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Results 501 - 550 of 892
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Cervin A - - 1998
We have examined the short-term effects of three volatile anaesthetics, halothane, isoflurane and desflurane, on mucociliary activity in the rabbit maxillary sinus in vivo. Mucociliary activity was recorded photoelectrically and the signal processed by fast Fourier transformation. Administration of 1.0 MAC of halothane, isoflurane or desflurane caused a temporary increase ...
Kazama T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The propofol awakening concentration can vary. However, the effect site awakening propofol concentration will be a fixed value. The purpose of this study was to determine the awakening propofol concentrations obtained from infusion Schede using abrupt discontinuation of propofol (half-maximal effective concentration [EC50]) or a descending decrease in concentration ...
Sugimoto I - - 1998
To determine the overall gain of the hepatorenal reflex, hypertonic NaCl solutions were infused into the portal vein or inferior vena cava of anesthetized dogs at a rate of 0.01 ml/kg/min for 30 min and the urinary Na excretion measured. Infusion of 2.25% NaCl into either the portal vein or ...
Gilron I - - 1998
PURPOSE: The auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) is an evoked potential which provides a sensitive measure of the effects of general anaesthetics on the brain. We used pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling to compare the effects of sufentanil on the amplitude of the ASSR with its effect on spectral edge frequency (SEF) ...
Kagawa T T Department of Anesthesiology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of halothane and sevoflurane on fatigue-induced changes in diaphragmatic contractility. Forty-two hamster diaphragm strips were randomly allocated according to anesthetics (no anesthesia control, 1%-3% halothane, 2%-6% sevoflurane) and stimulated directly in an organ bath. Under the influence of the anesthetics, ...
Sjögren D D Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Hospital & Institute, Stockholm, - - 1998
In the awake state, isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory responses (HVRs) are biphasic, with an acute response within 5 min of hypoxic stimulation followed by a less pronounced sustained response. In this study, we investigated the influence of isoflurane anesthesia (end-tidal concentration 1.1 kPa) on acute and sustained isocapnic HVRs in eight ...
Kearse L A LA - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The bispectral index (BIS) measures changes in the interfrequency coupling of the electroencephalogram (EEG). The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether BIS correlates with responses to command during sedation and hypnosis induced by propofol or propofol and nitrous oxide, and (2) to compare BIS to targeted ...
Mutoh T - - 1998
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor (SAR) activity in dogs. Eight beagles were anesthetized with an intravenous injection of a mixture of urethane and alpha-chloralose as a basal anesthesia, then vagotomized, artificially ventilated, and ...
Grosenbaugh D A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare cardiorespiratory and recovery effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in horses. ANIMALS: 8 clinically normal horses (4 mares, 4 geldings), 5 to 12 years old. PROCEDURE: Inhalation anesthesia was maintained for 90 minutes with sevoflurane, isoflurane, or halothane. Anesthesia depth was maintained at 1.5 minimum ...
Reitz J - - 1998
To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a ...
Reinoso-Barbero F - - 1998
Eighty ambulatory surgical patients with ASA physical status 1 and 2, aged 1-10 years, were studied. One group received intranasal (IN) midazolam 0.25 mg.kg-1; a second group received IN 0.25 mg.kg-1 of midazolam plus 0.02 mg.kg-1 of atropine; the third group received 0.25 mg.kg-1 of midazolam plus 0.02 mg.kg-1 of ...
Takahashi S S Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, - - 1998
To examine whether the degree of the changes in metabolic variables correlates with the duration of tourniquet inflation or other factors in spontaneously breathing patients undergoing unilateral lower-limb surgery under epidural anesthesia, we measured changes in metabolic variables. Metabolic variables consisted of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2), and ...
Steffey E P EP Department of Anesthesia, University of California-San Francisco 94143-0464, - - 1998
Nonimmobilizers (inhaled compounds that do not suppress movement in response to a noxious stimulus) resemble anesthetics in their capacity to suppress memory, but unlike anesthetics, they can cause convulsions. Higher concentrations of nonimmobilizers may cause death, even with apparent suppression of convulsions by the concurrent administration of conventional inhaled anesthetics. ...
Steffey E P EP Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, - - 1997
In a model anesthetic circuit, dehydration of Baralyme brand carbon dioxide absorbent increases degradation of sevoflurane to CF2=C(CF3)OCH2F, a nephrotoxic vinyl ether called Compound A. In the present study, we quantified this increase using "conditioned" Baralyme in a circle absorbent system to deliver sevoflurane anesthesia to swine. Mimicking continuing oxygen ...
Pang E W - - 1997
The components of the N1 are thought to be related to sensory functioning (Components 1 and 2) and arousal (Component 3). To provide direct evidence for the involvement of Component 3 in arousal, we hypothesized that it should be more sensitive to the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (N2O) than Component ...
Konrad C - - 1997
Topical anaesthesia of the trachea is used to avoid coughing during emergence from anaesthesia. This study was designed to compare the effects of an alkalinized lignocaine and plain lignocaine solution given intratracheally. After institutional approval and written informed consent, 30 patients were randomized into three groups and received in a ...
Brosnan C - - 1997
Dental damage is the most common reason for complaints against anaesthetists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common belief that the use of a toothguard at the time of intubation causes intubation to be more difficult. We studied 80 patients, half of whom were intubated with a ...
Nakata Y - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Xenon is an odorless gas with low blood-gas solubility coefficient and without occupational and environmental hazards. This investigation was performed to evaluate the speed of induction, and respiratory and cardiovascular reactions to inhalation induction with xenon compared to an equianesthetic concentration of sevoflurane. METHOD: Twenty-four adult ASA 1-2 patients ...
Eger E I EI - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Desflurane and sevoflurane permit speedier changes in anesthetic partial pressures than do older halogenated anesthetics. The authors determined the kinetic characteristics of desflurane and sevoflurane and those of compound A [CH2F-O-C(=CF2)(CF3)], a nephrotoxic degradation product of sevoflurane. METHODS: Volunteers received 1.25 minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane or sevoflurane, each ...
Detsch O - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenous lidocaine on spatial changes of electroencephalographic power and on psychomotoric status in conscious volunteers. METHODS: In 11 healthy volunteers lidocaine (2-min bolus, 100 mg; 15 min infusion, 40 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) or placebo were given intravenously in a ...
Yared G M - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to measure the degree of anesthesia following the administration of 3.6 ml of 2% lidocaine solutions with either 1:50,000, 1:80,000, or 1:100,000 for inferior alveolar nerve block and to compare the results with those obtained following the administration of 1.8 ml of the same ...
Loeb A L - - 1997
The contributions of the vasodilators nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) were investigated in the rat cremaster muscle microcirculation during halothane, isoflurane, or ketamine anesthesia. After inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin, changes in diameter of fourth-order arterioles to acetylcholine (ACh) or bradykinin (BK) were studied in the ...
Tendillo F J - - 1997
To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane (DES) in the horse. Prospective study. Six healthy adult horses (three males and three females) weighing 370 +/- 16 kg and aged 9 +/- 2 years old. Anesthesia was induced with DES vaporized in oxygen via a face mask connected to ...
Gold M I - - 1997
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to define the appropriate dose of remifentanil hydrochloride alone or combined with midazolam to provide satisfactory comfort and maintain adequate respiration for a monitored anesthesia care setting. METHODS: One hundred fifty-nine patients scheduled for outpatient surgery participated in this multicenter, double-blind study. Patients were randomly ...
Marini R P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To address the physiologic mechanism of isoflurane-associated reduction in hematologic variables in ferrets. ANIMALS: 6 young adult female ferrets. PROCEDURE: Distribution of 99mTc-labeled autologous erythrocytes was measured by serial in vivo imaging. Data were recorded in 4 ferrets, using a gamma camera, immediately prior to anesthesia, 15 minutes after ...
Ananthanarayan C - - 1997
PURPOSE: To present a case of difficult intubation with brainstem anaesthesia after retrobulbar block with bupivacaine and lidocaine and sedation with midazolam and to point out that close monitoring and timely treatment is important in preventing an unfavourable outcome. CLINICAL FEATURES: An 82-yr-old man with treated hypertension and stable angina ...
Morita T - - 1997
We examined the influence of the concentration of sevoflurane and the degree of muscle block at the time of reversal on the activity of neostigmine. Ninety ASA 1-2 patients were anaesthetised with 0.2, 0.7 or 1.2 MAC of sevoflurane (30 patients each) in 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen. The electromyographic ...
Nishikawa K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The finding that i.v. lidocaine suppresses cardiac sympathetic nerve activity during 1 MAC halothane, but not during 2 MAC or 3 MAC halothane, suggests that the neurally mediated circulatory effects of i.v. local anesthetics may vary with background autonomic activity. This study aimed to compare the effects of i.v. ...
Katoh T - - 1997
We evaluated the effects of clonidine given orally on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis. Patients received either clonidine (5 micrograms.kg-1) by mouth (n = 21) 90 min before surgery or no premedication (n = 21) by random allocation. MAC was calculated using repeated tetanic nerve stimulation with end-tidal sevoflurane ...
Trautman W J WJ - - 1997
This study was designed to determine the efficacy of saline as an epidural top-up to prolong spinal anesthesia during combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Eight volunteers received three separate CSEAs with intrathecal lidocaine (50 mg). After two-segment regression, each subject received either a saline (10 mL), lidocaine 1.5% (10 mL), or ...
Baraka A - - 1997
We studied the efficacy of the self-inflating bulb (SIB) in differentiating tracheal from esophageal intubation in 40 parturients undergoing elective cesarean section under general anesthesia. After induction and muscle relaxation, the trachea was intubated under direct vision with cuffed tube. In 20 parturients, the esophagus was also intubated with an ...
Roe P G - - 1997
The relation between intra-operative gas exchange and post-operative oxygen saturation was examined using pulse oximetry (SpO2) 30 h after anaesthesia for upper abdominal surgery. The inspired oxygen partial pressure (PIO2) was varied during anaesthesia to produce a plot of PIO2 vs. SpO2. Gas exchange during anaesthesia was inferred from the ...
Jalkanen L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The pharmacodynamic profile of muscle relaxants is usually changed by volatile anaesthetics. These changes seem to be time-dependent, even though few data are available to substantiate this. METHODS: We studied neuromuscular effects of a single dose of mivacurium (0.2 mg.kg-1) during short and intermediate duration of isoflurane anaesthesia. Forty-five ...
Krishnan B S - - 1997
In exercising humans, added external dead space (VD) increases minute ventilation (VI) and causes a slower and deeper breathing pattern (J. Appl. Physiol. 1991; 70:55-62). Recent studies suggest that airway receptors sensitive to topical anesthesia influence VI and breathing pattern responses to exercise and to added VD. We tested these ...
Komatsu H - - 1997
We compared respiratory parameters during anaesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane through a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Children were anaesthetized with O2 and air with 2.3% (1MAC) sevoflurane (n = 20) or 1.5% (1MAC) isoflurane (n = 20). After insertion of LMA, patients were allowed to breathe spontaneously and respiratory rate ...
Svendsen P - - 1997
Minipigs tolerate anaesthesia very well. The only disadvantages are the difficulties in performing venous puncture and endotracheal intubation. To overcome these the animals should be well sedated prior to induction by intravenous injection, and deeply anaesthetized prior to the introduction of the endotracheal tube. Anaesthetic regimen and several basic experimental ...
Li S - - 1997
Effect of multiple respiratory gas monitoring (MRGM) on inspired concentration of oxygen in circuit system during closed anesthesia was studied in 51 adult patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. Required flow rate of fresh oxygen (OFR), inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2) and oxygen saturation of pulse oximeter (SpO2) were measured continuously. Patients ...
Emerson P F - - 1997
It has recently been suggested that sonophoresis, or the application of ultrasound (US) in the kilohertz range, could enhance peritoneal mass transport. To examine this hypothesis, six nephrectomized rabbits were exposed to ultrasound while under isoflurane anesthesia. An additional five also had bilateral nephrectomies and were used as a control ...
Saito H - - 1997
Xenon is an inert gas with a practical anesthetic potency (1 MAC = 71%). Because it is very expensive, the use of closed circuit anesthesia technique is ideal for the conduction of xenon anesthesia. Here we describe our methods of starting closed circuit anesthesia without excessive waste of xenon gas. ...
Osofsky S A - - 1997
Twenty free-ranging adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana were immobilized with a mean (+/- SD) of 9.5 +/- 0.5 mg etorphine hydrochloride and 2,000 IU hyaluronidase by intramuscular (IM) dart. The mean time to recumbency was 8.7 +/- 2.4 min. All animals were maintained in lateral recumbency. The ...
Larsen P D - - 1997
We examined spectral components of beat to beat variability in AC and DC signals of the reflectance photoplethysmograph at finger and earlobe sites in 20 resting volunteers and 20 patients during propofol, alfentanil, isoflurane, nitrous oxide anaesthesia. We observed that at rest, the majority of spectral power at both sites ...
Kraus H H 130 East 77th Street, New York, NY 10021, - - 1997
Decades of debate have yet to yield a universal solution to the treatment of low back pain, a problem that afflicts 80% of adults in the United States at some point of their lives [1,2]. Exercise, in general, has become widely recognized as playing a large role in the rehabilitation ...
Xue F S - - 1996
Thirty-six healthy patients, ASA 1, aged 16-41 years, scheduled for elective plastic surgery were studied to determine if thoracocervical or lumbar epidural blocks affected the lag time of the pulse oximeter response. Patients were allocated to receive thoracocervical epidural block (n = 20) (group 1) (lignocaine 1%) or lumbar epidural ...
Richter A - - 1996
Recent studies have shown a significant increase of inositol phosphates (IPs) in skeletal muscle during episodes of halothane-induced malignant hyperthermia (MH) in pigs. After treatment with dantrolene and disappearance of MH crisis the IP concentrations returned to basal levels. In order to examine if the increase of IPs during halothane-induced ...
Kruse-Elliott K T - - 1996
Proper management and monitoring during anesthesia minimizes the need for emergency intervention. Monitoring of circulation, ventilation, and oxygenation allows for early recognition of problems such as airway obstruction, hypotension, acid-base disturbances, or cardiac arrest, and is discussed. Appropriate therapies are instituted early for best success and are described in this ...
Ribotsky B M - - 1996
The advantages to using a 50/50 mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine with respect to onset and duration of local anesthesia instead of using the solutions independently were evaluated. In a double-blind randomized experiment, 12 subjects, each volunteering both feet, were studied. One foot was injected with 1 ml of one ...
Kim S Y - - 1996
We investigated isobolic mixtures of mivacurium and rocuronium to determine if the combination offered any advantages over either drug alone. We used five dose regimens to achieve ED95 x 2: [(1.5 x ED95 mivacurium) + (0.5 x ED95 rocuronium); (1 x ED95 mivacurium) + (1 x ED95 rocuronium); (0.5 x ...
Muzi M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The speed, quality, and cost of mask induction of anesthesia and laryngeal mask airway insertion or tracheal intubation were studied in young non-premedicated volunteers given high inspired concentrations of sevoflurane (6 to 7%). METHODS: Twenty healthy persons who were 19 to 32 years old participated three times, received 6 ...
Behrns K E - - 1996
Our aim was to determine the effect of in situ neural isolation of the jejunoileum (extrinsic denervation and disruption of enteric neural continuity with the duodenum) on the spread of single pressure waves (SPW) and clustered contractions (CC) in response to increasing rates of isolated duodenal and jejunoileal nonnutrient infusions. ...
Kissin I - - 1996
The time course of the development of acute tolerance to alfentanil was characterized in rat experiments using various algorithms of continuous infusion of the drug. To maintain analgesia at a constant level (tail compression test), alfentanil use was steadily increased: Time to 50% increase in alfentanil use was 255 +/- ...
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