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de Geus Eco J C EJ Department of Biological Psychology,VU University,Amsterdam,The - - 2014
Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three major conclusions: First, individual differences in physical ...
Slopack Dara D Angiogenesis Research Group, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, - - 2014
The physiological process of exercise-induced angiogenesis involves the orchestrated upregulation of angiogenic factors together with repression of angiostatic factors. The Forkhead Box "O" (FoxO) transcription factors promote an angiostatic environment in pathological contexts. We hypothesized that endothelial FoxO1 and FoxO3a also play an integral role in restricting the angiogenic response ...
Goodwin Huw H Loughborough University Centre for Research into Eating Disorders, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, - - 2014
The risk factors for compulsive exercise are unknown. This study aims to explore longitudinal sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise, using a 12-month prospective design. A sample of 332 male and female adolescents (aged 13-15 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of sociocultural risk factors and compulsive exercise at baseline and ...
Ménétrey Jacques J Centre de medicine de l'appareil locomoteur et du sport, Unité d'Orthopédie et Traumatologie du Sport (UOTS), Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologie de l'appareil moteur, University Hospital of Geneva (HUG) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland, - - 2014
Patellofemoral instability may occur in a young population as a result of injury during sporting activities. This review focuses on return to sport after one episode of dislocation treated no operatively and as well after surgery for chronic patellofemoral instability. With or without surgery, only two-thirds of patients return to ...
Gorgey Ashraf S AS Ashraf S Gorgey, Department of Veterans Affairs, Hunter Holmes McGuire Medical Center, Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders Service, Richmond, VA 23249, United - - 2014
Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program ...
Chen Yu-Wen YW Haemostasis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Unit, University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Science, City Hospital , Birmingham , United - - 2014
Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor and a strong predictor for chronic disease and premature death. Low-grade inflammation has been proved a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory processes have been also involved in maintaining the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. In addition, an inverse linear dose-response ...
Ter Stege Marloes H P MH Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2014
Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is essential to evaluate the ...
Kampshoff Caroline S - - 2014
For an exercise intervention to be successful, it is important that cancer survivors adhere to the prescribed program. To be able to improve adherence and to preserve achieved beneficial effects, insights into the relevant and modifiable determinants is important. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review determinants of exercise adherence and ...
Della Gatta Paul A PA Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC, 3125, - - 2014
Intense resistance exercise causes mechanical loading of skeletal muscle, followed by muscle adaptation. Chemotactic factors likely play an important role in these processes. We investigated the time course of changes in the expression and tissue localization of several key chemotactic factors in skeletal muscle during the early phase of recovery ...
Marton Orsolya O Research Institute of Sport Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Semmelweis University, Alkotas u. 44.TF, Budapest, - - 2014
Trainability is important in elite sport and in recreational physical activity, and the wide range for response to training is largely dependent on genotype. In this study, we compare a newly developed rat model system selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance from aerobic training to test ...
Green Daniel J DJ Liverpool John Moores University - - 2014
The objectives of our study were to examine (i) the proportion of 'responders' and 'non-responders' to exercise training in terms of vascular function, (ii) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and (iii) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to exercise-induced changes in artery ...
Garcia-Aymerich Judith J Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Patients with chronic respiratory diseases are usually physically inactive, which is an important negative prognostic factor. Therefore, promoting regular physical activity is of key importance in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of life in this population. A current challenge to pulmonary rehabilitation is the need to develop ...
Troosters Thierry T Respiratory Rehabilitation and Respiratory Division, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; KU Leuven, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Pulmonary rehabilitation programs vary in terms of duration and location. Differences also exists in the patients who are judged eligible for rehabilitation. This article reviews the options clinicians have to organize programs in terms of who should be referred, when, where, and for how long. There are several risk factors ...
Kempton Thomas T a Faculty of Health , University of Technology , Sydney , - - 2014
Abstract This study examined the changes in external outputs, including metabolic power variables, and internal response whilst considering contextual factors on physical performance variables during rugby league match play. Physical performance (total distance, high-speed running and high-power distances, average metabolic power), heart-rate (percentage heart-rate peak and training impulse), collisions (attacking ...
Bianba 1 Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Tibet University Medical College , Lhasa, Tibet, China - - 2014
Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude-Cross-sectional studies of 9-10-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Biol Med 15:000-000,2014-Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work ...
McCall Alan A Université de Lille-Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport, Santé, Société-Equipe Activité Physique, Muscle, Santé-9 rue de l'Université-59790, Ronchin, France Research and Development Department, LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Camphin-en-Pévèle, Lille, - - 2014
Little is known about injury prevention practices in professional football clubs. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the current perceptions and practices of premier league football clubs internationally concerning risk factors, testing and preventative exercises for non-contact injuries. A survey was administered to 93 premier league football ...
Garcia Carolina Borges CB Rheumatology Division, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, 3rd Floor, Room 3190, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, - - 2014
The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effects of maximal acute physical exercise on prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) under oral anticoagulation with warfarin and the safety of acute exercise in regard to thrombosis and bleeding risk. Eighteen physically inactive women ...
Leung Leigh Ann LA Brown University, Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, 121 South Main Street, Box G-S121-6, Providence RI 02912, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine whether exercise participation increased following a new diagnosis of diabetes using a sample of U.S. individuals age 50 and over who did not report exercise prior to diagnosis. We used data from the 2004-2010 Health and Retirement Study in a pre-post study design. Individuals newly-diagnosed with diabetes (N=635) ...
Caldwell Hooper Ann E AE Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, - - 2014
Individuals who are intrinsically motivated to exercise are more likely to do so consistently. In previous research, those with at least one copy of the methionine (met) allele in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF; rs6265) had greater increases in positive mood and lower perceived exertion during exercise. This study ...
Steib Kathrin K Research Group Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Munich-Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Biochemistry, Emil Fischer Center, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany, and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, CNS Discovery, Pharma Research and Early Development, CH-4070 Basel, - - 2014
Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian hippocampus continuously generate new functional neurons, which modify the hippocampal network and significantly contribute to cognitive processes and mood regulation. Here, we show that the development of new neurons from stem cells in adult mice is paralleled by extensive changes to mitochondrial mass, ...
Meeusen Romain R Department of Human Physiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium, - - 2014
Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and can improve cognitive function. Exercise has been promoted as a possible prevention for neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise will have a positive influence on cognition and it ...
Najafi Farid F Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR - - 2014
Despite the positive outcomes reported with cardiac rehabilitation (CR), its impacts have been reported to be different from a region or country to another, which may be due to the different contents of rehabilitation programs. To investigate the effect of CR on cardiovascular risk factors. This is a retrospective cohort ...
Noble Emily E EE Minnesota Obesity Center, 1334 Eckles Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA; Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55108, - - 2014
Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the ...
Brady Lauren I LI From the Departments of Pediatrics (LIB, LGM, MAT) and Medicine (MAT), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
It remains unclear whether habitual physical activity can attenuate the rate of progressive muscle strength loss in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The aim of this study was to identify whether there were any strength differences between DM1 patients who were habitually active or sedentary. Knee extension, handgrip, ...
Beltrame Luis Gustavo Normanton LG Post-Graduate Program In Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Águas Claras, Brasília, Brazil; International Hemophilia Training Center (IHTC), Brasília, - - 2014
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse the acute effect of aquatic exercise on haemostasis in persons with haemophilia. Ten adult haemophiliacs (8 type A, 2 type B) familiarized with aquatic training performed a 20-min exercise session in a swimming pool at an intensity of ~70% maximum heart ...
Li Sheng S Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center - Houston, Houston, TX 77030, United States; Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
To use evoked (M-wave) and voluntary (during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) EMG recordings to estimate the voluntary activation level in chronic stroke. Nine chronic hemiparetic stroke subjects participated in the experiment. M-wave (EMGM-wave) and MVC (EMGMVC) EMG values of the biceps brachii muscles were recorded. Peak torque was significantly smaller ...
Nybo Lars L Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, - - 2014
This article presents a historical overview and an up-to-date review of hyperthermia-induced fatigue during exercise in the heat. Exercise in the heat is associated with a thermoregulatory burden which mediates cardiovascular challenges and influence the cerebral function, increase the pulmonary ventilation, and alter muscle metabolism; which all potentially may contribute ...
Wenting Zhou Z Harbin Institute of Physical Education, Harbin 150001, - - 2014
Differences among individuals in exercise performance are determined by a range of environmental and genetic factors. Since 2008, numerous studies in the genetics of exercise performance have been published and a set of significant results have been obtained. In this review, we analyze the research results in physical activity, muscular ...
Hearon Bridget A BA Department of Psychology, Boston University, 648 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, United States; McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of somatic arousal, has been linked to both maladaptive eating behavior as well as exercise avoidance in both self-report and laboratory-based experiments. The current pilot study sought to extend these finding to the naturalistic setting. A sample of 32 adults completed affect and dietary ...
Cheema Birinder S BS School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia, - - 2014
Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system ...
Rasmussen Morten M The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, - - 2014
Skeletal muscle is a malleable organ that responds to a single acute exercise bout by inducing the expression of genes involved in structural, metabolic and functional adaptations. Several epigenetic mechanisms including histone H4 deacetylation and loss of promoter methylation have been implicated in modifying exercise-responsive gene expression. These transient changes ...
Aycock Dawn M DM Dawn M. Aycock, PhD, RN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta. Kenya D. Kirkendoll, MSN, MPH, RN PhD Student, School of Nursing, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Kisha C. Coleman, MSN, RN, CPHM DNP Student, School of Nursing, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patricia C. Clark, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN Professor, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta. Karen C. Albright, DO, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow, Health Services and Outcomes Research Center for Outcome and Effectiveness Research and Education, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Anne W. Alexandrov, PhD, RN, CCRN, ANVP-BC, FAAN Assistant Dean for Program Evaluation and Professor, School of Nursing, The University of Alabama at - - 2014
African Americans are at greater risk for stroke than whites are; however, it is unclear what role family history of stroke (FHS) plays in the adoption of healthier lifestyles among African Americans. The aim of this study was to compare modifiable risk factors, knowledge of stroke risk factors, perceived threat ...
Schmitz Randy J RJ Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North - - 2014
As injury rates rise in the later stages of sporting activities, a better understanding of lower extremity biomechanics in the later phases of gamelike situations may improve training and injury prevention programs. Lower extremity biomechanics of a drop-jump task (extracted from a principal components analysis) would reveal factors associated with ...
Chrisman Matthew M Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, - - 2014
In response to calls for more specificity when measuring physical activity, this study examined perceived correlates of this behavior in rural adults separately by the domain in which this behavior occurs (ie, home care, work, active living, and sport). A cross-sectional survey was completed by 407 adults from 2 rural ...
Geidl Wolfgang W Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Sport Science and Sport, Division 'Exercise and Health' , Erlangen , - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this perspective is (1) to incorporate recent psychological health behaviour change (HBC) theories into exercise therapeutic programmes, and (2) to introduce the International Classification of Functioning (ICF)-based concept of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET). Methods: Relevant personal modifiable factors of physical activity (PA) were identified ...
Paoli Antonio A Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, - - 2014
Although resistance training (RT) has long been accepted as a means for developing and maintaining muscular strength, endurance, power and muscle mass, its beneficial relationship with health factors and chronic disease has only recently been recognized in the scientific literature. Prior to 1990, resistance training was not a part of ...
O'Dwyer Tom T Discipline of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, - - 2014
To evaluate the effects of therapeutic exercise on pain, stiffness, quality of life, physical function, disease activity, health-related fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to October 2013 using ...
Detloff Megan Ryan MR Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Spinal Cord Research Center, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia PA 19129. Electronic address: - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) impaired sensory fiber transmission leads to chronic, debilitating neuropathic pain. Sensory afferents are responsive to neurotrophic factors, molecules that are known to promote survival and maintenance of neurons, and regulate sensory neuron transduction of peripheral stimuli. A subset of primary afferent fibers responds only to the ...
Aira Zigor Z Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 699, 48080 Bilbao, - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) impaired sensory fiber transmission leads to chronic, debilitating neuropathic pain. Sensory afferents are responsive to neurotrophic factors, molecules that are known to promote survival and maintenance of neurons, and regulate sensory neuron transduction of peripheral stimuli. A subset of primary afferent fibers responds only to the ...
Dematteo Carol C 1McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
ABSTRACT Adolescents with mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are at substantial risk for repeat injury if they return to activity too soon. Post-concussion symptoms and impaired balance are two factors that limit return to activity. Post-injury assessments that challenge activity tolerance and balance skills are needed to ensure readiness to ...
Krogh Anne Kh - - 2014
Sled dogs performing endurance races have been reported to have a high incidence of gastric erosions or ulcerations and an increased risk of gastro intestinal bleeding leading to death in some cases. In addition, these dogs also become hypothyroid during training and exercise. Canine hypothyroidism has been shown to correlate ...
Bergman Michael S MS a National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Pittsburgh , - - 2014
Improved respirator test headforms are needed to measure the fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for protection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking) Advanced Headform (StAH) was developed for evaluating the fit of N95 FFRs. The StAH was developed based on the anthropometric dimensions of ...
Calatayud Joaquin J University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
Ankle sprains are common in team sports and sports played on courts, and often result in structural and functional alterations that lead to a greater reinjury risk. Specific exercises are often used to promote neuromuscular improvements in the prevention and rehabilitation of ankle injuries. This literature review summarizes the neuromuscular ...
Rodríguez García Pedro Luis PL Área de Didáctica de la Expresión Corporal, Departamento de Expresión Plástica, Musical y Dinámica, Facultad de Educación, Universidad de - - 2014
Introduction. Physical and sports activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle and is considered a prevention factor for several harmful habits on health. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the level of physical activity, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption among adolescent students. Population and Methods. ...
Theodoropoulou Eleni - - 2014
This study examined the validity and reliability of Greek versions of two scales assessing family and friend support for exercise behaviour. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were performed in a sample of 360 students. Additionally, CFAs were applied in a second sample of 726 physically active ...
Mathias Paulo C F PC Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, - - 2014
Nutrition and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and lack of exercise, promote the progression and pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic diseases. Nutrition is likely the most important environmental factor that modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and a variety of phenotypes associated with obesity and diabetes. During pregnancy, diet ...
Stefanetti Renae Jane RJ 1Deakin University, - - 2014
Knowledge from human exercise studies on regulators of muscle atrophy is lacking, but is important to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing skeletal muscle protein turnover and net protein gain. This study examined the regulation of muscle atrophy-related factors, including atrogin-1 and MuRF1, their upstream transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A and ...
Clair Mitchell St MS Department of Cardiology, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North - - 2014
Diabetic patients have a worse prognosis than nondiabetic patients after myocardial infarction. Although exercise improves risk factors, exercise capacity, and mortality, it is still unclear if these benefits are the same as in nondiabetics. Furthermore, although exercise tolerance is predicted by systolic and diastolic dysfunction in nondiabetics, its role as ...
Kjaer Michael M 1University of - - 2014
Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon - compared to skeletal muscle - is less sensitive to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical ...
Ellis Katrina R - - 2014
Abstract Purpose . To test the effects of a family-centered intervention for enhancing intentions to exercise among African-American boys with nonresident fathers. Design . Quasi-experimental, intervention study. Setting . Two Midwestern cities. Subjects . A total of 287 nonresident African-American fathers and their 8- to 12-year-old sons (n = 158 ...
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