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Results 201 - 250 of 1018
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DeLorey D S - - 2010
We tested the hypothesis that tonic adrenergic and nonadrenergic receptor-mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction would increase at rest and during exercise with advancing age. Young (n = 6; 22 ± 1 mo; means ± SE) and old (n = 6; 118 ± 9 mo) beagles were studied. Selective antagonists for alpha-1, alpha-2, ...
Grzelak Piotr - - 2010
BACKGROUND: At present, endothelial dysfunction is best assessed in vivo with measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) with Doppler ultrasound scanning. This test, however, does not account for the subject's age and is uncomfortable for patients. The aim of the study was to compare a new test for endothelium function assessment ...
Stabler Thomas - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is crucial for normal vascular endothelial function and health. Recent studies have demonstrated an endocrine role for NO equivalents that may be transported in the blood to peripheral tissue beds, where under hypoxic conditions they can liberate NO and cause vasodilation. Exercise training improves endothelial function ...
Arbour-Nicitopoulos Kelly P - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of exercise in smoking cessation in women with severe mental illness (SMI). Semistructured interviews with 12 women diagnosed with SMI receiving smoking cessation treatment were conducted. Participants perceived three roles for exercise in assisting smoking cessation-addressing fears with preexisting ...
Seifert Thomas - - 2010
Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose ...
Lasta Michael - - 2012
Purpose:  It has been shown that retinal blood flow is autoregulated, meaning that flow is independent of perfusion pressure within a certain range. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition alters the response of retinal arterial and venous vessels during isometric exercise. Methods:  In this study, nine ...
Negrao Marcelo V - - 2010
Allele T at promoter region of the eNOS gene has been associated with an increase in coronary disease mortality, suggesting that this allele increases susceptibility for endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, exercise training improves endothelial function. Thus, we hypothesized that: 1) Muscle vasodilatation during exercise is attenuated in individuals homozygous for ...
Queiroz Andréia Cristiane Carrenho - - 2010
The aging process drastically reduces muscle mass, strength and power, decreasing the capacity to perform the activities of daily living. The practice of resistance exercises can reverse this picture, helping to maintain the muscular mass and improving muscular strength and resistance. However, the aging process causes cardiovascular alterations, which can ...
Barbosa Priscila B - - 2010
Muscle vascular dysfunction, a hallmark of chronic diseases such as heart failure and diabetes, impairs the matching of blood flow (Q(m)) to O(2) utilization (V(O(2m))) following exercise onset. One recently described consequence of this behavior is that arterial-venous O(2) difference [(a-v)(O(2)), the mirror image of muscle vascular oxygenation] transiently overshoots ...
Boutcher Y N - - 2011
The effect of one single bout of aerobic exercise on the vascular and baroreceptor function of individuals with a family history of hypertension was investigated. Forty young males, mean age 21 years, comprising offspring with (FH(+); n=20) and without (FH(-); n=20) a family history of hypertension participated in this study. ...
van Duijnhoven Noortje T L - - 2010
Physical inactivity is a potent stimulus for vascular remodeling, leading to a marked decrease in conduit artery diameter. However, little is known about the impact of physical inactivity on artery wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio or the potential of exercise countermeasures to modify artery wall thickness. The purpose of the ...
Kumar S - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Blood flow and vessel diameter are predictors of the success of vascular access procedures. This study investigated whether a simple exercise programme could influence these variables. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chronic kidney disease were prescribed a simple exercise programme for one arm only; the investigators were blinded to the ...
Wiltshire E Victoria - - 2010
This study tested the hypothesis that one of the ways sports massage aids muscle recovery from exercise is by increasing muscle blood flow to improve "lactic acid" removal. Twelve subjects performed 2 min of strenuous isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise at 40% maximum voluntary contraction to elevate forearm muscle lactic acid. ...
Padilla Jaume - - 2010
Although the beneficial effects of exercise training on conduit artery endothelial function are well-established in animals and humans with compromised basal function, whether exercise exerts favorable effects on a healthy endothelium is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether long-term exercise training enhances endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries of healthy ...
Faria Thaís de Oliveira Tde - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on resting blood pressure (BP) and on endothelial function of vascular bed of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hemodynamic measurements were performed before and after acute dynamic resistance exercise in conscious animals. After exercise, the tail ...
Rankinen Tuomo - - 2010
A genome-wide linkage scan identified a quantitative trait locus for exercise training-induced changes in submaximal exercise (50 W) heart rate (DeltaHR50) on chromosome 2q33.3-q34 in the HERITAGE Family Study (n=472). To fine-map the region, 1450 tag SNPs were genotyped between 205 and 215 Mb on chromosome 2. The strongest evidence ...
Klonizakis Markos - - 2010
Regular walking exercise attenuates lower-limb cutaneous microvascular endothelial dysfunction in post-surgical varicose-vein patients. This study assessed the effects of upper-limb exercise training on lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function in this patient group. Six post-surgical (4-5 weeks) varicose-vein patients completed an 8-week arm-crank exercise training programme. Changes in cutaneous microvascular function of ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of static exercise on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). In nine healthy subjects at rest before, during, and after static handgrip exercise at 30% maximum voluntary contraction, the response to an acute drop in mean arterial blood pressure and middle ...
Zhou Minglong - - 2010
Exercise training enhances agonist-mediated relaxation in both control and collateral-dependent coronary arteries of hearts subjected to chronic occlusion, an enhancement that is mediated in part by nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate exercise training-induced adaptations in specific cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of endothelial ...
Neves Fabricia J - - 2010
Considering that the role of nitric oxide as a vasodilator is increased after an acute bout of exercise and that the 894G>T polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase seems to reduce the nitric oxide release in response to shear stress, the present study investigated the 894G>T polymorphism in relation ...
Heffernan Kevin S - - 2010
Smoking is an established cardiovascular risk factor that impairs endothelial function and reduces exercise capacity. Peripheral vascular endothelial function correlates with exercise capacity, but whether this association prevails in smokers is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between endothelial function and exercise capacity in chronic ...
Sarelius I - - 2010
Understanding the control mechanisms of blood flow within the vasculature of skeletal muscle is clearly fascinating from a theoretical point of view due to the extremely tight coupling of tissue oxygen demands and blood flow. It also has practical implications as impairment of muscle blood flow and its prevention/reversal by ...
Alomari Mahmoud A - - 2010
Despite the evidence describing the rapid vascular function modifications to commencement and cessation of large muscle exercises (i.e. cycling), no studies examined the time-course vascular modifications to localized training and detraining. This study aimed to examine the effects of 4-week rhythmic handgrip exercise training and 2-week detraining on reactive hyperemic ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to calculate critical closing pressure (CCP) of the cerebral vasculature at rest and during exercise to estimate cerebral vascular tone. Five men and two women were seated upright for 15 min and then performed 15 min of right-legged knee extension exercise at 40, ...
Medina José A - - 2010
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to a deficiency of central catecholamines (CA) in cognitive, biochemical, and physical tests, and pharmaceutical intervention may have no effect if it is not accompanied by changes in the environment. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that central CA ...
Colleran Patrick N - - 2010
Exercise training is known to be an effective means of improving functional capacity and quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency (PAI). However, the specific training-induced physiological adaptations occurring within collateral vessels remain to be clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ...
Copp Steven W - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an integral mediator of vascular control during muscle contractions. However, it is not known whether neuronal NOS (nNOS)-derived NO regulates tissue hyperaemia in healthy subjects, particularly during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that selective nNOS inhibition would reduce blood flow ...
Green Daniel J - - 2010
To examine the impact of age, sex and exercise on wall thickness and remodelling in the popliteal and brachial arteries. We compared wall thickness, lumen diameter and wall:lumen ratios in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 15 young (Y, 25.4+/-0.8 yr; 7M 8W) and 16 older sedentary (OS, 58.8+/-1.1 yr; ...
Cubbon Richard M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) have emerged as potential mediators of vascular repair. In experimental models, CPC mobilization is critically dependent on nitric oxide (NO). South Asian ethnicity is associated with reduced CPC. We assessed CPC mobilization in response to exercise in Asian men and examined the role of NO ...
Yoshizawa Mutsuko - - 2010
Peripheral conduit artery endothelium-dependent dilatation decreases with aging in humans. Lactotripeptides (LTPs) and regular exercise can improve endothelium-dependent dilatation, but combining these lifestyle modifications may be more effective than either treatment alone. We conducted a randomized, place-controlled trial with four different intervention arms. A total of 43 postmenopausal women (50-65 ...
Tinken Toni M - - 2010
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an ...
Matsuura Cristiane - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is the end-stage of cardiovascular disease and is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events. Nitric oxide (NO) mediates vasodilation and prevents platelet activation, providing an important antithrombotic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic training on survival, platelet L-arginine-NO ...
Kagaya Atsuko - - 2010
The training effect on exercise-induced maximal blood flow remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference of exercise-induced blood flow, blood flow velocity and vessel diameter of brachial artery in dominant and non-dominant forearms of tennis players during graded hand-grip exercise. Ten female tennis players aged ...
Yoon Eun Sun - - 2010
Increased central arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Acute aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness, while acute resistance exercise may increase arterial stiffness, but this is not a universal finding. We tested whether an acute resistance exercise program was associated with an increase in arterial stiffness in ...
Motl Robert W - - 2010
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that culminates in the progression of physical and cognitive disability over time. Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of MS and a sentinel characteristic of the later or advanced stages of the disease. This paper presents a conceptual ...
Mendonca Goncalo V - - 2010
Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have reduced peak and submaximal exercise capacity. Because ambulation is one predictor of survival among adults with DS, a review of the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in these individuals would be important. Available data suggest that reduced ...
van Waart Hanna - - 2010
Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to ...
MacKay-Lyons Marilyn - - 2010
Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ...
Phelps Benjamin R - - 2010
Lack of adherence to antiretroviral medications is one of the key challenges for paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes. There are few hands-on opportunities for healthcare workers to gain awareness of the psychosocial and logistic challenges that caregivers face when administering daily antiretroviral therapy to children. This article describes an ...
Poole Chris C Applied Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma , OK, - - 2010
Nutrient administration following an exercise bout vastly affects anabolic processes within the human body, irrespective of exercise mode. Of particular importance are protein and carbohydrates whereby these two macronutrients portray distinct functions as anabolic agents. It has been confirmed that protein and/or amino acid ingestion following resistance training is required ...
Hodges Gary J - - 2010
Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) ...
Roche Denise M - - 2010
Whilst endothelial dysfunction is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, enhanced endothelial function has been documented in the skin of trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether highly trained adolescent males possess enhanced skin microvascular endothelial function compared to their untrained peers. Seventeen highly and predominantly soccer ...
Limberg Jacqueline K - - 2010
Exercise is a common nonpharmacological way to combat obesity; however, no studies have systematically tested whether obese humans exhibit reduced skeletal muscle blood flow during dynamic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced blood flow to skeletal muscle would be lower in young healthy obese subjects (body mass index of >30 kg/m(2)) ...
Copp Steven W - - 2010
The control of vascular tone during exercise is highly complex and integrated. Specifically, in regards to the contribution of nitric oxide (NO), the observed magnitude and muscle fiber-type dependency of the NO contribution to exercise hyperemia may differ depending on the timing of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with respect to ...
Donato Anthony J - - 2010
Aging, vascular function, and exercise are thought to have a common link in oxidative stress. Of the 28 subjects studied (young, 26 +/- 2 yr; old, 71 +/- 6 yr), 12 took part in a study to validate an antioxidant cocktail (AOC: vitamins C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid), while the ...
Bowker T J - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exercise is an accepted method of improving cardiovascular health; however, the impact of increases in blood flow and heart rate on a cerebral aneurysms is unknown. This study was performed to simulate the changes in hemodynamic conditions within an intracranial aneurysm when a patient exercises. MATERIALS AND ...
Bunker Aaron K - - 2010
Our lab has shown that left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) blunts endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced maximal contractions in normal pigs on low- and high-fat diets. Other studies report that PAT exerts anticontractile effects on agonist-induced arterial contraction via release of a relaxing factor that acts on the underlying ...
Casey Darren P - - 2010
We tested the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide (NO) contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise and (2) the combined inhibition of NO production and adenosine receptor activation would attenuate the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise more than NO inhibition alone. In separate protocols subjects performed forearm exercise ...
Thijssen Dick H J - - 2010
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical ...
Jones Helen - - 2010
It is currently unclear to what extent diurnal variation and exercise effect endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 males (mean age = 28 yr, SD = 7), before and after a bout of intermittent cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake on ...
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