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Results 451 - 500 of 911
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Chung Daniel - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of a unique pitch-raising surgical technique designated upper displacement of the anterior commissure (UDAC), comparing the results with those obtained through cricothyroid approximation (CTA). METHODS: Vocal fold vibration was artificially evoked in 20 excised human larynges through tracheal injection of compressed air. Vocal ...
Jarvis Steve - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Accidents caused by spinning from low turns continue to kill glider pilots despite the introduction of specific exercises aimed at increasing pilot awareness and recognition of this issue. METHOD: In-cockpit video cameras were used to analyze flying accuracy and log the areas of visual interest of 36 qualified glider ...
Tsai Chen-Gia - - 2008
The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying laryngeal mechanisms during the specific human 4-kHz vocalization. The laryngeal configuration during this vocalization was measured using high-resolution computerized tomographic scan and videostrobolaryngoscopy. The color Doppler imaging (CDI) of medical ultrasound was used to detect the vibrations of glottal and ...
Martin P R - - 2007
The increase in diversity towards the equator arises from latitudinal variation in rates of cladogenesis, extinction, immigration and/or emigration of taxa. We tested the relative contribution of all four processes to the latitudinal gradient in 26 marine invertebrate orders with extensive fossil records, examined previously by David Jablonski. Coupling Jablonski's ...
Netto Kevin J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Performing specific neck strengthening exercises has been proposed to decrease the incidence of neck injury and pain in high performance combat pilots. However, there is little known about these exercises in comparison to the demands on the neck musculature in flight. METHODS: Eight male non-pilots performed specific neck exercises ...
Baevsky Roman M - - 2007
Impaired autonomic control represents a cardiovascular risk factor during long-term spaceflight. Little has been reported on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during and after prolonged spaceflight. We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular control remains stable during prolonged spaceflight. Electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, and respiratory frequency (RF) ...
Schneider Stefan - - 2007
Numerous studies have shown significant effects of weightlessness on adaptational processes of the CNS, cardiovascular and/or muscular system. Most of these studies have been carried out during parabolic flights, using the recurring 20 s of weightlessness at each parabola. Although some of these studies reported on potential influences not only ...
Savel'ev S A - - 2007
Studies on Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC showed that the acquisition and performance of a classical conditioned reflex with pain reinforcement was accompanied by increases in the concentrations of citrulline (a side product of nitric oxide formation) and arginine (the substrate of NO synthase) in the intercellular ...
Maguire David R DR University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, USA. - - 2007
Four pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules. Relative reinforcer amounts arranged across the two alternatives were varied across sessions according to a pseudorandom binary sequence [cf., Hunter, I., Davison, M., 1985. Determination of a behavioral transfer function: white-noise analysis of session-to-session response-ratio dynamics on concurrent VI schedules. J. ...
Finlayson Clive - - 2007
The latter part of the last glaciation, 50,000-12,000 years ago (kya), was characterized by a rapidly changing climate, cold conditions and corresponding vegetation and faunal turnover. It also coincided with the extinction of the Neanderthals and the expansion of modern human populations. Established views of modern human superiority over Neanderthals ...
Bruzek Jennifer L - - 2007
The relative reinforcing value of toys was assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, participant observation of a peer manipulating one of the toys. Preference assessments were used to identify preference hierarchies. Reinforcer assessments were conducted with a high-preference item, a low-preference item, and a control. Each participant allocated ...
Wallach Helene S HS Tsfat College, Tsfat, Israel. - - 2007
Flight phobia is a common and debilitating specific phobia. Recently, an effective technology, called Virtual Reality (VR), has been developed for the treatment of various anxiety disorders including flight phobia. This article reports the results of a pilot study consisting of four subjects treated for Flight Phobia using Virtual Reality. ...
Di Rienzo M M Centro di Bioingegneria, Fondazione Don, Carlo Gnocchi, ONLUS, 20133 Milano, Italy. - - 2007
On the basis of indirect evidences it has been hypothesized that during space missions the almost complete absence of gravity might impair the baroreflex control of circulation. In the first part of this paper we report results obtained from a series of experiments carried out to directly verify this hypothesis ...
Schmidt-Wellenburg Carola A - - 2007
Many bird species steeply increase their body mass prior to migration. These fuel stores are necessary for long flights and to overcome ecological barriers. The elevated body mass is generally thought to cause higher flight costs. The relationship between mass and costs has been investigated mostly by interspecific comparison and ...
Lin Emily - - 2008
This study was aimed at identifying acoustic and physiological measures useful for monitoring voice changes in postnasopharyngeal patients with nonlaryngeal malignancies, and providing evidences of vocal tract effect on voice through comparisons between individuals with and without intact vocal tract. Simultaneous acoustic-electroglottographic signals recorded during phonation of vowels /i/ and ...
Karbhari Vistasp M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the mechanical characteristics of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-based triaxial braided reinforcements having different denier braider yarns used in fiber reinforced dental composites to elucidate differences in response and damage under flexural loading. METHODS: Two commercially available triaxial braided ...
Kelly Paul T - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: There is little data available to determine the normal response to normobaric hypoxia inhalation testing (NHIT) and air travel. Quantifying a healthy response may assist in the evaluation of passengers considered at risk for air travel. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the degree of desaturation ...
Wade-Galuska Tammy - - 2007
Three rhesus monkeys' lever presses produced aspartame-sweetened water according to a fixed-ratio schedule. The response requirement was increased across sessions and a demand-function analysis was used to assess the reinforcing effectiveness of different magnitudes of aspartame by manipulating reinforcer duration (1 and 3s) in Phase 1 and concentration (0.3, 0.5, ...
Carroll Thomas T University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Department of Otolaryngology, Denver, Colorado 80262-0001, USA. - - 2006
To collect objective vibration dose data on singers and relate them to subjective measurements of vocal fatigue. Seven subjects completed a 2-week study period. The National Center for Voice and Speech (NCVS) dosimeter recorded vocal load, soft phonation tasks, and subjective soft voice ratings. Three vocal doses (time, distance, and ...
Oliveira Giselle A - - 2006
Lipophorin (Lp), either labeled in diacylglycerol moiety with [(3)H]-Palmitic acid or in phospholipid moiety with (32)Pi, was injected into Rhodnius prolixus females. Insects were induced to flight for different times. In just a few minutes of flight, the transfer of radioactivity to ovaries decreased, accompanied by its increase to flight ...
Phillmore Leslie S - - 2006
Black-capped chickadees have a rich vocal repertoire including learned calls and the learned fee-bee song. However, the neural regions underlying these vocalizations, such as HVC, area X, and RA (robust nucleus of arcopallium), remain understudied. Here, we document seasonal changes in fee-bee song production and show a marked peak in ...
Comyns Thomas M - - 2006
Complex training research has indicated that 3-4 minutes may be an optimum intracomplex rest interval. The purpose of this study was to determine if a heavy resistive exercise causes performance enhancement of a slow stretch-shortening cycle exercise and if there is an optimal rest interval. Eighteen subjects performed countermovement jumps ...
Lychakov D V - - 2006
Mathematical modeling suggests that relatively large values of otolith mass asymmetry in fishes can alter acoustic functionality and may be responsible for abnormal fish behavior when subjected to weightlessness during parabolic or space flight [D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Otolith mass asymmetry in 18 species of fish and pigeon, J. Grav. ...
Sanabria Federico - - 2006
Twelve pigeons were exposed to negative automaintenance contingencies for 17-27 sessions immediately after brief (14-16 sessions) or extended (168-237 sessions) exposure to positive automaintenance contingencies, or after 4-10 sessions of instrumental training. In all conditions, negative automaintenance contingencies virtually eliminated responding, reducing response rates to an average 1.3 responses per ...
Niemi Matti - - 2006
PURPOSE: The effects of orthognathic surgery on the phonetic quality of speech were studied by analyzing the main acoustic features of vowel sounds. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five men with dentofacial deformities undergoing surgical operation for correction of malocclusion were enrolled in the study. The speech material consisted of 8 vowels ...
Heymann Nicole - - 2006
During elevated locomotor activity such as flight, Drosophila satisfies its increased respiratory demands by increasing the total spiracle opening area of the tracheal gas exchange system. It has been assumed that in a diffusion-based system, each spiracle contributes to oxygen flux into and carbon dioxide flux out of the tracheal ...
Iellamo Ferdinando - - 2006
One of the most important features of prolonged weightlessness is a progressive impairment of muscular function with a consequent decrease in exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the impairment in musculo-skeletal function that occurs in microgravity results in a potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex mechanism and also affects baroreflex ...
Schreiber Sebastian J - - 2006
A discrete-time host-parasitoid model including host-density dependence and a generalized Thompson escape function is analyzed. This model assumes that parasitoids are egg-limited but not search-limited, and is proven to exhibit five types of dynamics: host failure in which the host goes extinct in the parasitoid's presence or absence, unconditional parasitoid ...
Vertigan Anne E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory function in a group of patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. METHODS: Participants included 15 people with a diagnosis of MTD referred to speech pathology for management of their voice disorder, fiberoptic evidence of glottal or ...
Hiryu Shizuko - - 2006
We examined the intra-individual variation in resting frequency of the constant-frequency component of the second harmonic of the pulse (F (rest)) over 4 years in a laboratory colony of the Taiwanese leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros terasensis). Patterns of change in F (rest) were observed when individuals were added to or removed ...
Howard David M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: When a soprano, alto, tenor, bass (SATB) quartet sings unaccompanied, or a capella, the members of the group will tend to make use of non-equal-tempered intonation to govern their tuning. If the music they are performing visits different keys and they do maintain non-equal-tempered tuning, then the pitch center ...
Goodyer Eric - - 2006
The ability to measure the biomechanical properties of the vocal fold in vivo is both an aid to diagnosis and enhances our knowledge of how the vocal folds operate. This paper details a new instrument that is capable of taking readings of the spring rate of the vocal fold in ...
Colwill Ruth M - - 2006
The effect of the passage of time on the association between an instrumental response and its outcome was examined in three experiments with rats using outcome devaluation. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats were initially trained to make one pair of instrumental responses for different outcomes (e.g., lever press-->pellets and ...
Magwere Tapiwanashe - - 2006
In this study, the effect of flight activity on mortality rates and lipoxidative damage in Drosophila was determined to identify mechanisms through which oxidative damage affects life span. The results showed that flies allowed flying throughout life had higher mortality rates and decreased median and maximum life spans compared to ...
Ding L-W - - 2006
The cuff-leak test was widely used for the prediction of post-extubation stridor, but controversial results limit its clinical application. The current study used real-time ultrasonography to evaluate the air-leak and hypothesised that the air-column width, measured by ultrasonography, may be correlated to the development of post-extubation stridor. From June 1, ...
Gottlieb Daniel A - - 2006
Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two ...
Derenne Adam - - 2006
The preratio pause is a characteristic feature of performances under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, even though the pause is not required by the schedule and it reduces the reinforcement rate. To investigate the reduction of pausing, five rats trained on fixed-ratio schedules were exposed to timeout punishment of pauses that ...
de la Piedad Xochitl - - 2006
Three pigeons chose between random-interval (RI) and tandem, continuous-reinforcement, fixed-interval (crf-FI) reinforcement schedules by pecking either of two keys. As long as a pigeon pecked on the RI key, both keys remained available. If a pigeon pecked on the crf-FI key, then the RI key became unavailable and the crf-FI ...
Shull Richard L - - 2006
Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a ...
Elsworth Charlotte C Movement Science Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University , Headington, Oxford, UK ; Rivermead Research Group, Oxford Centre for Enablement, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford, UK ; General Practice and Primary Care, University of Birmingham , Edgbaston, Birmingham, - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immobilising the knee and hip on the oxygen cost (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) to velocity relationship during treadmill walking. The study was a prospective experimental conducted in a Rehabilitation centre. Ten healthy individuals, five men and five women, with no gait abnormality ...
Smith Marcus S MS University of Chichester, Bishop Otter Campus, College Lane , Chichester, West Sussex, - - 2006
Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± ...
Fetterman J Gregor - - 2006
Pigeons received trials beginning with a sequence of two colors (blue-->yellow) on the center key of a three-key array. The colors lasted different lengths of time. At the end of the sequence pigeons chose between two keys based on a criterial ratio of the temporal sequence. One choice was reinforced ...
Zayzafoon Majd - - 2005
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. The affected systems that are of key importance to human space exploration are the musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, and cardiovascular systems. However, alterations in the immune and endocrine functions have also been described. Bone loss has been shown to be ...
Russo Frank A - - 2005
Musically trained and untrained participants provided magnitude estimates of the size of melodic intervals. Each interval was formed by a sequence of two pitches that differed by between 50 cents (one half of a semitone) and 2,400 cents (two octaves) and was presented in a high or a low pitch ...
Reis Victor M VM University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro , Vila Real, - - 2005
The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed ...
Groemer Gernot E - - 2005
We determined the feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (LG-TI) in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight and tested the hypothesis that LG-TI is similarly successful in the free-floating condition, with the patient's head gripped between the anesthesiologist's knees, as in the restrained condition, with the torso strapped to the surface. Three ...
Kaur Indreshpal - - 2005
As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days ...
Lehmann Fritz-Olaf - - 2005
The high power output of flight muscles places special demands on the respiratory gas exchange system in insects. In small insects, respiration relies on diffusion, and for elevated locomotor performance such as flight, instantaneous gas exchange rates typically co-vary with the animal's metabolic activity. By contrast, under certain conditions, instantaneous ...
Niven Jeremy E - - 2005
Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms ...
Sulica Lucian - - 2005
We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas ...
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