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Kondo Hiroyo H Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Nagoya Women's University, Nagoya 467-8610, - - 2014
Estrogen receptor α (ER α) is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ER α gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ER α polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal ...
Sylvia Louisa G - - 2013
Individuals with bipolar disorder lead a sedentary lifestyle associated with worse course of illness and recurrence of symptoms. Identifying potentially modifiable predictors of exercise frequency could lead to interventions with powerful consequences on the course of illness and overall health. The present study examines baseline reports of exercise frequency of ...
Xiao Yuanyuan Y Muscle Biology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, 401 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2214, - - 2013
Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by predominantly type II (fast-twitch) muscle of old rats, but previous research has not evaluated exercise effects on GU by type I (slow-twitch) muscle from old rats. Accordingly, we studied male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (24 months old) and ...
Smith Carmen L - - 2013
Carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing has been recognised as a concern regarding respirator use and is related to symptoms of discomfort, fatigue, dizziness, headache, muscular weakness and drowsiness. Previous investigations are limited by small sample size and have not evaluated the relationship between CO2 inhalation and phonic respiration (breathing during speech) ...
Marek E - - 2013
Athletes have changes in the lung epithelial cells caused by inhalation of cold and dry air. The exhaled breath condensate contains a number of mediators from the respiratory system and H(2)O(2) is described as a marker of airways inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ...
Conney Allan H AH Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, NJ 08854, USA. - - 2013
Oral administration of green tea, black tea, or caffeine (but not the decaffeinated teas) inhibited ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Studies with caffeine indicated that its inhibitory effect on the ATR/Chk1 pathway is an important mechanism for caffeine's inhibition of UVB-induced carcinogenesis. The regular teas or ...
Ross Andrew William - - 2012
Zebrafish provide researchers and students alike with an excellent model of vertebrate nervous system development due to a high degree of conserved developmental mechanisms and transparent embryos that develop in synchrony. In these laboratory exercises, undergraduate students explore cell biological concepts while performing hypothesis-driven novel research utilizing methodologies such as ...
Chaabène Helmi - - 2012
This review focuses on the most important physical and physiological characteristics of karate athletes from the available scientific research. It has been established that karate's top-level performers require a high fitness level. Top-level male karate athletes are typified by low body fat and mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype characteristics. Studies dealing with body ...
Elliott Adrian D - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of pulse contour analysis calibrated with lithium dilution in a single device (LiDCO™) for measurement of cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) during exercise in healthy volunteers. We sought to; (a) compare pulse contour analysis (PulseCO) and lithium indicator dilution (LiDCO) ...
Storey Adam - - 2012
Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure ...
Charlot Keyne - - 2012
A carbohydrate (CHO) solution consumed before exposure to hypoxia has been reported to reduce arterial oxygen desaturation at rest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this effect occurred during exercise and when the CHO load is part of a meal. Eleven male subjects (mean age 20.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI ...
Syu Guan-Da - - 2012
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), a newly revealed antimicrobial strategy, is usually evoked by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase activation. Additionally, the acute severe exercise (ASE)-induced oxidative stress in neutrophils depends on the subject's physical fitness. PURPOSE:: We investigated whether ASE exerted differential effects on NET formation in sedentary ...
Kane D A - - 2012
In the sport of rowing, increasing the impulse applied to the oar handle during the stroke can result in greater boat velocities; this may be facilitated by increasing the surface area of the oar blade and/or increasing the length of the oars. The purpose of this study was to compare ...
He Congcong - - 2012
We recently identified physical exercise as a newly defined inducer of autophagy in vivo. Exercise induced autophagy in multiple organs involved in metabolic regulation, such as muscle, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. To study the physiological role of exercise-induced autophagy, we generated mice with a knock-in nonphosphorylatable mutation in BCL2 ...
Chi Aiping - - 2012
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllumon Antioxidant Activity in Skeletal Muscle of Exhaustive Exercise Mice. METHODS: Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained from Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharide and termed GPP1-a, GPP2-b, and GPP3-a, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) and infrared (IR) spectrum of the polysaccharides were determined. The fractions ...
Cook Summer B - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study compared endurance and neuromuscular function after bouts of low-load (LL), high-load (HL) and low-load blood flow restricted (LLBFR) resistance exercise. METHODS: Eight recreationally active male subjects completed 3 sets of dynamic knee extensions to volitional failure under three conditions: HL (70% peak torque), LL (20% peak torque), ...
Nana Alisa - - 2012
PURPOSE: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. This study investigates the reliability of DXA in measuring body composition of active individuals; specifically to ascertain biological variability associated with two different types of exercise ...
Caudwell Phillipa - - 2012
It is often reported that females lose less body weight than males in response to exercise. These differences are suggested to be a result of females exhibiting a stronger defence of body fat and a greater compensatory appetite response to exercise than males. PURPOSE: To compare the impact of 12 ...
Burmeister M A - - 2012
In response to oral glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) knockout (Glp1r−/−) mice become hyperglycaemic due to impaired insulin secretion. Exercise also induces hyperglycaemia in Glp1r−/− mice. In contrast to oral glucose, exercise decreases insulin secretion. This implies that exercise-induced hyperglycaemia in Glp1r−/− mice results from the loss of a non-insulinotropic ...
Fürholz Monika - - 2012
The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 ...
Gray Patrick - - 2012
PURPOSE: Fish oils and related fatty acid components have anti-inflammatory properties, with beneficial effects against various disorders such as cardiovascular disease. A single bout of exercise can alter immune function. However, the effects of fish oil on immune function after a single bout of exercise are currently unknown. This study ...
Jeon Hyeona - - 2012
Aging could be the cause of inflammation involved in the progression of many degenerative diseases while physical exercise might reduce the inflammation. This study examined the effects of aging versus exercise on serum profiles of cytokines and chemokines in mice models. Male C57BL/6N mice with different ages (2 and 20months ...
Mastorakos George - - 2012
Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity is blunted in autoimmunity. Exercise stimulates the HPA axis, and we hypothesized that in sarcoidosis patients responses to treadmill exercise would be reduced. Hence, we studied 44 sarcoidosis patients [27 untreated (age, mean±SD, 42±2 yrs, 12 males, 15 females) and ...
Bechshoeft Rasmus - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperaminoacidemia stimulates myofibrillar fractional synthesis rate (myoFSR) transiently in resting skeletal muscle. We investigated whether light-load resistance exercise can extent this responsiveness. METHODS: Ten healthy males exercised one leg with a light-load resistance-like exercise at 16% of 1 repetition maximum and received oral protein boluses every hour ...
Meier Patrick - - 2013
To ascertain whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to training-induced adaptation of skeletal muscle, we administered ROS-scavenging antioxidants (AOX; 140 mg/l of ascorbic acid, 12 mg/l of coenzyme Q10 and 1% N-acetyl-cysteine) via drinking water to 16 C57BL/6 mice. Sixteen other mice received unadulterated tap water (CON). One cohort of ...
McMillan Elliott M - - 2012
Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension are associated with a generalized skeletal myopathy including a proapoptotic phenotype. Current evidence suggests that exercise may alter apoptosis-related signaling in skeletal muscle; however, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle DNA fragmentation and apoptotic signaling is unclear in hypertensive animals. Male normotensive Wistar Kyoto ...
Trask Aaron J - - 2012
The goals of the present study were to compare coronary resistance microvessel (CRM) remodeling between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice, and to determine the impact of aerobic exercise training on CRM remodeling in diabetes. Eight week old male mice were divided into T1DM: ...
Edwards A M - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not physiological responses to self-pacing are similar across different exercise modalities where the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is matched. Ten recreationally active adult male subjects completed baseline tests of peak oxygen uptake (.VO2) and subsequently on two separate occasions ...
Prata Luana O - - 2012
Human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with unknown etiology and poor prognosis in which patients present a decrease in functional exercise tolerance and quality of life. At present, no treatment which can improve the prognosis of this disease is available. Many biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis have been studied, ...
Aoi Wataru - - 2012
ObjectiveSeveral epidemiological studies have shown that regular exercise can prevent the onset of colon cancer, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Myokines are secreted skeletal muscle proteins responsible for some exercise-induced health benefits including metabolic improvement and anti-inflammatory effects in organs. The purpose of this study was to identify new ...
Pehmøller Christian - - 2012
Excess lipid availability causes insulin resistance. We examined the effect of acute exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance and TBC1 domain family member 1/4 (TBCD1/4)-related signaling in skeletal muscle. In eight healthy young male subjects, 1 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise was followed by 7 h of saline or intralipid infusion. ...
Liu Xiaolei - - 2012
The crosstalk between mTORC1/S6K1 signaling and AMPK is emerging as a powerful and highly regulated way to gauge cellular energy and nutrient content. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanism by which exercise training reverses lipid-induced insulin resistance and the role of AMPK/mTOR/S6K1 signaling axis in ...
Teixeira G R - - 2012
Studies have investigated the effect of exercise on prostate cancer risk. However, there are still doubts regarding the correlation between physical activity and the steroid hormones with respect to the reduction of the risk for prostatic lesions. We evaluated the levels of corticosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, estradiol, and steroid hormone ...
Huang Tung-Yi - - 2012
Although exercise usually improves motor performance, the underlying cellular changes in the cerebellum remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether and how chronic treadmill exercise in young rats induced Purkinje cell changes to improve motor performance and rendered the cerebellum less vulnerable to toxin insults. After 1-wk ...
Philippou Anastassios - - 2012
Exercise-induced muscle damage causes a disproportionally larger drop in maximal force when measured at short versus optimal or long muscle lengths, resulting in a shift of the length (angle)-force relationship towards longer lengths. However, little attention has been given to the potential effect of this shift on the rate of ...
Smith Caroline J - - 2012
PURPOSE: Limited regional sweat rate (RSR) data are available for females, with only a small number of sites measured across the body. Similarly, sex differences in sweating concentrate on whole body values, with limited RSR data available. METHODS: A modified absorbent technique was used to collect sweat at two exercise ...
Okamoto Masahiro - - 2012
Mild exercise activates hippocampal neurons through the glutamatergic pathway and also promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). We hypothesized that such exercise could enhance local androgen synthesis and cause AHN because hippocampal steroid synthesis is facilitated by activated neurons via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Here we addressed this question using a mild-intense treadmill ...
Liu Weina - - 2012
Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to affective dysfunction in adulthood, which may be associated with the alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Physical exercise has been shown to ameliorate depressive symptoms. The objectives of present study were to investigate whether prenatal exposure to GCs induces depression-like behaviors in adult ...
van Tienen F H J - - 2012
Context:Conflicting data exist on mitochondrial function and physical activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development.Objective:The aim was to assess mitochondrial function at different stages during T2DM development in combination with physical exercise in longstanding T2DM patients.Design and Methods:We performed cross-sectional analysis of skeletal muscle from 12 prediabetic 11 longstanding ...
Karavelioglu Yusuf - - 2012
Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood pressure (BP) response to exercise in normotensive patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 75 normotensive subjects with type 2 DM (group 1), and 70 age-gender matched normotensive healthy ...
Gagnon Daniel - - 2012
To assess potential mechanisms responsible for the lower sudomotor thermosensitivity in women during exercise, we examined sex differences in sudomotor function and skin blood flow (SkBF) during exercise performed at progressive increases in the requirement for heat loss. Eight men and eight women cycled at rates of metabolic heat production ...
Milne K J - - 2012
Exercise increases the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) in the myocardium, and this exercise-induced increase is associated with significantly improved cardiac recovery following insult. However, while heat shock has been shown to elevate Hsp70 primarily in the cardiac vasculature of the myocardium, the localization following exercise is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley ...
Vieira Rodolfo de Paula - - 2012
Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) results in lung inflammation. Regular aerobic exercise improves the inflammatory status in different pulmonary diseases. However, the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on the pulmonary response to DEP have not been investigated. The present study evaluated the effect of aerobic conditioning on the pulmonary ...
Braun William A - - 2012
This study investigated whether downhill (DH) running (10-min @ 214.4 m·min(-1) and -10% grade) would elicit acute and delayed effects on running economy (RE) upon completion of DH running (RE2) and daily over 72 h (RE3, RE4, RE5). Fifteen runners (8 female, 7 male) completed the protocol. RE was measured ...
Novaes Rômulo D - - 2012
This study investigated the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on pancreatic morphology and glucose metabolism at rest and during exercise. Wistar rats were randomized into control (CG=10) and infected (IG=10) groups. The IG animals were inoculated with T. cruzi Y strain (300,000 trypomastigotes/50g). After 9 weeks, the animals were subjected ...
Gimenez Manuel - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on exertional dyspnea and exercise capacity of square wave (bilevel) cycle ergometry endurance exercise training (SWEET) and comprehensive directed breathing vs. walking while pushing an OxCar and traditional diaphragmatic breathing for male smokers with normal spirometry but reduced exercise ...
Greco Camila C - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the boundary of submaximal-speed zones (i.e., exercise intensity domains) between maximal aerobic speed (S-400) and lactate threshold (LT) in swimming. A 400-m all-out test, a 7 x 200-m incremental step test and two to four 30-min sub-maximal tests were performed by ...
Hellsten Y - - 2012
The regulation of blood flow to skeletal muscle involves a complex interaction between several locally formed vasodilators that are produced both in the skeletal muscle interstitium and intravascularly. The gas nitric oxide (NO) and the purines ATP and adenosine, are potent vasodilators that are formed by multiple cell types and ...
Lovatel Gisele Agustini - - 2012
Exercise induces brain function adaptations and improves learning and memory; however the time window of exercise effects has been poorly investigated. Studies demonstrate an important role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2) pathway function in the mechanisms underlying memory formation. The aim of present work was to investigate the effects of treadmill ...
Bergstrom Haley C - - 2012
The purposes of this study were to compare the power outputs and estimated times to exhaustion (T(lim)) at the gas exchange threshold (GET), physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold (PWC(RPE)), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Three male and 5 female subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22.4 ± 2.8 years) ...
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