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Brown R E RE School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal adipose tissue (AT) measurement site influences the association between baseline and change in abdominal subcutaneous (ASAT) and visceral AT (VAT), and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents. Fifty-five obese adolescents (14.9 ± 1.7 years; 51% male; 42% white) participated in an aerobic ...
Fyfe Jackson J JJ Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University, Footscray Park Campus, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC, 8001, Australia, - - 2014
Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and ...
Tuzun N N Özel Ege Sağlık Hospital, Cardiology İzmir, Turkey - - - 2014
Aerobic training has been reported to have a positive effect on myocardial performance index. The aim of the present study was to examine the myocardial performance index in sprinters and endurance athletes. A total of 66 elite male athletes (36 sprinter and 30 endurance athletes) and 33 agematched sedentary controls ...
Smith Joshua R JR Departments of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the efficacy of the dysanapsis ratio (DR) in predicting expiratory flow limitation during exercise, 146 subjects (73 men, 73 women) performed standard pulmonary function and maximal incremental exercise tests. Tidal flow-volume loops were recorded at maximal exercise with maximal flow-volume loops measured pre- and post-exercise. Men had larger ...
Hester Garrett M GM Department of Health and Human Performance, Oklahoma State - - 2014
Low-repetition resistance-training protocols are currently recommended for poweroriented workouts. However, there is little evidence on whether additional repetitions would be detrimental to power production. The purpose of this study was to examine power output during a high-volume, power-oriented back squat protocol. Nineteen resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age = 22.68 ...
Frankenberg Noni T NT 1La Trobe - - 2014
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a subgroup of the highly conserved family of HSPs that are stress inducible and confer resistance to cellular stress and injury. This study aimed to quantitatively examine whether type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) affects sHSPs, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, localization and phosphorylation in human ...
Fortington L L Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Ballarat, - - 2014
In determining the effectiveness of sports injury prevention programs (IPP), an assessment of program fidelity is needed. This includes considering whether the intervention was delivered and adhered to as it was intended. Evaluation of program fidelity prevents incorrect conclusions being made about the effects of an IPP and can provide ...
Engan Harald K HK 1 Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building, Mid Sweden University , Östersund, Sweden - - 2014
Abstract Engan, Harald K, Angelica Lodin-Sundstrom, Fanny Schagatay, and Erika Schagatay. The effect of climbin Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise. High Alt Med Biol. 15:52-57, 2014.-Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various ...
Eve Elizabeth J EJ Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, 1 Kneeland St., DHS-1512, Boston, MA 02111;. - - 2014
This study evaluated the performance of dental students versus prosthodontics residents on a simulated caries removal exercise using a newly designed, 3D immersive haptic simulator. The intent of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the simulator's construct validity, which in the context of this experiment was defined ...
Simpson Richard J RJ Laboratory of Integrated Physiology, Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the effects of acute exercise on ...
Teopompi Elisabetta E Respiratory Disease and Lung Function Unit Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, - - 2014
We assessed the relationship between minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) and ventilatory constraints during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Slope and intercept of the VE/VCO2 linear relationship, the ratios of inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (IC/TLC) and of tidal volume (VT) over ...
O'Donnell Denis E DE Queen's University & Kingston General Hospital, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Department of Medicine, Kingston, Ontario, Canada ; - - 2014
In many parts of the world, the prevalence of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. Such patients tend to have greater respiratory symptoms, more severe restriction of daily activities, poorer health-related quality of life and greater health care utilization than their non-obese ...
Jajtner Adam R AR Institute of Exercise Science and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, - - 2014
Resistance training is a common form of exercise for competitive and recreational athletes. Enhancing recovery from resistance training may potentially improve the muscle remodeling processes, stimulating a faster return to peak performance. To examine the effects of two different recovery modalities, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and cold water immersion (CWI) ...
Bonne Thomas Christian - - 2014
With this study we tested the hypothesis that six weeks of endurance training increases maximal cardiac output (Qmax) relatively more by elevating blood volume (BV) than by inducing structural and functional changes within the heart. Nine healthy but untrained volunteers (VO2max 47 ± 5 ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) underwent supervised training (60 min; ...
Fahs Christopher A CA Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg, MA, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine the muscular adaptations to low-load resistance training performed to fatigue with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Middle-aged (42-62 years) men (n = 12) and women (n = 6) completed 18 sessions of unilateral knee extensor resistance training to volitional fatigue over 6 weeks. One limb trained under ...
Mulder E E Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, - - 2014
Objectives: This work provides a reference for future papers originating from this study by providing basic results on body mass, urine volume, and hemodynamic changes to 5 days of bed rest (BR) and by describing acute cardio-respiratory/mechanographic responses to a short versatile upright exercise battery. Methods: Ten male subjects (mean±SEM ...
Pinto Teresa E TE Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New - - 2014
OBJECTIVETo better understand the cardiac limitations during exercise in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we measured left ventricular performance with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during exercise in diabetic and nondiabetic adolescents.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThirteen subjects with T2DM, 27 overweight/obese nondiabetic (ObeseND) subjects, and 19 nondiabetic nonobese control subjects ...
Rossman Matthew J MJ Johnson State College, Johnson, - - 2014
Variable airway function is a central feature of the asthmatic condition. Thus, habitually active asthmatics are certain to exercise under conditions of variable airway (dys)function. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of variable pre-exercise airway function on ventilation during whole-body exercise in asthmatic adults. Eight mild ...
Balducci Stefano S Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, "La Sapienza" University, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
Musculoskeletal disorders are common in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may represent a barrier to physical activity (PA). In the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study, we assessed whether a strategy aimed at minimizing the risk of injury and worsening of musculoskeletal symptoms favors participation in exercise training ...
Peikert Jarett J Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Science, North Dakota State University, - - 2014
Context : Ingesting high-sodium drinks pre-exercise can improve thermoregulation and performance. Athletic trainers (19%) give athletes pickle juice (PJ) prophylactically for cramping. No data exist on whether this practice affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Objective : To determine if drinking 2 mL/kg body mass of PJ, hypertonic saline, or deionized ...
Bottoms Lindsay L School of Health, Sport and Bioscience, University of East London, London, UK, - - 2014
The smaller muscle mass of the upper body compared to the lower body may elicit a smaller thermoregulatory stimulus during exercise and thus produce novel training-induced thermoregulatory adaptations. Therefore, the principal aim of the study was to examine the effect of arm training on thermoregulatory responses during submaximal exercise. Thirteen ...
Egan Kieren J KJ 1University of Edinburgh, - - 2014
. Regular exercise reduces the risk of a first-ever stroke and is associated with smaller infarcts. Although evidence has suggested that therapeutic exercise following stroke is beneficial, we do not yet know whether exercise reduces stroke severity and improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying any benefit remain unclear. . To ...
Diwakar Amit A Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, 52242, - - 2014
The integrity of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier is vulnerable to intense exercise in elite athletes, similar to the phenomenon of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in thoroughbred racehorses. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset shortness of breath, dry cough, and hypoxemia after engaging in an extremely vigorous game of ...
Klonizakis Markos M From the 1Center for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 2Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; and 3York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, - - 2014
This study compared the effects of a 2-week program of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) with the effects of higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (CT) on cardiopulmonary and vascular functions in postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to undertake six HIT (n = 12) or CT (n = 10) ...
Stec Sebastian M - - 2014
Patients with pre-excitation without arrhythmic symptoms are diagnosed as Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with WPW pattern and reported dyspnea. Five patients (4 adults and 1 adolescents; 5 females; age, 33 ± 15 years) with ...
Miller Kevin C KC School of Rehabilitation and Medical Science, Central Michigan University, Mount - - 2014
Context : Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective : To ...
Frisk Bente B Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway ; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, - - 2014
Ventilatory capacity is reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Tidal volume (V T) is lower and breathing frequency higher at a given ventilation (V E) compared to healthy subjects. We examined whether airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation in COPD patients were related to breathing pattern. An incremental treadmill ...
James Lewis J LJ School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK, - - 2014
Studies have examined adding protein to carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration drinks, but the effects of protein in isolation remain unknown. Ten subjects completed two trials in which they were dehydrated (~2 % of pre-exercise body mass) by intermittent cycling in the heat. Subjects then rehydrated (150 % total mass loss) over 1 h with mineral ...
Chen Chiao-Nan CN Department of Physical Therapy, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, - - 2014
This study investigated the differences of exercise self-efficacy, compliance and the effectiveness of home-based exercise in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred-ten individuals at risk for diabetes participated in this study. Subjects were categorized into individuals with MetS and without MetS. Metabolic risk factors and exercise self-efficacy ...
Chen Kuan-Jung KJ Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, - - 2014
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of ...
Wakabayashi Hitoshi - - 2014
This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat. Ten Japanese and ten Malaysian males with matched physical characteristics (height, body weight, and peak oxygen consumption) participated in this study. Participants performed exercise for 60 min ...
Sperandio Evandro F EF Department of Human Movement Sciences, Laboratory of Human Motricity, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Federal University of São Paulo [UNIFESP]), Santos/SP, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exercise limitation has been described in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); however, whether the walking performance is impaired in these patients should be elucidated. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the physiologic responses to the incremental shuttle-walk test (ISWT) in patients with AIS. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine patients with AIS and ...
Van De Bruaene Alexander A 1Department of Adult Congenital Cardiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
-Patients with Fontan circulation have reduced exercise capacity. The absence of a pre-systemic pump may limit flow through the pulmonary circulation restricting ventricular filling and cardiac output. We evaluated exercise hemodynamics and the effect of sildenafil on exercise hemodynamics in Fontan patients. -Ten Fontan patients (6 male, 20±4 years) underwent ...
Garrett A T AT School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, United - - 2014
Most heat acclimation data are from regimes longer than 1 week, and acclimation advice is to prevent dehydration. Objectives: We hypothesized that (i) short-term (5-day) heat acclimation would substantially improve physiological strain and exercise tolerance under heat stress, and (ii) dehydration would provide a thermally independent stimulus for adaptation. Methods: ...
Claessen Guido G University Hospitals - - 2014
Background: Breathing-induced changes in intrathoracic pressures influence left and right ventricular (LV and RV) volumes, the exact nature and extent of which has not previously been evaluated in humans. We sought to examine this 'respiratory pump' using novel real-time cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Methods: Eight healthy subjects underwent serial ...
Bard Robert L RL Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ventilatory inefficiency (high volume of expired air/volume of carbon dioxide eliminated [Ve/Vco2] slope), and impaired exercise tolerance (low peak volume of oxygen consumption) obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) strongly predict mortality in heart failure (HF) patients; however, other CPX variables may also contain prognostic information. Therefore, the purpose of ...
Beeh Kai-Michael KM insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
QVA149 is a novel, inhaled, once-daily dual bronchodilator containing a fixed-dose combination of the long-acting β2-agonist indacaterol and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (NVA237), for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effects of QVA149 on exercise tolerance, hyperinflation, lung function and lung volumes versus ...
Ryan Eric D ED Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different volumes of a dynamic stretching routine on vertical jump (VJ) performance, flexibility and muscular endurance (ME). Twenty-six males (age 22·2 ± 1·3 years) performed three separate randomized conditions: (i) a control (CON) condition (5-min jog + 12 min of resting), (ii) ...
Koufaki Pelagia P School of Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, EH21 6UU Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - 2014
Objectives: The health benefits of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research. We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure. Design/Settings: Unblinded, two arm parallel design with random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient hospital rehabilitation gym. Methods: ...
Shin Young Oh YO Department of Healthcare, Global Graduate School, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of - - 2014
Introduction: We investigated the effect of endurance and non-endurance training on peripheral sudomotor sensitivity. Methods: The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) was performed. Results: Endurance-trained subjects (ET, long-distance runners) had a significantly shorter onset time of sweating, greater sweat volume, increased density of activated sweat glands and sweat gland ...
Rickards Caroline A CA 1University of North Texas Health Science - - 2014
Due to limited remote triage monitoring capabilities, combat medics cannot currently distinguish bleeding soldiers from those engaged in combat unless they have physical access to them. To test the hypothesis that low-level physiological signals can be used to develop a machine-learning algorithm for tracking changes in central blood volume that ...
Battikha Maya M From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; and the Cardiovascular Research Laboratory and the Exercise for Persons with Disabilities (ExPD) Program, Spaulding Hospital Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine whether the relationship between impaired pulmonary function and level of spinal cord injury would relate to lower maximal ventilation during exercise (Vemax) and hence reduced aerobic capacity. Pulmonary function and maximal aerobic capacity (V˙O2max) were assessed as measured by maximal oxygen uptake ...
Gargiulo Paola P SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples, - - 2014
During exercise, heart failure patients (HF) show an out-of-proportion ventilation increase, which in patients with COPD is blunted. When HF and COPD coexist, the ventilatory response to exercise is unpredictable. We evaluated a human model of respiratory impairment in 10 COPD-free HF patients and in 10 healthy subjects, tested with ...
Vancampfort Davy D Department of Neurosciences, University Psychiatric Centre , KU Leuven, Kortenberg , Belgium - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present systematic review was to provide a summary of neurobiological effects of physical exercise for people with schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Searches were conducted up to April ...
Mitchell Cameron J CJ Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and ...
Wirtz Nicolas N Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, and The German Research Centre of Elite Sport, German Sport University Cologne , - - 2014
Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. ...
Donti Olyvia O Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Athens , - - 2014
This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three ...
Ritzmann Ramona R Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, - - 2014
Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and "control" groups in regard to training volume, load and ...
Takagi Shun S Department of Sports Medicine for Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8402, Japan, - - 2014
Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and blood volume response in activating muscles during treadmill exercise were compared between prepubertal boys (n = 9, age: 9 ± 1 years) and young men (n = 9, age: 22 ± 2 years). SmO2 and blood volume responses were monitored continuously during the exercise at ...
Kilen Anders A Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, - - 2014
It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h ...
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