Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1018
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Ribeiro Fernando - - 2010
There is an increasing evidence that endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation are present in all stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis does not have to necessarily progress to an acute clinical event. Several therapeutic strategies exist, such as exercise training, which mitigates endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Exercise training consistently improves the ...
van Duijnhoven Noortje T L - - 2010
Bed rest results in marked vascular adaptations, and resistive vibration exercise (RVE) has been shown to be an effective countermeasure. As vibration exercise has practical and logistical limitations, the use of resistive exercise (RES) alone has the preference under specific circumstances. However, it is unknown if RES is sufficient to ...
Brinkley Tina E - - 2009
Reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and bioactivity is a major contributor to endothelial dysfunction. Animal data suggest that improvements in endothelial function in response to aerobic exercise training may depend on the duration of the training program. However, no studies have examined changes in NO (as assessed by the major ...
Green Daniel J - - 2009
Exercise training decreases cardiovascular risk, but effects on traditional risk factors do not fully account for this benefit. Exercise directly impacts upon arterial shear stress, a stimulus to antiatherogenic adaptation in vascular function and remodeling. This review considers the impact of exercise training on vascular adaptation in large and small ...
Casey Darren P - - 2009
We previously demonstrated that skeletal muscle blood flow is restored in the exercising forearm during experimental hypoperfusion via local dilator and/or myogenic mechanisms. This study examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the restoration of blood flow to the active muscles during hypoperfusion. Eleven healthy subjects (10 men/1 woman; ...
Stamatelopoulos Kimon - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the methodology used to assess early atherosclerosis and its application in assessing the impact of body composition and nutrition on the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence supports the use of noninvasive markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, namely carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial ...
Casey Darren P - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of ...
Itatani Keiichi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In the extracardiac Fontan operation, larger conduits are used when considering the patients' growth rate. However, larger conduits may cause inefficient flow due to turbulence or stagnation, resulting in late problems such as thrombosis or stenosis. Our objective was to reveal the physiologic effects of respiration and exercise using ...
Risner David - - 2009
Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. ...
Sato Kohei - - 2009
This study evaluated the role of central command in the regulation of common carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (V(MCA)) at the onset of arm exercise. Eleven young women performed 2 min voluntary elbow flexion and extension exercise with no load (VOL) that was considered ...
Gielen Jan Louis - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2009
The response of the cerebral vasculature to exercise is different from the other peripheral vasculature (e.g., muscle); the cerebral vasculature has a small vascular bed and is strongly regulated by cerebral autoregulation and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. This review focuses on the integrative mechanisms underlying the regulation ...
Tinken Toni M - - 2009
Shear stress is an important stimulus to arterial adaptation in response to exercise and training in humans. We recently observed significant reverse arterial flow and shear during exercise and different antegrade/retrograde patterns of shear and flow in response to different types of exercise. The purpose of this study was to ...
Sindler Amy L - - 2009
Reduced availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) contributes to the age-related decline of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatation of soleus muscle arterioles. Depending on availability of substrate and/or necessary co-factors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can generate NO and/or superoxide (O(2)(-)). We evaluated the effects of age and chronic exercise on flow-induced vasodilatation ...
Kulikov V P - - 2009
Cerebral hemodynamic reactions to light physical exercise increasing stepwise on a bicycle ergometer were studied in healthy young male subjects. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) before the start of the study and during the last few seconds of each exercise step. ...
Casey Darren P - - 2009
We evaluated the contribution of changes in systemic arterial pressure and local vasodilation to blood flow restoration in contracting human muscles during acute hypoperfusion. Healthy subjects (n=10) performed rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) while a balloon in the brachial artery located above the elbow was inflated. Each ...
Jones Helen - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The vascular endothelium plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular health and the modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. Recently, it has been demonstrated that blood pressure reactivity to physical activity is greater in the morning, and possibly, diurnal variation in vascular function may also be ...
McCord Jennifer L - - 2009
The exercise pressor reflex is evoked by both mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in contracting skeletal muscle. Recently, the blockade of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) with amiloride and A-316567 attenuated the reflex. Moreover, amiloride had no effect on the mechanoreceptor component of the reflex, prompting us to determine whether ASICs ...
Mortensen Stefan P - - 2009
Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by ...
Platts Steven H - - 2009
Orthostatic hypotension is a serious risk for crewmembers returning from spaceflight. Numerous cardiovascular mechanisms have been proposed to account for this problem, including vascular and cardiac dysfunction, which we studied during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were studied before and during bed rest. Statistical analysis was limited to the first 49-60 ...
Charonko John - - 2009
The effect of stent design on wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) was studied in vitro using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Four drug-eluting stents [XIENCE V (Abbott Vascular), TAXUS Liberté (Boston Scientific), Endeavor (Medtronic), and Cypher (J&J Cordis)] and a bare-metal stent [VISION (Abbott Vascular)] ...
Fahs Christopher A - - 2009
PURPOSE: L-arginine, the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with endothelial dysfunction. Resistance exercise has been shown to increase arterial stiffness acutely with no definitive cause. It is possible that a reduction in NO bioavailability is responsible for this. The purpose of ...
Kirby Brett S - - 2009
Age-related increases in oxidative stress impair endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in humans, leading to the speculation that endothelial dysfunction contributes to impaired muscle blood flow and vascular control during exercise in older adults. We directly tested this hypothesis in 14 young (22 +/- 1 years) and 14 healthy older men and women ...
Shibasaki Manabu - - 2009
During heat stress, isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise causes cutaneous vasoconstriction, but it remains controversial whether neural mechanisms are responsible for this observation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasoconstriction during IHG exercise in heat stressed individuals occurs via a neural mechanism. An axillary nerve ...
Trott Daniel W - - 2009
We tested two hypotheses, first that exercise training reverses age-related decrements in endothelium-dependent dilation in soleus muscle feed arteries and second that this improved endothelium-dependent dilation is the result of increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to increased content and phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and/or increased antioxidant enzyme ...
Ray Clare J - - 2009
Exercise hyperaemia is partly mediated by adenosine A(2A)-receptors. Adenosine can evoke nitric oxide (NO) release via endothelial A(2A)-receptors, but the role for NO in exercise hyperaemia is controversial. We have investigated the contribution of NO to hyperaemia evoked by isometric twitch contractions in its own right and in interaction with ...
Hellsten Ylva - - 2009
This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged knee-extensor exercise (18 W) during control conditions and with ...
Billinger, Sandra A
Despite the recommendations of health care professionals, the research community and even pharmaceutical companies, exercise remains a neglected daily regimen for most individuals. Very simply, exercise is any activity that engages our muscles and increases oxygen delivery and uptake with the goal of improving cardiorespiratory health. As physical therapists, we ...
Allen Jason D - - 2009
NO is crucial for endothelial function and vascular health. Plasma nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is the main oxidation product of NO and has been shown to reflect changes in eNOS activity. We hypothesized that plasma NO(2)(-) response to physical exercise stress along with physiological endothelial function would be reduced with increasing severity ...
Dias Rodrigo G - - 2009
The influence of Glu298Asp endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphism in exercise-induced reflex muscle vasodilatation is unknown. We hypothesized that nonexercising forearm blood flow (FBF) responses during handgrip isometric exercise would be attenuated in individuals carrying the Asp298 allele. In addition, these responses would be mediated by reduced eNOS function ...
Jankord Ryan - - 2009
Exercise can activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and regular exercise training can impact how the HPA axis responds to stress. The mechanism by which acute exercise induces HPA activity is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide modulates the neuroendocrine component of ...
Tyldum Gjertrud Aunet - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to study the effect of exercise and a high-fat meal (HFM) on endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Post-prandial lipemia and exercise oppose each other in terms of cardiovascular risk; however, the mechanism of their interaction is not well understood. METHODS: Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery ...
Welch Garrett - - 2009
The role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in modulating human thermoregulatory control of sweating and cutaneous dilation was examined in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women). Three intradermal microdialysis probes were placed in nonglabrous skin of the dorsum of the forearm. The control site was perfused with 0.9% ...
Jenks Bruce G - - 2009
The Allen Brain Atlas is a repository of neuroanatomical data concerning the mouse brain. The core of the database is a Nissl-stained reference atlas of the brain accompanied by in situ hybridization data for essentially the entire mouse genome. This database is freely available at the Allen Institute for Brain ...
Frazier O H - - 2009
The development and clinical use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) stimulated our interest in developing a total heart replacement with continuous-flow rotary blood pumps. We constructed a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) from 2 HeartMate II axial-flow LVADs and used this CFTAH to replace the native heart of ...
Bia Daniel D Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Republic University, Montevideo, Uruguay. - - 2009
Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. a) to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical ...
Miyakawa Michio M Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181 Japan. - - 2009
Chirp Pulse Microwave Computed Tomography (CP-MCT) has been developed to visualize activities of forearm muscles during exercise. The change in the gray levels between two images obtained before and after loading exercises showed position dependence. This was produced by physiological- or biochemical- changes in forearm muscles caused by grasping a ...
Manchio Jeffrey V - - 2009
Microvascular clamps have several potential shortcomings, including the risk of vessel injury. LeGoo, a novel reverse thermosensitive polymer (Pluromed Inc., Woburn, MA), is investigated as a substitute to vascular clamping in a microsurgical model and the technical details are described. Femoral vessels of Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate ...
Fadel Paul J - - 2008
Arterial baroreceptors originating in the carotid arteries and aorta play a pivotal role in the rapid reflex adjustments that accompany acute cardiovascular stressors. There is now ample evidence to indicate that the arterial baroreflex remains functional during exercise by resetting in direct relation to the intensity of exercise from rest ...
Raven Peter B - - 2008
This article provides an overview of the history behind the physiological concepts defining the role of the arterial baroreflexes and their regulation of arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise. Initially, the case is made as to "why the arterial baroreflexes must be involved with blood pressure regulation during exercise." Subsequently, ...
Yang H T - - 2008
Peripheral arterial insufficiency is a progressive degenerative disease associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. It decreases exercise tolerance and often presents with symptoms of intermittent claudication. Enhanced physical activity is one of the most effective means of improving the life of affected patients. While this occurs for a variety ...
Snapir A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the contribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis to the net responses of human peripheral blood vessels in vivo to the selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine. METHODS: Two groups of healthy young men were studied. In the first experiment, after brachial plexus block, the responses of ...
McCord Jennifer L - - 2008
PURPOSE: H1-receptors mediate the early portion (i.e., first 30 min after exercise) of postexercise hypotension. Immediately after exercise, syncope can occur due to an exaggerated form of postexercise hypotension. Therefore, we hypothesized that orthostatic hypotension occurring immediately after exercise would be attenuated with an H1-receptor antagonist. METHODS: We studied 15 ...
Heaps Cristine L CL Michael E. DeBakey Institute for Comparative Cardiovascular Science and Biomedical Devices, Texas, USA. - - 2008
Coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic swine display attenuated adenosine-mediated vasodilatation that is attributable to the elimination of voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel stimulation. For the present study, we tested the hypotheses that exercise training would correct impaired adenosine-induced dilatation in coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic pigs through restoration of adenosine activation of Kv ...
Tawfik Huda E - - 2008
Multiparity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We tested whether multiparity induces oxidative stress in rat vascular tissue. Coronary arteries and thoracic aorta were isolated from multiparous and age-matched virgin rats. Relaxation to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was measured by wire myography. We also tested the effect ...
Tinken Toni M - - 2008
Studies of the impact of exercise training on arterial adaptation in healthy subjects have produced disparate results. It is possible that some studies failed to detect changes because functional and structural adaptations follow a different time course and may therefore not be detected at discrete time points. To gain insight ...
Kuipers, Nathan T.
The renal vasculature helps maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function during exercise and thermal stress. During exercise, renal vascular function can be influenced by feedback from muscle afferents in the exercising limb. The influence of temperature on muscle afferent control of renal blood flow during exercise in humans is unknown. ...
Egginton Stuart - - 2009
The dynamic biochemical and mechanical environment around blood vessels during muscle activity generates powerful stimuli for vascular remodelling. Ultimately, this must lead to a coordinated expansion of various elements of the cardiovascular system in order to support enhanced aerobic exercise. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a central role, and understanding ...
Komine Hidehiko - - 2008
We examined whether a sympathetic cholinergic mechanism contributed to increased blood flow of the exercising muscle at the onset of voluntary static exercise in conscious cats. After six cats were operantly conditioned to perform static bar press exercise with a forelimb while maintaining a sitting posture, a Transonic or pulsed ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >