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Results 401 - 450 of 945
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Wackerhage Henning - - 2006
In this article we review some of our recent work concerning the effects of nutrition and exercise on protein synthesis and signal transduction in human musculoskeletal tissues. A great deal of new information is being generated by the application of recently refined techniques for measuring protein turnover. The field remains ...
Kjaer Michael - - 2006
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease activity increase with mechanical loading. This can ...
Benjamin M - - 2006
Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of ...
Eckstein F - - 2006
The effects of exercise on articular hyaline articular cartilage have traditionally been examined in animal models, but until recently little information has been available on human cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging now permits cartilage morphology and composition to be analysed quantitatively in vivo. This review briefly describes the methodological background of ...
Firth Elwyn C - - 2006
Horses can gallop within hours of birth, and may begin training for athletic competition while still growing. This review cites studies on the effects of exercise on bone, tendon and articular cartilage, as detected by clinical and research imaging techniques, tissue biochemical analysis and microscopy of various kinds. For bone, ...
Park Ko Eun - - 2006
Electrospinning of chitin/silk fibroin (SF) blend solutions in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) was investigated to fabricate a biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds for tissue engineering. The morphology of the electrospun chitin/SF blend nanofibers was investigated with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The average diameters of chitin/SF blend fibers decreased from 920 to ...
Collin Bertrand - - 2006
The aim of our study was to explore some potential pleïotropic effects of atorvastatin, after stenting in the iliac arteries of normocholesterolemic rabbits. On day 0, 27 rabbits underwent stent implantation and were randomized into either the control group (standard chow, CTRL, n = 15) or the atorvastatin group (10 ...
Emerson Lyska L - - 2006
Same-day turnaround of pathology specimens is desirable in this era of managed care, and rapid microwave tissue processing produces histologic features of a quality equivalent to overnight processing. We studied whether microwave-assisted rapid tissue processing adversely affects the quality of immunohistochemical staining. We selected 30 specimens (20 neoplastic and 10 ...
Wang James H-C - - 2006
Tendinopathy affects millions of people in athletic and occupational settings and is a nemesis for patients and physicians. Mechanical loading is a major causative factor for tendinopathy; however, the exact mechanical loading conditions (magnitude, frequency, duration, loading history, or some combinations) that cause tendinopathy are poorly defined. Exercise animal model ...
Hershberger John C - - 2006
[reaction: see text] Oxapalladacycles were immobilized on polystyrene-divinylbenzene supports and treated with 3-aryl-2-propynoates or 1-alkyl-1,2-propadienes to afford 2H-1-benzopyrans in yields superior to those for solution-phase experiments. Isolation of benzopyrans was facilitated, and 71-80% of the palladium was recovered. Effects of resin loading with phosphorus and palladium were studied, and the ...
Liu Xuhui - - 2006
Proteoglycan aggregate is the primary component in articular cartilage responsible for resisting compressive loading. It consists of a core molecule of hyaluronan and a number of side chains of aggrecan bound to hyaluronan non-covalently. The loss of aggrecan from articular cartilage is considered to be a major factor in the ...
Feng Zhonggang - - 2006
As a step toward the fabrication of small tendon grafts, fibroblast-collagen gels were constructed with orientated fibrils induced by static or dynamic loading. Three groups of gel samples, each consisting of 1.0 x 10(6) fibroblasts and 2 mg type I collagen, were fabricated: freely contracted gels formed the control group; ...
Gandhi Saurabh V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We sought to compare uterine cervical electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements employing two probes of different sizes, and to employ a finite element model to predict and compare the fraction of electrical current derived from subepithelial stromal tissue. METHODS: Cervical impedance was measured in 12 subjects during early pregnancy using ...
Kersh K D - - 2006
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is being used to treat desmitis and tendonitis in horses. This paper compares the clinical, ultrasonographic and histological characteristics of ESWT treated collagenase induced superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) lesions, versus untreated controls. This blinded study utilizes six mature, healthy horses where bilateral forelimb SDFT ...
Malipeddi Venkata Ramana - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In an attempt to find a better treatment for bacterial infections and burn wounds, various semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of norfloxacin were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release through cellophane membrane, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties. The prepared formulations were compared with ...
Alvarez Richard G RG Orthopedics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, 975 E. Third Street, Hospital Box 287, Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA. - - 2006
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a relatively common problem of middle-aged adults that usually is treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to identify strength deficits with early stage PTTD and to assess the efficacy of a focused nonoperative treatment protocol. Forty-seven consecutive patients with stage I or ...
Keil N M - - 2006
Injuries around the tarsal joint are common in dairy cows kept in tie stalls. This study investigated the influence of the frequency and duration of outdoor exercise on the prevalence of hock lesions in tied Swiss dairy cows. Over a 1-year period (from January to December), cows on 66 farms ...
Krishna C Murali - - 2005
A pilot Raman microspectroscopy study of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and deparaffinized sections from the same ovarian normal and malignant tissues was carried out. This approach was considered in order to evaluate the suitability of these ex vivo tissue handling procedures in discrimination as well as biochemical characterization. The spectra of formalin-fixed ...
Firth E C - - 2005
This paper summarises and presents in context the main findings of an extensive series of studies of early training lasting 13 weeks in which the tissue responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses were assessed using a combination of methods. Negligible clinical injury was detected and thus the study fulfilled the intention ...
Wilson W - - 2005
Articular cartilage plays a vital role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Due to osteoarthritis degeneration of articular cartilage occurs. The initial event that triggers the pathological process of cartilage degeneration is still unknown. Cartilage damage due to osteoarthritis is believed to be mechanically induced. Hence, to investigate the initiation ...
Mackey A L - - 2005
Although it is known that exercise exerts a positive regulatory effect on collagen synthesis, the effects of endurance training on muscle endomysial connective tissue in man are not so well documented. To investigate this, a single muscle biopsy was collected from two groups of volunteers - endurance-trained sports participants and ...
Kubo Keitaro - - 2006
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of isometric squat training on human tendon stiffness and jump performances. Eight subjects completed 12 weeks (4 days/week) of isometric squat training, which consisted of bilateral leg extension at 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 15 s per set (10 sets/day). ...
Netto Marcelo V MV The Cole Eye Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of stromal surface irregularity after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and myofibroblast generation along with the development of corneal haze. Variable levels of stromal surface irregularity were generated in rabbit corneas by positioning a fine mesh screen in the ...
Scherzer Sabine - - 2005
To report the use of a nylon suture system (Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair System; Securos Inc Veterinary Orthopedics) as a prosthesis for equine laryngoplasty. Experimental and prospective clinical study. Cadaver specimens (n = 5) and 7 horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia. A commercially available monofilament nylon suture system was ...
Kubo Keitaro - - 2005
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of repetitive drop jumps (DJ) and isometric leg presses (LP) on the tendon properties in knee extensors. Before and after each endurance test, the elongation (L) of the tendon and aponeurosis of the vastus lateralis muscle was measured directly by ultrasonography while ...
Cao Yi - - 2005
PURPOSE: Although edema generally is considered to contribute to resistance to tendon mobilization and is a cause of tendon overload during postoperative motion exercise, it is unclear exactly how edema of the peritendinous tissues affects tendon mobilization. We assessed the effects of simulated subcutaneous edema on the gliding resistance of ...
Roos Ewa M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of moderate exercise on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in knee cartilage in subjects at high risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Forty-five subjects (16 women, mean age 46 years, mean body mass index 26.6 kg/m(2)) who underwent partial medial meniscus resection 3-5 years previously were randomized ...
Hariprasad Seenu M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine the penetration of moxifloxacin 0.5% in the human aqueous and vitreous when delivered by a presoaked collagen shield. SETTING: University-based clinical practice. METHODS: Moxifloxacin 0.5% was administered before vitrectomy surgery in 10 patients using a 24-hour dissolvable cross-linked corneal collagen shield delivery device. Aqueous and vitreous samples ...
Cook Jill L - - 2005
The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of activity on tendon vascularity in 17 abnormal patellar tendons. Tendon vascularity is significantly increased by activity (p < 0.001). From this finding, we infer that imaging abnormal tendons with color Doppler sonography to detect neovascularization may be most useful ...
Byron Christopher R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vitro effects of radial shock waves on membrane permeability, viability, and structure of chondrocytes and articular cartilage. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cartilage explants obtained from the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones of 6 horses. PROCEDURE: Equine cartilage was subjected to radial shock waves and then maintained as explants ...
Plumb M S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biosynthetic response of elderly human femoral head articular cartilage to mechanical stimulation in vitro and its variation with site. METHOD: Full-depth cartilage biopsies of articular cartilage were removed from defined sites on 10 femoral heads from patients aged 68-95 years. Cartilage explants were subjected to either ...
Cake M A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of oestrogen depletion produced by surgical ovariectomy on the structural and biomechanical properties of ovine femoro-tibial articular cartilage (AC), and the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine by these tissues. METHODS: Six aged ewes were surgically ovariectomised (OVX), while six were used ...
Dowling B A - - 2005
The in vitro and in vivo mechanical properties of the superficial digital flexor tendon have been described. To date the focus has been on single load to failure testing, however refined in vivo methods may prove useful to evaluate the effects of treatment and exercise on tendons. During maximal exercise, ...
Kleemann R U - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Substantial changes in articular cartilage composition and mechanical properties occur during the development of osteoarthritis (OA). While softening in the initial stage is reported and sometimes used as an indicator of early OA, there is a lack of data relating the macroscopic appearance of cartilage to its mechanical and ...
Kongsgaard M - - 2005
The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) injury is high in various sports, and AT rupture patients have been reported to have a 200-fold risk of sustaining a contralateral rupture. Tendon adaptation to different exercise modes is not fully understood. The present study investigated the structural properties of the AT in ...
Kubo Keitaro K Department of Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures during stretch - shortening cycle exercise. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 26 participants was measured by ultrasonography while they performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up ...
Hosoyamada Yasue - - 2005
The ultrastructure of the rat intestinal interstitium was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanical dynamics to stabilize the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal folds. In the rat, the small intestine lacks circular folds, but the large intestine possesses spiral folds. The intestinal villi, the largest in the duodenum, decreased in ...
Miller Benjamin F - - 2005
We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied over ...
Kobayashi Tatsuya - - 2005
In the developing growth plate, periarticular chondrocytes proliferate, differentiate into columnar chondrocytes, and then further differentiate into postmitotic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Parathyroid hormone-related (PTH-related) protein (PTHrP), regulated by Indian hedgehog (Ihh), prevents premature hypertrophic differentiation, thereby maintaining the length of columns. Ihh regulates cartilage development through PTHrP-independent pathways as well. Here ...
Akkus Ozan - - 2005
Mineralized collagen fibrils are the basic building blocks of bone tissue at the supramolecular level. Several disease states, manipulation of the expression of specific proteins involved in biomineralization, and treatment with different agents alter the extent of mineralization as well as the morphology of mineral crystals which in turn affect ...
Kalliokoski Kari K - - 2005
Both tendon and peritendinous tissue show evidence of metabolic activity, but the effect of acute exercise on substrate turnover is unknown. We therefore examined the influence of acute exercise on glucose uptake in the patellar and quadriceps tendons during dynamic exercise in humans. Glucose uptake was measured in five healthy ...
Weaver Brian T - - 2005
Our laboratory has developed an animal model to study factors leading to chronic disease in a blunt impacted joint. Studies to date indicate post trauma softening of the impacted joint cartilage, but a limited degree of histological degradation in the tissue. The model utilizes treadmill exercise of the animal post ...
Nakama Leena H - - 2005
Tendon injuries at the epicondyle can occur in athletes and workers whose job functions involve repetitive, high force hand activities, but the early pathophysiologic changes of tendon are not well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate early tendon structural changes, specifically the formation of microtears, caused by ...
Hills Robert L - - 2005
Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) group of the TGF-beta superfamily have been shown to enhance matrix synthesis and maintain cartilage phenotype in long-term culture. These proteins have also been shown to augment cartilage repair in vivo, and may be of potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of damaged ...
Boyer Martin I - - 2005
Until recently, attempts to optimize the postoperative regimen following intrasynovial flexor tendon repair had been essentially empirical, in that both the time and graduation of the exercise regimen have lacked clear conceptual guidelines. The magnitude of load applied in previous studies had not been clearly controlled, and similarly, the effects ...
Chang Yi-Sheng - - 2005
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of various dyes for anterior capsule staining to facilitate capsulorhexis during cataract surgery. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology and Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. METHODS: Various concentrations of indocyanine green (ICG), methylene blue (MB), gentian violet (GV), trypan ...
Yoon J H - - 2005
Tendon remodeling occurs in response to changes in loading and mobilization. Though the normal mechanical function depends on precise alignment of collagen fibrils, it is proteoglycans that regulate collagen fibrillogenesis and thus, indirectly, tendon function. In this paper we discuss the basic biochemical structure of several members of two proteoglycans ...
Kjaer M - - 2005
Connective tissue of the human tendon plays an important role in force transmission. The extracellular matrix turnover of tendon is influenced by physical activity. Blood flow, oxygen demand, and the level of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinases increase with mechanical loading. Gene transcription and especially post-translational modifications of proteins of ...
Reeves N D - - 2005
While microgravity exposure is known to cause deterioration of skeletal muscle performance, little is known regarding its effect on tendon structure and function. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical properties of human tendon and to assess the effectiveness of ...
Stechmiller Joyce K - - 2005
Modern advances in nutritional therapies have led to the specific use of arginine supplementation for protein synthesis, cell signaling through the production of nitric oxide, and cell proliferation through its metabolism to ornithine and to polyamines. Arginine is classified as a nonessential amino acid that becomes a conditionally essential substrate ...
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