond B - - 2005
A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced ...
Makiyama Kiyoshi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of the adjustment of expiratory effort in the control of vocal intensity. STUDY DESIGN: An intensity-loading test was performed by using the airway interruption method. Three groups of subjects were used: a control group thought to resemble normal vocal fold closure, a group of patients ...
Prodi Nicola - - 2005
In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term "balance" refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission ...
Remage-Healey Luke - - 2005
It is well known that plasma androgens are rapidly released in response to aggressive or sexual stimuli in a broad array of vertebrates. However, experimental work on behavioral functions of rapid androgen elevation is rare. A combination of field-based behavioral experiments and lab-based neuroendocrinological approaches is beginning to show how ...
North Stephen T - - 2005
In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch (repeated-reinforcement condition) versus ...
Bele Irene Velsvik - - 2005
It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening ...
Strollo F - - 2005
Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, ...
Farnè Alessandro - - 2005
Recent findings from neurophysiology, neuropsychology and psychology have shown that peri-personal space is represented through an integrated multisensory processing. In humans, the interaction between peri-personal space representation and action execution can be revealed through the use of tools that, by extending the reachable space, modify the strength of visual-tactile extinction. ...
Thompson Rachel H - - 2005
A demonstration of the effects of reinforcement requires comparison of response rates in the presence of a contingency with those in another condition that controls for the influence of extraneous variables. We describe several control conditions that have been used in evaluating the effects of positive and negative reinforcement. The ...
Doughty Adam H - - 2004
Reinstatement refers to the recovery of previously extinguished responding by the response-independent delivery of a stimulus that was a reinforcer in training. Two experiments were conducted to examine relative reinstatement following the training of differential preextinction response rates, either with equal (Experiment 1) or unequal (Experiment 2) preextinction reinforcement rates. ...
Robleto Karla - - 2004
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were presented with 7 daily sessions of tone-alone training after conditioning. Before the beginning of each of the first 4 extinction sessions, an artificial tear solution or tetracaine hydrochloride was administered to the cornea of rabbits in the control group (n = 6) and experimental group (n ...
Lind Johan - - 2004
Migrating birds must accumulate fuel during their journeys and this fuel load should incur an increased risk of predation. Migratory fuelling should increase individual mass-dependent predation risk for two reasons. First, acquisition costs are connected to the increased time a bird must spend foraging to accumulate the fuel loads and ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2004
Twenty-four females (mean age 38 years) with varying amounts of vocal training read aloud from a book for 45 min (70 dB at 40 cm distance). Symptoms of the throat and voice were ascertained with a questionnaire before, during and after the test. Fundamental frequency (F(0)) and sound pressure level ...
Riede Tobias - - 2004
Ring doves vocalize with their beaks and nostrils closed, exhaling into inflatable chambers in the head and neck region. The source sound produced at the syrinx contains a fundamental frequency with prominent second and third harmonic overtones, but these harmonics are filtered out of the emitted signal. We show by ...
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