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Madsen B - - 2000
CO2 and N2 anesthetized Nephila spiders produced dragline silk with mechanical properties that differed from control silk as a function of time under anesthesia. Silk from CO2 spiders had a significantly lower breaking strain and breaking energy, significantly higher initial modulus, and marginally lower breaking stress. At the onset of ...
Benson G J - - 2000
To determine the effect of medetomidine on the stress response induced by ovariohysterectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Prospective randomized study. Twelve healthy adult female purpose-bred dogs, weighing 16.8 to 25 kg. Two treatments were randomly administered to each of twelve dogs at weekly intervals: (1) Saline injected IM followed in 15 ...
Koppel R A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Medium-depth chemical peels are an effective and popular treatment for actinic damage, fine wrinkles, and pigmentary dyschromias. However, they are also uncomfortable. A previous attempt to study the effectiveness of a topical anesthetic gel in 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling found a reduction in discomfort but an increased depth ...
Weiss M - - 2000
To determine the impact of infusion line compliance on the time to occlusion alarm (occlusion time) and the size of the subsequent occlusion release bolus, we studied three different infusion lines in combination with a 50-ml and 10-ml syringe. The mean occlusion time of the 50-ml syringe amounted to 20.3 ...
Murao K - - 2000
Volatile anesthetics may be used to treat status epilepticus when conventional drugs are ineffective. We studied 30 cats to compare the inhibitory effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane on penicillin-induced status epilepticus. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with one of the three volatile anesthetics in oxygen. Penicillin G was injected ...
Zacny J P - - 1999
AIMS: To characterize the reinforcing, subjective and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, across a range of subanesthetic concentrations in non-drug-abusing humans. In addition, a concentration of nitrous oxide was included in the design in order to compare and contrast behavioral effects of a gaseous to a volatile anesthesic. ...
Ross J A - - 1999
The addition of 0.25% isoflurane to 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen provides more effective pain relief in labour than 50% nitrous oxide alone. This study was carried out to determine whether self-administration by demand valve of 0.25% isoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen premixed in cylinders at 13.7 MPa ...
Merle J C - - 1999
We compared two techniques of cervical plexus blockade (CPB) for carotid endarterectomy. Cervical plexus nerve block was performed with a combination of bupivacaine and lidocaine, with injections at the C2-C3, C3-C4, and C4-C5 transverse processes in 11 patients (classical CPB) or with a single injection after localization of the cervical ...
Dodam J R - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to assess carbon monoxide (CO) exposure during equine anesthesia with either halothane (H) or isoflurane (I) delivered in a circle rebreathing system. Prospective clinical investigation. Fifty client-owned horses. Horses were randomly assigned for anesthetic maintenance with H (n = 26) or I (n = ...
Siu A W - - 1999
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of prior anesthesia on the time to full cycloplegia in young Chinese subjects. METHODS: The amplitude of accommodation was monitored over a 50-minute interval after the application of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride with a pretreatment of 0.4% benoxinate (oxybuprocaine) or 0.9% saline solution (control). Using a ...
Goldberg M E - - 1999
Two men volunteers developed peripheral neuropathy after prolonged anesthesia with 1.25 minimum alveolar concentration sevoflurane at an inflow rate of 2 L/minute of fresh gas that caused concurrent administration of relatively large doses (ppm-hrs) of the degradation product of sevoflurane, compound A. Other similarly treated volunteers had lesser degrees of ...
Okutomi T - - 1999
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the volume of saline and the concentration of local anesthetic on the quality of anesthetic level. METHODS: One hundred and fifty two patients received thoracic epidural anesthesia were allocated into two groups; mepivacaine 1% (75 patients) and 1.5% (77 patients). Each group was randomly ...
Mather L E - - 1999
1. To better understand the pharmacology of the thiopentone enantiomers, we studied their quantitative electroencephalographic effects and their distribution into vital tissues. 2. Adult Wistar rats were infused with rac-, R- or S-thiopentone at 4 mg kg(-1)min(-1) until death ensued. The EEG signal was acquired continuously; serial arterial plasma and ...
Pandit J J - - 1999
We have determined the influence of 0.1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane on ventilation, the acute ventilatory response to a step change in end-tidal carbon dioxide and the ventilatory response to sustained hypercapnia in 10 healthy adult volunteers. Subjects undertook a preliminary 10-min period of breathing air without sevoflurane ...
Olsson O - - 1999
Seventeen schizophrenic patients who had all experienced auditory hallucinations were compared with 14 subjects of a reference group on a test of contralateral induction. Contralateral induction means that a sound is illusively heard as coming from a location where it belongs according to its spectral content. The phenomenon is connected ...
Sjögren D - - 1999
We investigated the isocapnic hypoxic (i.e., pulse oximetry monitored arterial saturations 70%-75%) ventilatory response (HVR) for 20 min in the awake state and during sevoflurane anesthesia at an end-tidal concentration of 1.6% in eight healthy (ASA physical status I) women. Our aims were to determine if a prolonged isocapnic hypoxic ...
Rankin D C - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of strenuous exercise in adult horses immediately before anesthesia and to determine whether prior exercise affects anesthesia induction, recovery, or both. ANIMALS: 6 healthy Thoroughbreds in good condition and trained to run on a treadmill, each horse serving as its own control. PROCEDURE: Horses ran on ...
Gajraj R J - - 1999
We have compared the auditory evoked potential index (AEPIndex) and bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring depth of anaesthesia in spontaneously breathing surgical patients. Twenty patients (aged 17-49 yr) undergoing day surgery were anaesthetized with computer-controlled infusions of propofol. The mean (SD and range) of each measurement was determined during consciousness ...
Olofsen E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Inhalational anesthetics produce dose-dependent effects on electroencephalogram-derived parameters, such as 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and bispectral index (BIS). The authors analyzed the relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations (FET) and BIS and SEF and determined the speed of onset and offset of effect (t1/2k(e0)). METHODS: Twenty-four patients ...
Einarsson S - - 1999
PURPOSE: To investigate ventilation and gas elimination during the emergence from inhalational anesthesia with controlled normoventilation with either sevoflurane/N2O or sevoflurane alone. METHODS: Twenty-four ASA I-II patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive either 1.3 MAC sevoflurane/N2O (n = 12) or equi-MAC sevoflurane (n = 12) in ...
Scheeren T W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The metabolic regulation of tissue blood flow manifests itself in a linear relation between blood flow and oxygen consumption, the latter being the independent variable. It is unknown, however, if this fundamental physiological principle operates also during inhalation anaesthesia known to be associated with decreases in both cardiac output ...
Guise P - - 1999
The role of hyaluronidase on the onset time and quality of single quadrant sub-Tenon's block was studied in a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled manner. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anaesthesia received a sub-Tenon's block with either of two local anaesthetic solutions. One consisted of ...
Hochhauser E E Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Petach Tikva, - - 1999
The administration of protamine sulfate (protamine) to reverse the action of heparin is associated with adverse reactions. We studied the effects of protamine and isoflurane on isolated, perfused rat hearts previously subjected to cardioplegic ischemia. Hearts were perfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution for 30 min, then subjected to cardioplegic ...
Meechan J G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this volunteer clinical trial was to compare the effects of 5% lidocaine ointment and EMLA cream on the discomfort associated with intraligamentary injections. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, split mouth study was conducted. Each of 10 healthy volunteers had 5% lidocaine and EMLA cream applied to the ...
Vivien B - - 1999
Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentrations (MAC) values of volatile anesthetics in cardiovascular diseases remain unknown. We determined MAC values of volatile anesthetics in spontaneously breathing normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters exposed to increasing (0.1%-0.3% steps) concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane (n = 30 in each group) using the tail-clamp technique. ...
Antognini J F - - 1999
Isoflurane decreases motoneuron excitability as measured by the F wave. It is unknown how much of this effect is direct and how much occurs as the result of an indirect, supraspinal effect. Seven goats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and the carotid arteries and jugular veins were isolated to permit cranial ...
Nowak M - - 1999
To localize a central nervous feed-forward mechanism involved in cardiovascular regulation during exercise, brain activation patterns were measured in eight subjects by employing positron emission tomography and oxygen-15-labeled water. Scans were performed at rest and during rhythmic handgrip before and after axillary blockade with bupivacaine. After the blockade, handgrip strength ...
Schneck H - - 1999
We surveyed routine anesthetic practice and measures to prevent acid aspiration syndrome (AAS) in patients undergoing cesarean section (CS) throughout Germany. Of 1061 questionnaires, 81.9% were returned. For scheduled CS, general anesthesia was used in 63% of cases, and for urgent CS, it was used in 82% of cases. Regional ...
Fisher R - - 1998
In this randomized, double-blind study, we have compared the ability of 5% liposome-encapsulated tetracaine (amethocaine) (LET) vs 5% eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) to produce local anaesthesia of intact skin in 40 healthy volunteers. Volunteers had both preparations applied to their forearms under an occlusive dressing for 1 h. ...
Kotani N - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are a critical part of the defense against pulmonary infection. Thus the authors determined time-dependent changes in alveolar macrophage functions in patients having surgery who were anesthetized with isoflurane or propofol. METHODS: Patients anesthetized with propofol (n = 30) or isoflurane (n = 30) during orthopedic surgery ...
White J L - - 1998
PURPOSE: In this study we sought to determine if and when a difference exists with regards to differential sensory blockade between spinal and epidural anaesthesia using lidocaine. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive both spinal and epidural anaesthesia. Non-epinephrine containing solutions of lidocaine, 100 mg lidocaine 5% ...
Whalley D G - - 1998
PURPOSE: To compare the neuromuscular effects, efficacy, and safety of equi-effective doses of rocuronium and atracurium in ambulatory female patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: Forty-one patients undergoing laparoscopic gynaecological surgery were randomized to receive 2 X ED90 rocuronium (0.6 mg.kg-1; n = 20) or atracurium (0.5 mg.kg-1; n = 21) during ...
Odeberg S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum (PP) for laparoscopic surgery induces prompt changes in circulatory parameters. The rapid onset of these changes suggests a reflex origin, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate whether release of vasopressor substances could be responsible for these alterations. The influence of two different anesthesia techniques was also ...
Rampil I J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a commonly used sedative for painful diagnostic procedures and dental work. The authors sought to characterize the effects of N2O on quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) variables including the bispectral index (BIS), a quantitative parameter developed to correlate with the level of sedation induced by a variety ...
Holst D - - 1998
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Microcatheters have been linked in some cases to the development of cauda equina syndrome, which may be further traced to the maldistribution of the local anesthetic. A long injection time via the microcatheters contributes to the inadequate mixing. With the new Spinocath catheter, considerably shorter injection times ...
Saitoh Y Y Department of Anesthesiology, Toride Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, - - 1998
Recovery of neuromuscular blockade after vecuronium 0.2 mg kg-1 was measured by post-tetanic burst count (PTBC) and train-of-four (TOF) in 120 adult patients anaesthetized by one of four techniques: neuroleptanaesthesia or one minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane, enflurane, or sevoflurane. Onset of recovery was taken when there was reflex movement ...
Heilskov J - - 1998
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of saline, heparin 2 units (U) per ml saline, and heparin 10 U/ml saline flush solutions on the duration of intravenous (i.v.) locks and the incidence of i.v. infiltration in neonates. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind experiment. SETTING: Tertiary-care nursery. PARTICIPANTS: Neonates (N = 90) hospitalized at ...
Lampotang S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Many studies (outcome, epidemiological) have tested the hypothesis that pulse oximetry and capnography affect the outcome of anesthetic care. Uncontrollable variables in clinical studies make it difficult to generate statistically conclusive data. In the present study, we eliminated the variability among patients and operative procedures by using a full-scale ...
Ferber-Viart C - - 1998
The influence of general anesthesia (GA) on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) has been widely studied in humans whereas few studies have been devoted as yet to its effect on cochlear micromechanical properties. This study was aimed at evaluating: (1) the effect of GA on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in ...
Wulf H - - 1998
PURPOSE: To determine the magnitude of the potentiation of rocuronium by desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane 1.5 MAC anaesthesia. METHODS: In a prospective, randomised, study in 80 patients, the cumulative dose-effect curves for rocuronium were determined during anaesthesia with desflurane, sevoflurane and isoflurane (with N2O 70%, 15 min steady state) or ...
Wilkes A R - - 1998
A bewildering array of HMEs are available, suited to many different tidal volume and other clinical requirements. Choosing among the different devices depends on many attributes. Grouping different HMEs together to describe their performance may be inappropriate. Independent tests on HMEs provide information to help when choosing among different devices, ...
Beaussier M - - 1998
PURPOSE: Increasing the duration of exposure could lead to amplification of the pharmacokinetic differences between halogenated anaesthetic agents. The aim of our study was to compare anaesthesia recovery after desflurane and isoflurane, administered for more than three hours. METHODS: After informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to either desflurane (n ...
Hanouz J L - - 1998
The effects of sevoflurane on myocardial contraction and relaxation are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effects of equianaesthetic concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 MAC) of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane on inotropic and lusitropic (myocardial relaxation) variables, and post-rest potentiation in rat left ventricular papillary muscles in vitro. ...
Inomata S - - 1998
The current study was designed to determine the anaesthetic induction time required for tracheal intubation (TimeEI) with equipotent inspired concentrations of 5% sevoflurane and 2.5% halothane in oxygen. TimeEI that prevents 50% and 95% of patients from coughing and gross purposeful muscular movements after intubation was defined as TimeEI50 and ...
Story D A - - 1998
Inotrope-dependent patients may become haemodynamically unstable during treatment in the hyperbaric chamber. One possible cause is altered performance of infusion devices. We tested six Atom 235 syringe infusion pumps under hyperbaric conditions of 2.8 atmospheres absolute in a multiplace chamber using a gravimetric method. There was a small but significant ...
Neumann M A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to combine the advantage of the lower solubilities of new inhaled anesthetics with the lesser cost of older anesthetics, some clinicians substitute the former for the latter toward the end of anesthesia. The authors tried to determine whether substituting desflurane for isoflurane in the last 30 ...
Glazewski S - - 1998
Long-term potentiation was studied in vivo in the rat barrel cortex. It was found that LTP lasting several hours could be induced in layer II/III by tetanic stimuli applied in layer IV. The probability of inducing LTP at a given site was high (86%) provided that the electrodes were not ...
Porkkala T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Clonidine, an alpha2 agonist, reduces the requirements of several anesthetics. However, the effects of clonidine on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are unclear. These effects on cortical SEPs during isoflurane anesthesia were studied in 20 ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery. Furthermore, the isoflurane concentration required to induce electroencephalogram ...
Cervin A - - 1998
We have examined the short-term effects of three volatile anaesthetics, halothane, isoflurane and desflurane, on mucociliary activity in the rabbit maxillary sinus in vivo. Mucociliary activity was recorded photoelectrically and the signal processed by fast Fourier transformation. Administration of 1.0 MAC of halothane, isoflurane or desflurane caused a temporary increase ...
Kazama T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The propofol awakening concentration can vary. However, the effect site awakening propofol concentration will be a fixed value. The purpose of this study was to determine the awakening propofol concentrations obtained from infusion Schede using abrupt discontinuation of propofol (half-maximal effective concentration [EC50]) or a descending decrease in concentration ...
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