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Results 651 - 700 of 888
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Kaufman E - - 1992
The analgesic effect of 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen on thermal pain sensations was evaluated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. In a session immediately before oral surgery, 20 patients used a seven-point verbal scale to rate the intensity of pain sensations evoked by three-second thermal stimuli delivered to 14 ...
De Kock M - - 1992
Epidural clonidine produces regional anesthesia as well as sedation and a decrease in anesthetic requirements. To assess these effects, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded after epidural or intravenous (iv) injection of clonidine during enflurane/N2O anesthesia. Eighteen ASA physical status 1 women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy were allocated randomly to receive epidural ...
Yamakage M - - 1992
Using a respiratory inductive plethysmograph and a pulse oximeter, we investigated the changes in the respiratory pattern and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) of the finger before and during spinal anaesthesia in 20 surgical patients. The rib cage contribution to the tidal volume (%RC) increased significantly from before (20.4 +/- 4.3%) ...
Wrigley S R - - 1992
We assessed the neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of mivacurium chloride, a neuromuscular blocking agent, in 33 patients during propofol-nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was assessed with supramaximal stimuli of the ulnar nerve, using surface electrodes at the wrist, with repeat trains of four. Mivacurium given as a bolus of 0.15 ...
Pitkänen M T - - 1992
Ten healthy male volunteers received intravenous regional anaesthesia of the upper limb on two separate occasions using 40 ml of 0.5% prilocaine or 40 ml plain 0.5% chloroprocaine by random allocation. Using a double-blind method, the onset and recovery of sensory block was tested (pinprick) in the four main nerve ...
Leigh T J - - 1992
1. The effects of granisetron (160 micrograms kg-1 body weight) and haloperidol (3 mg) on psychometric performance and the EEG were investigated in a randomised, single-blind, crossover, placebo controlled study of 12 healthy male volunteers. 2. There was evidence that haloperidol impaired psychometric performance; however its effects on the EEG ...
Schubert A - - 1992
The effect of systemically administered lidocaine on somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) during general anaesthesia has not been widely reported. Knowledge of the influence of anaesthetic agents on evoked potentials assists in interpreting evoked potential waveforms. Accordingly, we studied the behaviour of cortical and subcortical (recorded at the second cervical vertebra) ...
Tessler M - - 1992
Propofol, 2,6 diisopropylphenol, in an emulsion formulation (Diprivan), has been associated with postsurgical infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella osloensis and Candida albicans. These organisms were individually inoculated into each of the following media: (1) the emulsion preparation of propofol, (2) Intralipid 10%, (3) pure 2,6 diisopropylphenol, and (4) trypticase ...
Gyermek L - - 1992
Quantitative assessment of neuromuscular block produced by large doses of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents during cardiac surgery is not possible with conventional methods of monitoring. Various "posttetanic responses" can, however, be elicited, even when no twitch response is present. Posttetanic responses measured by electromyography were used in this study. Twenty-four ...
Saville B A - - 1992
The uptake and metabolism of lipophilic compounds by the liver were studied by administering a model compound, lidocaine, to the isolated rat liver. Lidocaine was continuously infused into the liver until steady state was reached. Subsequent step changes in the inlet concentration were used to obtain information on rates of ...
Wright P M - - 1992
We measured gastric emptying (by paracetamol absorption) and duration of analgesia in 30 women in labour after extradural injection of 0.375% bupivacaine 10 ml either alone or combined with fentanyl 100 micrograms. Treatment was administered double blind by random allocation after the first request for analgesia. The median (range) times ...
Clark G D - - 1992
A de Vilbiss atomizer was adapted for delivery of topical anesthesia to the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and tracheal tissues prior to outpatient bronchoscopy under monitored anesthesia care for a patient who must remain in the sitting position. The adaptation, utilizing a Baxter Airlife oxygen tubing attached on one end ...
Kurihara J - - 1992
In halothane-anesthetized dogs, a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) of approximately 20% was observed during the reperfusion period following 5-min global cerebral ischemia. When compared with our previous study on animals under pentobarbital anesthesia, the extent of the decrease in BRS was smaller and apparently more severe ischemia was necessary ...
Klide A M - - 1992
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists have some unique properties that could theoretically make them useful in the perianesthetic period: they reduce the MAC of inhaled anesthetics, and they are reversible. They also have properties that may limit their usefulness, such as marked decreases in cardiac output. Their clinical utility awaits further studies.
Klide A M - - 1992
Quantitative anesthesia is delivering anesthetic and oxygen in known quantities, the dosage based on calculations for their uptake. The uptake is not linearly related to body weight but is linearly related to body weight raised to a power. The dosage of inhaled anesthetics is calculated by the method of Lowe. ...
Smith J E - - 1992
The effectiveness of fentanyl in attenuating the pressor and heart rate response to orotracheal fibreoptic intubation under general anaesthesia was assessed in 60 healthy patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either fibreoptic intubation with or without fentanyl 6 micrograms.kg-1 or traditional Macintosh intubation with fentanyl 6 ...
Hersh E V - - 1992
The Lipospheres Bupivacaine Delivery System (bupivacaine-lipospheres) is a novel sustained-release local anesthetic preparation that has recently been made available for research purposes. This investigation compared the local anesthetic efficacy and safety of 2% bupivacaine-lipospheres, 0.5% bupivacaine plus 1:200,000 epinephrine, lipospheres plain, and physiologic saline following subcutaneous tail injection in the ...
Shin Y S - - 1992
Sevoflurane was compared to isoflurane anesthesia alone and in combination with atracurium or vecuronium in 84 rats using the sciatic nerve-anterior tibialis muscle preparation. Both bolus injection and infusion rate techniques were used to evaluate these drug interactions. The ED(50) (dose which produced a 50% depression of twitch tension) of ...
Lumb A B - - 1991
Using respiratory inductive plethysmography, we have measured rib cage and abdominal motion during isoflurane anaesthesia in 16 healthy day-surgery patients. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with 1 MAC isoflurane in air-oxygen via a laryngeal mask. Measurements were taken during both resting ventilation and hyperpnoea induced by rebreathing carbon ...
Kissin I - - 1991
It was suggested that for a given analgesic effect, more potent opioids may produce smaller degrees of tolerance than those with lower analgesic potency. The use of opioids with high analgesic potency to reduce the rate of tolerance development would be an important therapeutic consideration. This study tested the hypothesis ...
Randell T - - 1991
The haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation was evaluated in 52 ASA I patients anaesthetized with thiopentone 4-6 mg.kg-1. Vecuronium 0.1 mg.kg-1, followed by 3 min mask ventilation with nitrous oxide in oxygen with (isoflurane group) or without (control group) 3% inspired isoflurane preceded tracheal intubation. In 21 of 52 ...
Solak M - - 1991
A comparison of plain prilocaine and bicarbonated prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia was studied in 30 patients undergoing upper extremity surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: one group was given anesthesia in the form of 1% prilocaine and the other group was given 1% prilocaine plus sodium bicarbonate. ...
Sessler D I - - 1991
To evaluate physiologic responses to mild perianesthetic hypothermia, we measured tympanic membrane and skin-surface temperatures, peripheral vasoconstriction, thermal comfort, and muscular activity in nine healthy male volunteers. Each volunteer participated on three separate days: 1) normothermic isoflurane anesthesia; 2) hypothermic isoflurane anesthesia (1.5 degrees C decrease in central temperature); and ...
Massmann G A - - 1991
The effects of estrogen administration on uterine contractility varies with animal species. In nonpregnant ovariectomized sheep, estrogen administration has been reported either to inhibit, inhibit then stimulate, or only stimulate uterine contractility. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged estrogen administration in the electromyographic ...
Steffey E P - - 1991
Fifty-eight foals were divided into two groups for study of aspects of the clinical anesthetic management of foals and to characterize effects of halothane (n = 30) and isoflurane (n = 28) in foals. There were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in the demographics of the two groups. ...
Laster M J - - 1991
Percutaneous loss of inhaled anesthetics is small relative to their uptake. The minor nature of this loss results in part from the substantial barrier to diffusion posed by the skin. Pleural and peritoneal surfaces pose less effective barriers because diffusion distances are smaller than in the skin. Accordingly, we measured ...
Tamura C - - 1991
The effect of low concentration sevoflurane and halothane on the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia was studied in sixteen cats. The cats were divided into two groups, sevoflurane group and halothane group, of eight subjects each. As parameters of the hypoxic ventilatory response, A value [the slope of the hyperbolic ...
Kalso E - - 1991
In order to test if the rate of onset of sensation of warmth in the legs after the injection of 0.5% bupivacaine might discriminate between subarachnoid and extradural injection, 150 urological patients were allocated randomly to receive either spinal anaesthesia with isobaric (IS) or hyperbaric (HS) 0.5% bupivacaine, or extradural ...
Kalkman C J - - 1991
We have studied differential effects of propofol and nitrous oxide on posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (PTN-SEP) during a continuous infusion of alfentanil. In study 1, 14 patients received initially 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen, which was replaced 90 min after incision by propofol 6 mg kg-1 h-1. This ...
Hynson J M - - 1991
Five healthy, nonpregnant volunteers were studied before and after induction of lumbar epidural anesthesia to determine the cause of central hypothermia during epidural anesthesia. Cutaneous heat loss was measured from 10 area-weighted sites using thermal flux transducers. Oxygen consumption was measured and converted to heat production in watts (W). After ...
Gallenberg L A - - 1991
The direct effects of isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane alone or combined with diltiazem were examined in 49 isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Recording electrodes were placed in the right atrium and left ventricular septal wall to measure spontaneous atrial rate and atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT). The right atrium was paced ...
Lockhart S H - - 1991
We studied the ventilatory effects of desflurane (formerly I-653) with and without N2O in healthy male volunteers. After insertion of venous and arterial (radial and pulmonary) catheters, baseline measurements of tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR), ventilatory response to CO2, and arterial and mixed venous blood gases were made. Subjects ...
Rampil I J - - 1991
The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of a new inhaled anesthetic are of interest because of the potential of such agents to produce excitatory (convulsant) activity and because of the potential usefulness of the EEG as an indicator of anesthetic depth and cerebral activity. Accordingly, we examined the EEG in 12 healthy, ...
Fassoulaki A - - 1991
We studied the percutaneous losses of the new inhaled anesthetic, desflurane (I-653), and of isoflurane and halothane during anesthetic administration and elimination in seven healthy male volunteers. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with midazolam, thiopental, and fentanyl. We administered 70% N2O for 30 min, and then administered 2% desflurane, 0.4% ...
Rampil I J - - 1991
Desflurane (formerly I-653) is a new inhalaticnal anesthetic with a promising pharmacokinetic profile that includes low solubility in blood and tissue, including fat. Since its lipid solubility is less than that of other volatile agents, it may have lower potency. Low solubility would be expected to increase the rate at ...
Schmeling W T - - 1991
Previous investigations in laboratory animals have documented the ability of the volatile anesthetics to prolong the QT interval and the QT interval corrected for level of heart rate, QTc. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the direct electrocardiographic and hemodynamic effects of enflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in ...
Steinbrook R A - - 1991
The effects of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine or lidocaine on resting pulmonary ventilation and on the response to the single-breath carbon dioxide test were studied in 11 unpremedicated patients. Resting end-tidal PCO2 decreased from 34.8 +/- 4.5 (mean +/- SD) to 31.6 +/- 4.6 mm Hg after induction of spinal ...
O'Hara D A - - 1991
A new proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for the automated closed-loop delivery of atracurium was tested in 32 patients. Groups of 8 patients received halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, or N2O/morphine anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental 3-5 mg.kg-1, a bolus of atracurium 0.2 mg.kg-1 was delivered by the controller; this was ...
Contreras C M - - 1991
An increased firing rate in lateral septal nuclei (LSN) appears in urethane-anesthetized rats after several acute drug and non-drug human antidepressant treatments. A still more pronounced increase in firing rate is produced in LSN after clomipramine (CMI) long-term treatment. In spite of urethane is a widely used anesthetic for single ...
Hord A H - - 1991
In a study designed to determine the spread of anesthetic solutions in the intercostal space, the spread of india ink was studied in fresh cadavers. They were turned prone and had epidural catheters placed at ribs 4, 6, 8 and 10, 7-8 cm lateral to the midline, by two different ...
Brown M J - - 1991
Cats (Felis catus) were anesthetized with a solution containing guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX) in 0.9% saline. Anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV) injection and was maintained for 6 hours by IV infusion. Heart rate, respiratory rate and PvO2 did not change significantly during the 6 hour monitoring period and ...
Horton W A - - 1990
We have studied eight patients with a history of difficult tracheal intubation, using x-ray laryngoscopy and local anaesthesia, a curved Macintosh blade and a standard intubating position. The view obtained was better than recorded previously during general anaesthesia in two patients, and in a third the x-ray showed that positioning ...
Gravlee G P - - 1990
The activated coagulation time (ACT) is widely used to guide heparin and protamine dosing during cardiac surgery. A common protocol involves establishing a baseline ACT before administering heparin, then using this ACT as a target value for assessing the adequacy of heparin neutralization after cardiopulmonary bypass. Results vary in previous ...
Healy G B - - 1990
Tracheobronchial foreign bodies continue to be a source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Technical advances in anesthesia and equipment have made the removal of these troublesome objects more feasible. Diligence must still be exercised and a coordinated team effort must be employed in order to achieve a ...
McDermott J J - - 1990
Experiments were performed to assess the combined therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and i.v. lidocaine on neural function after ischemia induced by cerebral air embolism in anesthetized cats. Neural function was determined by measuring the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) amplitude. Air was infused into the carotid artery in increments ...
Yli-Hankala A - - 1990
The effect of N2O on EEG during halothane and isoflurane anaesthesia was studied in 24 elective-surgery patients. The total EEG power and various power bands were analysed with fast Fourier transform power spectra. Anaesthesia was induced by mask. EEG analysis was performed from the data collected before induction and during ...
Herland J S - - 1990
The slack test method has been adapted for measurement of unloaded velocity of shortening in rat ventricular trabeculae that were skinned with saponin (50 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The method was sensitive enough to detect a 17% reversible change in the unloaded velocity of shortening produced by a 3 degrees ...
Kobayashi O - - 1990
The interaction of four inhalational anesthetics (sevoflurane, isoflurane, enflurane and halothane) with pancuronium and vecuronium and also their prejunctional actions at the neuromuscular junction were quantitatively studied using rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. To investigate the prejunctional effects of inhalational anesthetics, a train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) and the tetanus ratio (the ratio ...
Brandom B W - - 1990
We were interested in determining the infusion rate of mivacurium required to maintain approximately 95% neuromuscular blockade during nitrous oxide-halothane (0.8% end-tidal) or nitrous oxide-narcotic anesthesia. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored by recording the electromyographic activity (Datex NMT) of the adductor pollicis muscle resulting from supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve ...
Foldes F F - - 1990
Pipecuronium bromide (Arduan) is a bisquaternary, steroid-type neuromuscular blocking agent in clinical use in Eastern Europe. Before its introduction into clinical practice in the USA, in the first phase of this study the neuromuscular potency of pipecuronium was determined under "balanced" and enflurance anaesthesia by the cumulative log dose-response method ...
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