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Gorostiaga Esteban M EM 1Studies, Research and Sports Medicine Center, Government of Navarre, SPAIN 2Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SPAIN 3Department of Physiological Sciences I. Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS). University of Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2014
To examine whether blood lactate and ammonia concentrations can be used to estimate the functional state of the muscle contractile machinery with regard to muscle lactate and ATP levels during leg press exercise. Thirteen men (age 34 ± 5 yr, 1RM leg press strength 199 ± 33 kg) performed either ...
Jackson Robert M RM Research Service (151), Miami VAHS, 1201 NW 16th Street, Miami, FL, 33125, USA, - - 2014
Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have severely limited exercise capacity due to dyspnea, hypoxemia, and abnormal lung mechanics. This pilot study was designed to determine whether pulmonary rehabilitation were efficacious in improving the 6-min walk test (6-MWT) distance, exercise oxygen uptake, respiratory muscle strength [maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP)], and ...
Reidy Paul T PT 1University of Texas Medical - - 2014
Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or post-exercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that ...
Mochizuki Akito Azumane AA a Faculty of Community Health Care , Teikyo Heisei University , Ichihara , Chiba , - - 2014
Abstract The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person ...
van Wijck Kim K *Contributed equally 1Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Surgery and 3Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, the - - 2014
Splanchnic hypoperfusion is a physiological phenomenon during strenuous exercise. It has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, intestinal injury, and may hamper athletic performance. We hypothesized that L-citrulline supplementation improves splanchnic perfusion and decreases intestinal injury by enhancing arginine availability. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ...
Kanda Atsushi A Food Science Research Laboratories, Meiji Company Limited, 540 Naruda, Odawara, Kanagawa 250-0862, - - 2014
We have previously shown that whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) causes a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than does a mixture of amino acids that is identical in amino acid composition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of WPH on gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to ...
Baek Il-Hun IH Department of Physical Therapy, Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Republic of - - 2014
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of circuit class training (CCT) on poststroke depression through changes in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and free-tryptophan (f-Trp). [Subjects] The study subjects were 40 stroke patients with major depressive disorder. The subjects were ...
Kakigi Ryo R Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine, Juntendo University, 1-1 Hiragagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba, 270-1695, - - 2014
Protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in a dose-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanism(s) for the dose-dependency of MPS remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the dose response of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in muscle with ingestion of protein after resistance exercise. Fifteen ...
Tumilty Les L 1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Aberystwyth University, Wales, United Kingdom. 2 Endurance Research Group, Centre for Sports Studies, University of Kent at Medway, Chatham, United Kingdom. 3 Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales, United - - 2014
Acute oral tyrosine administration has been associated with increased constant-load, submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. This study sought to determine whether self-paced exercise performance in the heat is enhanced with the same tyrosine dosage. Following familiarisation, seven male endurance-trained volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two experimental ...
Shim Joon W JW Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of - - 2014
Sustaining brain serotonin is essential in mental health. Physical activities can attenuate mental problems by enhancing serotonin signaling. However, such activity is not always possible in disabled individuals or patients with dementia. Knee loading, a form of physical activity, has been found to mimic effects of voluntary exercise. Focusing on ...
Yeh Tzu-Shao TS School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, - - 2014
Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue ...
Wang Xinying - - 2014
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrolyzed protein supplementation upon skeletal muscle total protein and peroxidation in rats following exhaustive swimming exercise. Twenty-four rats were randomized to 4 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): control group fed standard diet without exercise (SD), exercise (EX), exercise plus standard diet ...
Zhang Li L Department of Rehabilitation, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China. - - 2014
Exercise training is a neuroprotective strategy in cerebral ischemic injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise pretreatment on the expression of mitochondrial dynamic proteins. We examined the expression of OPA1/DLP1/MFF/Mfn1/Mfn2, which regulatesmitochondrial fusion and fission, and cytochrome ...
McLellan Tom M TM TM McLellan Research Inc, Stouffville, 25 Dorman Drive, ON, Stouffville, L4A 8A7, Canada, - - 2013
Protein supplements are consumed frequently by athletes and recreationally active adults for various reasons, including improved exercise performance and recovery after exercise. Yet, far too often, the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is based on marketing claims rather than available evidence-based research. The purpose of this review was ...
Zuhl Micah Nathaniel - - 2013
The purposes of this study are to assess whether 7 days of oral glutamine supplementation: (1) reduces exercise induced intestinal permeability; (2) prevents the pro-inflammatory response; and (3) to determine whether these changes are associated with the up-regulation of the heat shock response. On separate occasions, eight human subjects participated ...
Luckose Feby - - 2013
Nutritional ergogenic aids have been in use for a long time to enhance exercise and sports performance. Dietary components that exhibit ergogenic activity are numerous and their consumption is common and popular among athletes. They often come under scrutiny by legal authorities for their claimed benefits and safety concerns. Amino ...
Bellinger Phillip M - - 2013
β-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic β-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that β-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle ...
Borges Lucio Santos - - 2013
The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of light-emitting diode phototherapy (LEDT) at 630 nm on muscle recovery after a damaging eccentric exercise bout. Seventeen healthy young male volunteers, without previous experience with eccentric exercise, were included in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. They were divided into ...
Witard Oliver C - - 2013
The intake of whey, compared with casein and soy protein intakes, stimulates a greater acute response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to protein ingestion in rested and exercised muscle. We characterized the dose-response relation of postabsorptive rates of myofibrillar MPS to increasing amounts of whey protein at rest and after ...
Stevens Laurence - - 2013
This study investigated the effects of a 60-day bed rest with or without countermeasures on muscular phenotype and post-translational modifications of the regulatory Myosin Light Chain 2 (MLC2) protein. Soleus biopsies were obtained from female subjects before and after bed rest. Control subjects were assigned only to bed rest (BR), ...
Xiong Yanlian - - 2013
Background/Aims: In vitro studies have shown that band-3 function is mainly regulated by its phosphorylation status. The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether band-3 phosphorylation status interferes with an exhaustive running exercise-related dysfunction of RBC deformability. Methods: Rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and exercise test ...
Loprinzi Paul D - - 2013
The brain plays a major role in regulating physical activity behavior and exercise performance. Regular physical activity may also play a key role in the prevention and treatment of various neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and cognitive function. This implies that not only does the brain ...
Witard Oliver C OC a Health and Exercise Sciences Research Group, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, - - 2014
Relative to essential amino acids (EAAs), carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion stimulates a delayed response of net muscle protein balance (NBAL). We investigated if staggered ingestion of CHO and EAA would superimpose the response of NBAL following resistance exercise, thus resulting in maximal anabolic stimulation. Eight recreationally trained subjects completed 2 trials: ...
McLellan Tom M - - 2013
Protein supplement use is common among athletes, active adults, and military personnel. This review provides a summary of the evidence base that either supports or refutes the ergogenic effects associated with different mechanisms that have been proposed to support protein supplementation. It was clear that if carbohydrate delivery was optimal ...
Atherton Philip James - - 2013
Although nutritional requirements for warfighters will inevitably vary in accordance with job role and active-inactive duty cycling, somewhat generic recommendations do still apply. In considering aspects of "optimal" nutrient timing, it is important to outline singular and combinatorial relationships between protein intake and physical activity (e.g., exercise) in the context ...
Murakami Taro - - 2013
We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, ...
Maciejczyk Marcin - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and the acid-base balance response to running at various slope angles. Ten healthy men 22.3 ± 1.56 years old participated in the study. The study consisted of completing the graded test until exhaustion and three 45-minute runs. For the first ...
Koo Hyun Mo HM Department of Physical Therapy, College of Science, Kyungsung - - 2013
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) after applying spontaneous wheel running exercises (SWR) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; 20 rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact for TBI, ...
Edwards A M - - 2013
The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that ...
Diricx Marjan - - 2013
Ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. The toxic effects of ammonia can be modulated by other physiological processes such as feeding and swimming. In this study, we wanted to examine these modulating effects in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were either fed (2% body ...
Moberg Marcus M a Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm SE-114 86, - - 2014
The purpose of the study was to investigate the specific effect of leucine on mTORC1 signalling and amino acid metabolism in connection with resistance exercise. Comparisons were made between ingestion of supplements with and without leucine. Eight young women performed leg press exercise on 2 occasions. In randomized order they ...
Harrison David J DJ School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, Wales, - - 2013
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation within the huntingtin gene that induces degeneration within the striatal nuclei, progressing to widespread brain atrophy and death. The neurodegeneration produces symptoms that reflect a corticostriatal disconnection syndrome involving motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbance. Environmental enrichment has been demonstrated ...
Pasiakos Stefan M SM Military Nutrition Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA. - - 2013
The study of micro RNA (miRNA) expression and function, a largely unexplored area of human muscle biology, may provide novel data regarding the development of targeted approaches that optimize skeletal muscle responses to exercise and amino acid manipulations. miRNAs are ubiquitously expressed, small noncoding RNAs that modulate posttranscriptional gene expression. ...
Krafft Cynthia E - - 2013
Objective: Children who are less fit reportedly have lower performance on tests of cognitive control and differences in brain function. This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on brain function during two cognitive control tasks in overweight children. Design and Methods: Participants included 43 unfit, overweight (BMI ≥ ...
Rahmani Nia Farhad - - 2013
Objective(s): The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of L-glutamine on electromyographic (EMG) activity of the quadriceps muscle injured by eccentric exercise (EE). Materials and Methods: Seventeen healthy men (age: 22.35±2.27 yr; body mass: 69.91±9.78 kg; height: 177.08±4.32 cm) were randomly and double-blind study with subjects ...
Kawada Shigeo - - 2013
We investigated the effects of resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation on psoas major muscle (PMM) hypertrophy and walking ability in elderly individuals. Twenty-nine healthy elderly individuals were assigned to 3 groups: (1) E (exercise), (2) A3 (exercise combined with 3.0 g of essential amino acid supplementation), and ...
Clemmensen Christoffer C Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, - - 2013
GPRC6A is an amino acid-sensing receptor highly expressed in the brain and in skeletal muscle. Although recent evidence suggests that genetically engineered GPRC6A receptor knockout (KO) mice are susceptible to develop subtle endocrine and metabolic disturbances, the underlying disruptions in energy metabolism are largely unexplored. Based on GPRC6A's expression pattern ...
Klempin Friederike - - 2013
Voluntary wheel running has long been known to induce precursor cell proliferation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents. However, mechanisms that couple activity with the promitotic effect are not yet fully understood. Using tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 2 deficient (Tph2-deficient) mice that lack brain serotonin, we explored the relationship between serotonin ...
Reitelseder Søren - - 2013
PURPOSE: Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean body mass), or a non-caloric control after heavy resistance exercise ...
Nelson Andre R - - 2013
Whey protein and leucine ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and could influence neutrophil function during recovery from prolonged intense exercise. We examined the effects of whey protein and leucine ingestion post-exercise on neutrophil function and immunomodulators during a period of intense cycling. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 12 ...
Watson Emma L - - 2013
Muscle-wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) arises from several factors including sedentary behaviour and metabolic acidosis. Exercise is potentially beneficial but might worsen acidosis through exercise-induced lactic acidosis. We studied the chronic effects of exercise in CKD stage 4-5 patients (brisk walking, 30 min, 5 times/week), and non-exercising controls; each group ...
Qun Z - - 2013
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is often used to attenuate exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and promote adaptation, but no definitive conclusion on the benefits of BCAA on muscle recovery after injurious exercise can be drawn. Exploration of the systematic BCAA alteration in muscular injury-repair stage per se without any ...
Tang Fu-Chun - - 2013
PURPOSE: Few studies have focused on the metabolic changes induced by creatine supplementation. This study investigated the effects of creatine supplementation on plasma and urinary metabolite changes of athletes after endurance and sprint running. METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3 ± 1.4 y) performed two identical (65-70 % maximum heart rate reserved) 60 min running ...
Hosseini Nasrin - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons ...
Sasaki Eiji - - 2013
Glutamine is an important amino acid for immune function. Though high intensity and prolonged exercise decreases plasma glutamine concentration and causes immune suppression, the relationship between neutrophil functions and glutamine has not yet been found. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of glutamine supplementation on neutrophil ...
Kullman E L EL Cleveland Clinic, Pathobiology, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2013
Aging may alter protein metabolism during periods of metabolic and physiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age on whole-body amino acid turnover in response to eccentric exercise and hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia. 16 healthy men were divided into young (N=8) and older (N=8) groups. Protein ...
Tumilty Les - - 2013
Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design ...
Sugiura Hiromichi - - 2013
Taurine protects against tissue damage in a variety of models involving inflammation, especially the muscle. We set up a heavy exercise bout protocol for rats consisting of climbing ran on a treadmill to examine the effect of an intraabdominal dose of taurine (300 mg/kg/day) administered 1 h before heavy exercise ...
Ra Song-Gyu - - 2013
Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the ...
van Loon Luc J C - - 2013
Dietary protein ingestion after exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown and, as such, stimulates net muscle protein accretion following resistance as well as endurance type exercise. Protein ingestion during and/or immediately after exercise has been suggested to facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session, resulting ...
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