Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1202
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Maeder Micha Tobias - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: In patients with heart failure (HF), peak oxygen consumption (peak VO(2)), the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO(2) slope) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are established prognostic predictors. However, treadmill exercise has been shown to elicit higher peak VO(2) values than bicycle exercise. We sought to ...
Bridgewater Franklin H G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: St. John Ambulance Australia has used the performance of CPR for 10 min as a fitness test for its members. Recent changes in international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation caused concern that the new ILCOR protocol was more strenuous than the previous one. This study compared the two protocols to ...
Hilberg Thomas - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Strenuous and exhaustive exercise intensifies platelet activity as shown in the literature but effects of moderate exercise are still in discussion. The present study investigated effects of two different standardised exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) on platelet function and conjugate formation. METHODS: 20 healthy male non-smokers ...
Layec Gwenael - - 2008
Electromyostimulation (EMS) is commonly used as part of training programs. However, the exact effects at the muscle level are largely unknown and it has been recently hypothesized that the beneficial effect of EMS could be mediated by an improved muscle perfusion. In the present study, we investigated rates of changes ...
Thompson Angela M - - 2008
The INFLAME study is designed to determine the effect of exercise training on elevated high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations in initially sedentary women and men. INFLAME will recruit 170 healthy, sedentary women and men with elevated CRP (>or=2.0 mg/L) to be randomized to either an exercise group or non-exercise control ...
McKay William P S - - 2007
A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the elevation in oxygen consumption following exercise. Biochemical processes that return muscle to its pre-exercise state do not account for all of the extra oxygen consumed after exercise (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC). Muscle at rest after aerobic exercise produces mechanomyographic ...
Jordanoglou J - - 2007
AIMS: The classical equations for measuring the mean and the ideal alveolar O(2) tension are based on assumptions, which are shown to be invalid. So we thought to develop a new, non-invasive method for measuring the mean alveolar P,O(2) within the volume domain (PA,O(2(Bohr))). This method is based on the ...
Joyner Michael J - - 2008
Efforts to understand human physiology through the study of champion athletes and record performances have been ongoing for about a century. For endurance sports three main factors--maximal oxygen consumption (.VO(2,max)), the so-called 'lactate threshold' and efficiency (i.e. the oxygen cost to generate a given running speed or cycling power output)--appear ...
Foster Carl - - 2007
The concept of VO(2)max has been a defining paradigm in exercise physiology for >75 years. Within the last decade, this concept has been both challenged and defended. The purpose of this study was to test the concept of VO(2)max by comparing VO(2) during a second exercise bout following a preliminary ...
Crisafulli Antonio - - 2007
This investigation aimed at verifying whether it was possible to reliably assess stroke volume (SV) during exercise from oxygen pulse (OP) and from a model of arterio-venous oxygen difference (a-vO(2)D) estimation. The model was tested in 15 amateur male cyclists performing an exercise test on a cycle-ergometer consisting of a ...
Ferreira Leonardo F - - 2007
Utilization of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical exercise testing to detect microvascular abnormalities requires characterization of the responses in healthy individuals and theoretical foundation for data interpretation. We examined the profile of the deoxygenated hemoglobin signal from NIRS {deoxygenated hemoglobin + myoglobin [deoxy-(Hb+Mb)] approximately O(2) extraction} during ramp exercise to ...
Giallauria Francesco - - 2008
Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a measure derived from exercise test, defined as the fall in heart rate during the first minute after maximal exercise. Abnormal HRR is a measure of autonomic dysfunction associated with an increased mortality. This study was performed to evaluate the HRR in polycystic ovary syndrome ...
Pillard Fabien - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the effect of different exercise intensities on lipid oxidation in overweight men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Nine young, healthy, overweight men and women were studied (age, 31.4 +/- 2.3 and 26.7 +/- 2.1 years; BMI, 27.9 +/- 0.4 and 27.2 +/- 0.5; ...
Moro Cédric - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore sex differences in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise, the lipid-mobilizing mechanisms in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of overweight men and women were studied using microdialysis. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Subjects matched for age, BMI, and physical fitness performed two 30-minute exercise bouts in a randomized ...
Koike Akira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: It has been recently reported that cerebral oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) decreases during exercise in nearly 50% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present study evaluated whether the inhalation of supplemental O(2) diminishes the decrease in cerebral O(2)Hb during exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ...
Jendzjowsky Nicholas G - - 2007
We examined peak and reserve cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in five heart transplant recipients (HTR, mean +/- SE; age: 53 +/- 3 years; years posttransplant: 6 +/- 4) and five age- and body mass-matched healthy controls (CON). Pulmonary oxygen uptake (Vo(2)(p)), heart ...
Baulig Werner - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the V-Sign digital sensor (SenTec AG, Therweil, Switzerland) for combined noninvasive assessment of pulse oxymetric oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) in adults after cardiac surgery. METHODS: In twenty one patients, aged 51-86 years, simultaneous measurements of blood ...
Henderson Gregory C - - 2007
The effects of exercise on energy substrate metabolism persist into the postexercise recovery period. We sought to derive bicarbonate retention factors (k) to correct for carbon tracer oxidized, but retained from pulmonary excretion before, during, and after exercise. Ten men and nine women received a primed-continuous infusion of [(13)C]bicarbonate (sodium ...
Rubio J C - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to assess if there exists an association between C34T muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase ( AMPD1) genotypes (i.e., normal homyzygotes [CC] vs. heterozygotes [ CT]) and directly measured indices of exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake [VO(2peak)], ventilatory threshold [VT], gross mechanical efficiency [GE], etc.) in ...
Rodríguez Ferran A - - 2007
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effects of 4 wk of resting exposure to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHE, 3 h/day, 5 days/wk at 4,000-5,500 m) or normoxia combined with training at sea level on performance and maximal oxygen transport in athletes. Twenty-three trained swimmers and runners completed duplicate baseline ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2007
We sought to investigate arterial baroreflex (ABR) control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the transition from rest to steady-state dynamic exercise. This was accomplished by assessing the relationship between spontaneous variations in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and MSNA at rest and during the time course of reaching steady-state ...
Leandro Carol Góis - - 2007
Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is ...
Owen Geoffrey R - - 2007
The aim of this study was to establish a novel method to predict the human ocular penetration and distribution of topical antibiotics by using a controlled rabbit model that mimics the human eye with manual blinking and tear flow. After anesthetizing the rabbits, a single dose of commercial antibiotic formulations ...
Berning Joseph M - - 2007
Junkyard training involves heavy, cumbersome implements and nontraditional movement patterns for unique training of athletes. This study assessed the metabolic demands of pushing and pulling a 1,960-kg motor vehicle (MV) 400 m in an all-out maximal effort. Six male, strength-trained athletes (29 +/- 5 years; 89 +/- 12 kg) completed ...
Jones Lee W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of preoperative exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients undergoing thoracic surgery for malignant lung lesions. METHODS: Using a single-group design, 25 patients with suspected operable lung cancer were provided with structured exercise training until surgical resection. Exercise training consisted of 5 endurance cycle ergometry ...
Carey Daniel G - - 2007
The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between aerobic capacity, as measured by the VO(2)max test, and recovery from high-intensity intermittent exercise. Eleven female collegiate hockey players agreed to participate. Subjects skated 5 1-lap intervals around the hockey rink at maximal intensity with a 30-second recovery ...
Hitchcock Kristen M - - 2007
Energy cost is a major factor influencing the tolerable thermal load, particularly during exercise in the heat. However, no data exist on the metabolic cost of football practice, although a value of 35% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) has been estimated. The energy cost and thermoregulatory response of offensive linemen ...
Girard Olivier - - 2007
The aim of this study was to describe the game characteristics and energy requirement in elite squash. Seven players (ranked 1-25 in their national federation, including the world number 1) performed a squash-specific incremental test to volitional exhaustion and 3 squash games simulating competition. Pulmonary gas exchanges, heart rate (HR), ...
Bernardi Marco - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess the physiological profile of America's Cup grinders and mastmen, by measuring energy expenditure during sailing and assessing their aerobic and anaerobic fitness. The study focused on estimating the energy used during grinding activity, by measuring oxygen uptake (VO(2)) during sail setting in ...
Ogawa Takeshi - - 2007
This study tested the hypothesis that the extent of the decrement in (.)Vo(2max) and the respiratory response seen during maximal exercise in moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H; simulated 2,500 m) is affected by the hypoxia ventilatory and hypercapnia ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively). Twenty men (5 untrained subjects, 7 long ...
Larsen F J - - 2007
AIM: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases, plays a role in adaptation to physical exercise by modulating blood flow, muscular contraction and glucose uptake and in the control of cellular respiration. Recent studies show that NO can be formed in vivo also from the reduction of inorganic ...
Gómez-Gallego F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: McArdle disease is an uncommon metabolic disorder usually characterized by marked exercise intolerance although great individual variability exists in its phenotypic manifestation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and indices of exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak), ventilatory threshold ...
Kang Jie - - 2007
This study was conducted to assess fat utilization across different exercise intensities and between males and females. Eleven males and 11 females completed a maximal test and four submaximal trials at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% VO(2) peak. The VO(2) peak and ventilatory threshold (VT) were assessed during the maximal ...
Prisman Eitan - - 2007
PURPOSE: Carbogen has long been under investigation as an adjuvant to radiotherapy of tumors. A major factor confounding its evaluation is its inconsistency in raising blood partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)). We investigated whether a new partial rebreathing method would provide better control of pCO(2) than carbogen. METHODS AND MATERIALS: ...
Anderson Cindy S - - 2007
The relationship between ventilatory (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) in 8 boys (11.1 +/- 0.7 yrs) and 9 men (24.0 +/- 3.3 yrs) with similar peak VO(2) levels was assessed. Percent peak VO(2) at VT and LT were higher (P < 0.05) in the boys (67.9 +/- 2.6% and 63.9 ...
Lucia Alejandro - - 2007
We assessed the possible association existing between alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X genotypes and the capacity for performing aerobic exercise in McArdle's patients. Forty adult McArdle's disease patients and forty healthy, age and gender-matched sedentary controls (21 men, 19 women in both groups) performed a graded test until exhaustion and a constant-load ...
Jarvis S S - - 2007
Foreign and soluble gas rebreathing methods are attractive for determining cardiac output (Q(c)) because they incur less risk than traditional invasive methods such as direct Fick and thermodilution. We compared simultaneously obtained Q(c) measurements during rest and exercise to assess the accuracy and precision of several rebreathing methods. Q(c) measurements ...
Neya Mituso - - 2007
We investigated the effects of nightly intermittent exposure to hypoxia and of training during intermittent hypoxia on both erythropoiesis and running economy (RE), which is indicated by the oxygen cost during running at submaximal speeds. Twenty-five college long- and middle- distance runners [maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) 60.3 +/- 4.7 ml ...
Guazzi M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a modern mainstay of the drug treatment of coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. Reduced aerobic work performance and slowed VO(2) kinetics are established features of the clinical picture of post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. We tested the hypothesis that statin therapy improves VO(2) exercise performance in ...
Reis V M - - 2007
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (VO(2)) slow component (SC) during level and uphill running in endurance runners, and to identify associations between the SC and the following aerobic fitness indicators: peak VO(2), running speed associated with the peak VO(2) (Vpeak), running speed at ...
Brown P I - - 2007
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) using non-motorised treadmill ergometry. METHODS: Ten male participants (mean [standard deviation] VO(2max): 57.5 [2.1] mL x kg(-1).min(-1)) completed a RSA test (10, 6-s sprints with 34-s recovery) on a ...
Kijima Akira - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated ...
Ferguson C - - 2007
A recent bout of high-intensity exercise can alter the balance of aerobic and anaerobic energy provision during subsequent exercise above the lactate threshold (theta(L)). However, it remains uncertain whether such "priming" influences the tolerable duration of subsequent exercise through changes in the parameters of aerobic function [e.g., theta(L), maximum oxygen ...
Hofmann P - - 2007
The use of the heart rate turn point (HRTP) to set target heart rate (THR) for prolonged rowing ergometer (E) and single scull rowing (R) was evaluated. Ten trained subjects (age 21.3 +/- 4.0 yrs; VO (2max) 4.77 +/- 0.62 l . min-1) performed incremental exercise tests and 30-min prolonged ...
Wasserman Karlman - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Biventricular pacing (BVP) is used for cardiac resynchronization therapy in wide-QRS-complex heart failure. We sought to quantify the effect of BVP on the exercise pathophysiology of heart failure patients. METHODS: Using cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we analyzed exercise data for a multicenter study sponsored by St. Jude Medical. Patients had ...
Cardoso Fábio - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Patients with COPD have decreased exercise capacity and low oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) during formal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and lower scores on health-related quality of life questionnaires. When isolated, these three variables show different correlations with COPD mortality. The multidimensional BODE (body mass index[BMI], airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity ...
DeLorey Darren S - - 2007
The effect of prior exercise on pulmonary O(2) uptake (Vo(2)(p)), leg blood flow (LBF), and muscle deoxygenation at the onset of heavy-intensity alternate-leg knee-extension (KE) exercise was examined. Seven subjects [27 (5) yr; mean (SD)] performed step transitions (n = 3; 8 min) from passive KE following no warm-up (HVY ...
Green H J - - 2007
This study investigated the effects of a 16-h protocol of heavy intermittent exercise on the intrinsic activity and protein and isoform content of skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The protocol consisted of 6 min of exercise performed once per hour at approximately 91% peak aerobic power (Vo(2 peak)) with tissue sampling from ...
Kitao Mitsutoshi - - 2007
The interaction of drought and elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) on carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and susceptibility to photoinhibition may be an important determinant of plant responses to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation in an anticipated elevated [CO(2)] environment. Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) leaves that developed wholly ...
Tworoger Shelley S - - 2007
Prolactin is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer; however, few modifiable factors are known to reduce prolactin concentrations. Therefore, we examined the effect of a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention on serum prolactin concentrations as a secondary end point (primary end points were estrogens and androgens). We randomly ...
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