Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1003
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Rankinen Tuomo - - 2010
A genome-wide linkage scan identified a quantitative trait locus for exercise training-induced changes in submaximal exercise (50 W) heart rate (DeltaHR50) on chromosome 2q33.3-q34 in the HERITAGE Family Study (n=472). To fine-map the region, 1450 tag SNPs were genotyped between 205 and 215 Mb on chromosome 2. The strongest evidence ...
Klonizakis Markos - - 2010
Regular walking exercise attenuates lower-limb cutaneous microvascular endothelial dysfunction in post-surgical varicose-vein patients. This study assessed the effects of upper-limb exercise training on lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in this patient group. Six post-surgical (4-5 weeks) varicose-vein patients completed an 8-week arm-crank exercise training programme. Changes in cutaneous microvascular function of ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of static exercise on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). In nine healthy subjects at rest before, during, and after static handgrip exercise at 30% maximum voluntary contraction, the response to an acute drop in mean arterial blood pressure and middle ...
Zhou Minglong - - 2010
Exercise training enhances agonist-mediated relaxation in both control and collateral-dependent coronary arteries of hearts subjected to chronic occlusion, an enhancement that is mediated in part by nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate exercise training-induced adaptations in specific cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of endothelial ...
Neves Fabricia J - - 2010
Considering that the role of nitric oxide as a vasodilator is increased after an acute bout of exercise and that the 894G>T polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase seems to reduce the nitric oxide release in response to shear stress, the present study investigated the 894G>T polymorphism in relation ...
Heffernan Kevin S - - 2010
Smoking is an established cardiovascular risk factor that impairs endothelial function and reduces exercise capacity. Peripheral vascular endothelial function correlates with exercise capacity, but whether this association prevails in smokers is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between endothelial function and exercise capacity in chronic ...
Sarelius I - - 2010
Understanding the control mechanisms of blood flow within the vasculature of skeletal muscle is clearly fascinating from a theoretical point of view due to the extremely tight coupling of tissue oxygen demands and blood flow. It also has practical implications as impairment of muscle blood flow and its prevention/reversal by ...
Alomari Mahmoud A - - 2010
Despite the evidence describing the rapid vascular function modifications to commencement and cessation of large muscle exercises (i.e. cycling), no studies examined the time-course vascular modifications to localized training and detraining. This study aimed to examine the effects of 4-week rhythmic handgrip exercise training and 2-week detraining on reactive hyperemic ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to calculate critical closing pressure (CCP) of the cerebral vasculature at rest and during exercise to estimate cerebral vascular tone. Five men and two women were seated upright for 15 min and then performed 15 min of right-legged knee extension exercise at 40, ...
Medina José A - - 2010
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to a deficiency of central catecholamines (CA) in cognitive, biochemical, and physical tests, and pharmaceutical intervention may have no effect if it is not accompanied by changes in the environment. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that central CA ...
Colleran Patrick N - - 2010
Exercise training is known to be an effective means of improving functional capacity and quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency (PAI). However, the specific training-induced physiological adaptations occurring within collateral vessels remain to be clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ...
Copp Steven W - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an integral mediator of vascular control during muscle contractions. However, it is not known whether neuronal NOS (nNOS)-derived NO regulates tissue hyperaemia in healthy subjects, particularly during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that selective nNOS inhibition would reduce blood flow ...
Green Daniel J - - 2010
To examine the impact of age, sex and exercise on wall thickness and remodelling in the popliteal and brachial arteries. We compared wall thickness, lumen diameter and wall:lumen ratios in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 15 young (Y, 25.4+/-0.8 yr; 7M 8W) and 16 older sedentary (OS, 58.8+/-1.1 yr; ...
Cubbon Richard M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) have emerged as potential mediators of vascular repair. In experimental models, CPC mobilization is critically dependent on nitric oxide (NO). South Asian ethnicity is associated with reduced CPC. We assessed CPC mobilization in response to exercise in Asian men and examined the role of NO ...
Yoshizawa Mutsuko - - 2010
Peripheral conduit artery endothelium-dependent dilatation decreases with aging in humans. Lactotripeptides (LTPs) and regular exercise can improve endothelium-dependent dilatation, but combining these lifestyle modifications may be more effective than either treatment alone. We conducted a randomized, place-controlled trial with four different intervention arms. A total of 43 postmenopausal women (50-65 ...
Tinken Toni M - - 2010
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an ...
Matsuura Cristiane - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is the end-stage of cardiovascular disease and is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events. Nitric oxide (NO) mediates vasodilation and prevents platelet activation, providing an important antithrombotic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic training on survival, platelet L-arginine-NO ...
Kagaya Atsuko - - 2010
The training effect on exercise-induced maximal blood flow remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference of exercise-induced blood flow, blood flow velocity and vessel diameter of brachial artery in dominant and non-dominant forearms of tennis players during graded hand-grip exercise. Ten female tennis players aged ...
Yoon Eun Sun - - 2010
Increased central arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Acute aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness, while acute resistance exercise may increase arterial stiffness, but this is not a universal finding. We tested whether an acute resistance exercise program was associated with an increase in arterial stiffness in ...
Motl Robert W - - 2010
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that culminates in the progression of physical and cognitive disability over time. Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of MS and a sentinel characteristic of the later or advanced stages of the disease. This paper presents a conceptual ...
Mendonca Goncalo V - - 2010
Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have reduced peak and submaximal exercise capacity. Because ambulation is one predictor of survival among adults with DS, a review of the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in these individuals would be important. Available data suggest that reduced ...
van Waart Hanna - - 2010
Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to ...
MacKay-Lyons Marilyn - - 2010
Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ...
Phelps Benjamin R - - 2010
Lack of adherence to antiretroviral medications is one of the key challenges for paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes. There are few hands-on opportunities for healthcare workers to gain awareness of the psychosocial and logistic challenges that caregivers face when administering daily antiretroviral therapy to children. This article describes an ...
Poole Chris C Applied Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma , OK, - - 2010
Nutrient administration following an exercise bout vastly affects anabolic processes within the human body, irrespective of exercise mode. Of particular importance are protein and carbohydrates whereby these two macronutrients portray distinct functions as anabolic agents. It has been confirmed that protein and/or amino acid ingestion following resistance training is required ...
Hodges Gary J - - 2010
Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) ...
Roche Denise M - - 2010
Whilst endothelial dysfunction is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, enhanced endothelial function has been documented in the skin of trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether highly trained adolescent males possess enhanced skin microvascular endothelial function compared to their untrained peers. Seventeen highly and predominantly soccer ...
Limberg Jacqueline K - - 2010
Exercise is a common nonpharmacological way to combat obesity; however, no studies have systematically tested whether obese humans exhibit reduced skeletal muscle blood flow during dynamic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced blood flow to skeletal muscle would be lower in young healthy obese subjects (body mass index of >30 kg/m(2)) ...
Copp Steven W - - 2010
The control of vascular tone during exercise is highly complex and integrated. Specifically, in regards to the contribution of nitric oxide (NO), the observed magnitude and muscle fiber-type dependency of the NO contribution to exercise hyperemia may differ depending on the timing of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with respect to ...
Donato Anthony J - - 2010
Aging, vascular function, and exercise are thought to have a common link in oxidative stress. Of the 28 subjects studied (young, 26 +/- 2 yr; old, 71 +/- 6 yr), 12 took part in a study to validate an antioxidant cocktail (AOC: vitamins C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid), while the ...
Bowker T J - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exercise is an accepted method of improving cardiovascular health; however, the impact of increases in blood flow and heart rate on a cerebral aneurysms is unknown. This study was performed to simulate the changes in hemodynamic conditions within an intracranial aneurysm when a patient exercises. MATERIALS AND ...
Bunker Aaron K - - 2010
Our lab has shown that left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) blunts endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced maximal contractions in normal pigs on low- and high-fat diets. Other studies report that PAT exerts anticontractile effects on agonist-induced arterial contraction via release of a relaxing factor that acts on the underlying ...
Casey Darren P - - 2010
We tested the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide (NO) contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise and (2) the combined inhibition of NO production and adenosine receptor activation would attenuate the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise more than NO inhibition alone. In separate protocols subjects performed forearm exercise ...
Thijssen Dick H J - - 2010
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical ...
Jones Helen - - 2010
It is currently unclear to what extent diurnal variation and exercise effect endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 males (mean age = 28 yr, SD = 7), before and after a bout of intermittent cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake on ...
Ribeiro Fernando - - 2010
There is an increasing evidence that endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation are present in all stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis does not have to necessarily progress to an acute clinical event. Several therapeutic strategies exist, such as exercise training, which mitigates endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Exercise training consistently improves the ...
van Duijnhoven Noortje T L - - 2010
Bed rest results in marked vascular adaptations, and resistive vibration exercise (RVE) has been shown to be an effective countermeasure. As vibration exercise has practical and logistical limitations, the use of resistive exercise (RES) alone has the preference under specific circumstances. However, it is unknown if RES is sufficient to ...
Brinkley Tina E - - 2009
Reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and bioactivity is a major contributor to endothelial dysfunction. Animal data suggest that improvements in endothelial function in response to aerobic exercise training may depend on the duration of the training program. However, no studies have examined changes in NO (as assessed by the major ...
Green Daniel J - - 2009
Exercise training decreases cardiovascular risk, but effects on traditional risk factors do not fully account for this benefit. Exercise directly impacts upon arterial shear stress, a stimulus to antiatherogenic adaptation in vascular function and remodeling. This review considers the impact of exercise training on vascular adaptation in large and small ...
Casey Darren P - - 2009
We previously demonstrated that skeletal muscle blood flow is restored in the exercising forearm during experimental hypoperfusion via local dilator and/or myogenic mechanisms. This study examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the restoration of blood flow to the active muscles during hypoperfusion. Eleven healthy subjects (10 men/1 woman; ...
Stamatelopoulos Kimon - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the methodology used to assess early atherosclerosis and its application in assessing the impact of body composition and nutrition on the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence supports the use of noninvasive markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, namely carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial ...
Casey Darren P - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of ...
Itatani Keiichi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In the extracardiac Fontan operation, larger conduits are used when considering the patients' growth rate. However, larger conduits may cause inefficient flow due to turbulence or stagnation, resulting in late problems such as thrombosis or stenosis. Our objective was to reveal the physiologic effects of respiration and exercise using ...
Risner David - - 2009
Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. ...
Sato Kohei - - 2009
This study evaluated the role of central command in the regulation of common carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (V(MCA)) at the onset of arm exercise. Eleven young women performed 2 min voluntary elbow flexion and extension exercise with no load (VOL) that was considered ...
Gielen Jan Louis - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2009
The response of the cerebral vasculature to exercise is different from the other peripheral vasculature (e.g., muscle); the cerebral vasculature has a small vascular bed and is strongly regulated by cerebral autoregulation and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. This review focuses on the integrative mechanisms underlying the regulation ...
Tinken Toni M - - 2009
Shear stress is an important stimulus to arterial adaptation in response to exercise and training in humans. We recently observed significant reverse arterial flow and shear during exercise and different antegrade/retrograde patterns of shear and flow in response to different types of exercise. The purpose of this study was to ...
Sindler Amy L - - 2009
Reduced availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) contributes to the age-related decline of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatation of soleus muscle arterioles. Depending on availability of substrate and/or necessary co-factors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can generate NO and/or superoxide (O(2)(-)). We evaluated the effects of age and chronic exercise on flow-induced vasodilatation ...
Kulikov V P - - 2009
Cerebral hemodynamic reactions to light physical exercise increasing stepwise on a bicycle ergometer were studied in healthy young male subjects. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) before the start of the study and during the last few seconds of each exercise step. ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >