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Healy G B - - 1990
Tracheobronchial foreign bodies continue to be a source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Technical advances in anesthesia and equipment have made the removal of these troublesome objects more feasible. Diligence must still be exercised and a coordinated team effort must be employed in order to achieve a ...
McDermott J J - - 1990
Experiments were performed to assess the combined therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and i.v. lidocaine on neural function after ischemia induced by cerebral air embolism in anesthetized cats. Neural function was determined by measuring the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) amplitude. Air was infused into the carotid artery in increments ...
Yli-Hankala A - - 1990
The effect of N2O on EEG during halothane and isoflurane anaesthesia was studied in 24 elective-surgery patients. The total EEG power and various power bands were analysed with fast Fourier transform power spectra. Anaesthesia was induced by mask. EEG analysis was performed from the data collected before induction and during ...
Herland J S - - 1990
The slack test method has been adapted for measurement of unloaded velocity of shortening in rat ventricular trabeculae that were skinned with saponin (50 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The method was sensitive enough to detect a 17% reversible change in the unloaded velocity of shortening produced by a 3 degrees ...
Kobayashi O - - 1990
The interaction of four inhalational anesthetics (sevoflurane, isoflurane, enflurane and halothane) with pancuronium and vecuronium and also their prejunctional actions at the neuromuscular junction were quantitatively studied using rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. To investigate the prejunctional effects of inhalational anesthetics, a train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) and the tetanus ratio (the ratio ...
Brandom B W - - 1990
We were interested in determining the infusion rate of mivacurium required to maintain approximately 95% neuromuscular blockade during nitrous oxide-halothane (0.8% end-tidal) or nitrous oxide-narcotic anesthesia. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored by recording the electromyographic activity (Datex NMT) of the adductor pollicis muscle resulting from supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve ...
Foldes F F - - 1990
Pipecuronium bromide (Arduan) is a bisquaternary, steroid-type neuromuscular blocking agent in clinical use in Eastern Europe. Before its introduction into clinical practice in the USA, in the first phase of this study the neuromuscular potency of pipecuronium was determined under "balanced" and enflurance anaesthesia by the cumulative log dose-response method ...
Geurts J W - - 1990
In a prospective study of 80 patients under 40 years of age, given spinal anaesthesia through either a 0.52 mm (25-gauge) needle or a 0.33 mm (29-gauge) needle, the incidence of post-dural puncture headache and backache was compared. There were no headaches in the 0.33 mm needle group, while in ...
Milne B - - 1990
The objective was to observe changes in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholamine metabolism using in vivo voltammetry following induced hypotension with halothane or nitroprusside (SNP). Rats anesthetized (halothane, metocurine) and ventilated were stereotaxically implanted with carbon microelectrodes in the RVLM. The catechol oxidation current (CA.OC, % baseline) was used as ...
Roberts G J - - 1990
Inhalation sedation with low-to-moderate concentrations of nitrous oxide in oxygen has a remarkable safety record--in over 45 years of use there has not been any mortality or serious morbidity recorded. It is not surprising therefore that the use of the technique is increasing steadily, as it has been shown to ...
Kochi T - - 1990
We examined the effects of halothane and enflurane on diaphragmatic contractility in 12 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. The diaphragmatic force was assessed from transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) developed at functional residual capacity against an occluded airway during cervical phrenic nerve stimulation. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups, a halothane group ...
Boston J R - - 1990
Most studies of the effects of inhalation anesthetics on somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have examined SSEP at single times after initiation of an anesthetic. This study describes SSEP changes as functions of time of exposure to isoflurane. Both transient and sustained SSEP changes were observed. Nonlinear regression was used to ...
Schubert A - - 1990
The effect of ketamine alone and in combination with N2O (70% inspired) on median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) was investigated in 16 neurologically normal patients undergoing elective abdominopelvic procedures. The anesthetic regimen consisted of ketamine (2 mg/kg iv bolus followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 30 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) ...
Armstrong P - - 1990
Ten volunteers underwent intravenous regional anaesthesia on two separate occasions using 40 ml prilocaine 0.5% to which was added 5 ml of either saline 0.9% or sodium bicarbonate 8.4%. Addition of sodium bicarbonate decreased the time of onset of loss of sharp touch and temperature sensations and of motor power. ...
Jones R M - - 1990
The inhalation anesthetic, desflurance (I-653), is a methyl ethyl ether halogenated entirely with fluorine and differing from isoflurance only in the substitution of fluorine for chlorine on the alpha-ethyl carbon. Relative to presently used potent inhalation anesthetics, desflurane has low blood/gas (0.42) and oil/gas (18.7) partition coefficients. These indicate that ...
Fernandes A - - 1990
1. In order to evaluate the importance of afferent neural feedback from the working muscles for cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise, epidural anaesthesia was induced at L3-L4. Six healthy males cycled for 20 min at 57% of maximum oxygen uptake and for 8-12 min at increasing work intensities ...
Gunnarsson L - - 1989
The development of atelectasis and effects on gas exchange during enflurane anaesthesia in nitrogen/oxygen or nitrous oxide/oxygen (inspired oxygen fraction 0.4) were studied in 16 lung-healthy patients (mean age 49 years). Awake, no subject displayed atelectasis as assessed by computed x-ray tomography of the thorax. Pulmonary gas exchange, studied by ...
Choudhury K J - - 1989
Serum cholinesterase (Ch E) estimations were done in 30 healthy Nigerians scheduled for elective surgical procedures and were studied in two groups. Half of the patients were given general anesthesia using a muscle relaxant technique and the other half had halothane as the main anesthetic. Suxamethonium reduced Ch E by ...
Abdul-Rasool I H - - 1989
The ventilatory and hemodynamic responses to hypoxia, hyperoxia, and hypercapnia before and during sufentanil infusion were studied in 16 chronically tracheostomized dogs anesthetized with two concentrations, 1 and 0.5 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane. Sufentanil was infused at a rate to obtain a constant end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) of ...
Power S J - - 1989
The ability to evoke reversal of dense vecuronium- and pancuronium-induced paralysis (T1 10% of control) with edrophonium 1.0 mg.kg-1 was studied using train-of-four nerve stimulation and electromyographic monitoring. Two different end-points, train-of-four ratios of 0.5 and 0.7, were used to define "adequate reversal", and the results for both relaxants were ...
Malmqvist L A - - 1989
The extent of sympathetic blockade in 36 patients, who had been given extradural analgesia, was studied by means of the skin conductance response (SCR). The SCR was also studied in six healthy volunteers who received, in a cross-over fashion, infusions of physiological saline (placebo) and saline containing mepivacaine. Two more ...
Targ A G - - 1989
This study defines some characteristics of a standard anesthetic circuit that may impede anesthetic induction and recovery with I-653, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Partition coefficients for anesthetic circuit components (masks, bellows, bags, airways, and circuit tubes) consistently ranked halothane greater than isoflurane greater than sevoflurane greater than I-653, suggesting a ...
Mazloomdoost M - - 1989
At present, the potent inhalation anesthetics cannot be used during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) because a suitable vaporizer is not available. A vaporizer for enflurane during HFJV was designed, built, and tested, based on the principle of airblast atomization in which liquid enflurane is delivered to the vaporizer by an ...
Modig J - - 1989
The tremendous swelling potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) is well established, however, the possible role of HA for interstitial and alveolar edema of the lung during general anesthesia and in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not received attention. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was therefore performed on 28 apparently lung-healthy patients; ...
Raff M - - 1989
This study investigated the use of propofol in swine genetically susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Thirteen animals were exposed to 2% halothane in inspired air, a propofol infusion of 12 mg.kg-1.hr-1 for up to 45 min, or a combination of both. When MH was triggered the animals were treated with ...
Trim C M - - 1989
The purpose of this survey was to identify complications occurring in horses with colic during anaesthesia and recovery from anaesthesia; and to determine any relationships between these complications and drugs used for induction or maintenance of anaesthesia. Two hundred and thirty nine horses were anaesthetised on a total of 250 ...
Hutchison G L - - 1989
Fifty patients received halothane anaesthesia during the surgical removal of 3rd molars from one side of the mouth and isoflurane during extractions on the other. Degree of surgical difficulty was matched, and end-tidal PCO2 did not differ significantly between sides. A significantly higher incidence of arrhythmias occurred during halothane, compared ...
Ciofolo M J - - 1989
Recovery from inhalation anesthesia is often marked by the occurrence of postoperative tremor that resembles shivering, which is known to be associated with an increase in oxygen uptake (VO2), CO2 output (VCO2), and minute ventilation (VE). This study determined the time course of the ventilatory changes observed during the first ...
White C S - - 1989
The frequency, severity, and duration of oxygen desaturation during oral surgical procedures in outpatients was measured. Sixty patients divided into six groups received either lidocaine; lidocaine, diazepam, and meperidine; lidocaine, diazepam, meperidine, and headphone music; lidocaine, diazepam, meperidine, and nitrous oxide; lidocaine, diazepam, meperidine, methohexital, and nitrous oxide; or lidocaine ...
Subrahmanyam M - - 1989
The incidence of thrombophlebitis in the present study was 18.3%. It was of mild grade in all the cases. The incidence of thrombophlebitis was more (24%) when short teflon canula was used as intravenous placement device. Under similar infusion conditions with stainless steel needle, scalp vein needle and long teflon ...
Sukhani R - - 1989
To compare serum levels of lidocaine resulting from 1.1% lidocaine carbonate and 1.0% lidocaine hydrochloride, the two salts were administered to ten healthy adult patients undergoing upper extremity surgery under interscalene brachial plexus block. Epinephrine (1:200,000) was added to both the solutions just prior to injection, and, following performance of ...
Vreeland D L - - 1989
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with the electric pulp tester, the anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 3.6 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 1.8 ml of 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in human inferior alveolar nerve block. Thirty subjects ...
Thomson K D - - 1989
Pulse oximetry was used to measure changes in oxygen saturation in the early post-operative phase in three groups of 50 patients in whom anaesthesia was induced with propofol. One group breathed room air during induction and anaesthesia was maintained with halothane whereas the other two groups both breathed oxygen during ...
Michenfelder J D - - 1988
Eighteen mongrel dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and prepared for determining cerebral blood flow (CBF, sagittal sinus outflow), cerebral metabolic rate (CMRO2), and ICP. Dogs were divided into three groups of six each. Group 1 dogs were maintained on 1 MAC isoflurane and, following control measurements (step 1), sodium nitroprusside ...
Gray W M - - 1988
The effect of thymol accumulation inside a Fluotec 3 vaporizer on the concentration of halothane delivered by the vaporizer was investigated. The vaporizer output was reduced progressively as the thymol concentration increased, but the reduction was less than that predicted by Raoult's Law. A reduction of 5% in output required ...
Viale J P - - 1988
We report a system for the continuous measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) during open-circuit anaesthesia. Gas concentrations were measured by a mass-spectrometer, and expired flow by a pneumotachograph. The values measured by the system were compared in vitro to values produced by a nitrogen-dilution technique. ...
Matthews N C - - 1988
This study assesses the efficacy of epidural fentanyl in the relief of shaking associated with epidural analgesia. Fifty mothers whose shaking was sufficient to cause distress were divided randomly to receive either fentanyl 25 micrograms in 5 ml sterile normal saline or 5 ml of saline through their in-situ epidural. ...
Wolfe D E - - 1988
Posterior tibial somatosensory evoked responses (SSERs) were recorded during administration of isoflurane and nitrous oxide. Responses arising from cortical and subcortical neural generators were examined to compare their relative resistance to anesthetic-related degradation. Recordings were performed in ten adults during anesthesia with 0.5 MAC isoflurane/60% N2O, 1.0 MAC isoflurane/60% N2O, ...
Laycock J R - - 1988
Train-of-four stimulation was applied to the ulnar and phrenic nerves in 18 adult patients anaesthetized with nitrous oxide and halothane in oxygen. The response of the adductor pollicis and the diaphragm were measured. Incremental doses of atracurium and vecuronium were given, with an infusion to replace drug lost by elimination ...
Liberman B A - - 1988
A 33-year-old female presented for elective excision of a posterior fossa tumour following two generalized seizures six months earlier. The patient had been asymptomatic on phenytoin 300 mg/day. Two h pre-operatively, a 300-mg dose of phenytoin was administered, general anesthesia induced and pancuronium bromide given to achieve neuro-muscular paralysis. Respiration ...
Gaukroger P B - - 1988
A prospective study of the incidence and severity of infusion thrombophlebitis in peripheral intravenous infusions used for anaesthetic and postoperative purposes in 645 patients was conducted over a four-month period. Conditions of insertion were carefully controlled while ward management was according to standard practice. A total of 330 polyurethane Vialon ...
Ryan S M - - 1988
In this article we investigate the impact of estrous cycle, ovariectomy, and estrogen replacement on both opioid and nonopioid stress-induced analgesia. Stage of estrous strongly influenced analgesia. Diestrus females exhibited the typical male pattern produced by the analgesia inducing procedures used--strong nonopioid analgesia following 10-20 tailshocks, and strong opioid analgesia ...
Young S B - - 1988
To determine whether intraumbilical oxytocin would shorten the third stage of labor, we enrolled 50 normal parturients into a randomized, double-blind protocol. Either 10 U of oxytocin diluted to 20 mL in normal saline (25 subjects) or 20 mL of normal saline alone (25 subjects) was injected into the placental ...
Murat I - - 1988
The minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane were determined in adult male ferrets during controlled ventilation at normothermia (37 degrees C). Mean (+/- SD) MAC values for isoflurane (n = 8), enflurane (n = 8), and halothane (n = 8) at 37 degrees C were 1.52 +/- ...
Nakakimura K - - 1988
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of enflurane on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU), and to provide further insight into the mechanism of the epileptogenic properties of enflurane. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; three groups with intact cortex received 0.5, 2, or ...
Mostello L - - 1988
Topical epinephrine is useful in controlling the bleeding of skin graft donor sites. However, the use of exogenous epinephrine during halothane anesthetization increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. This study shows that there is no significant increase in plasma epinephrine levels after topical administration of up to 80 cc of ...
Takasaki M - - 1988
Resting ventilation, arterial blood-gas tensions and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide were measured in sedated children before and after caudal anaesthesia using 10 mg.kg-1 of 1.5% lidocaine or 3.3 mg.kg-1 of 0.5% bupivacaine. Expired minute volume decreased slightly after both caudal blocks but end-tidal Pco2 increased slightly after caudal ...
Atlee J L JL - - 1988
The effects of enflurane (ENF), halothane (HAL), and isoflurane (ISO) on specialized atrioventricular (AV) conduction times were contrasted to awake (control) in 22 chronically instrumented dogs. Dogs were studied with and without diltiazem (DIL), nifedipine (NIF), vehicle for NIF (VEH), or verapamil (VER). These calcium channel blockers (CCB) were administered ...
Goto F - - 1988
The effects of catecholamines added to dibucaine on the duration of spinal anaesthesia and cerebrospinal fluid catecholamine levels were studied. Free norepinephrine levels increased from 0.107 ng.ml-1 before anaesthesia to 5.8 ng.ml-1 and 1,238 ng.ml-1 after 1.0 microgram or 100 micrograms norepinephrine had been added to the local anaesthetic. The ...
Reid A M - - 1988
1. Intra-arterial infusions of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were made in anaesthetized lambs in which activity of the reticulo-omasal orifice (ROO) was recorded manometrically and in conscious lambs in which activity of the reticulum, ROO and abomasum were recorded by electromyographic (EMG) techniques. 2. Spontaneous rhythmic opening and closing movements ...
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