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McManus Alison M - - 2011
The participation of girls in elite sport has increased exponentially over the past 30 years. Despite these increases a tradition for recruiting boys for exercise studies persistsand our knowledge of the physiologic response to exercise in girls remains limited. Girls' physiology varies with age and maturation and is underpinned by ...
Barker Alan R - - 2011
Children and adolescents are becoming increasingly involved in competitive sport and, as a consequence, are engaging in specialized training with the objective of enhancing their sporting performance. An important aspect of achieving this goal is to ensure young athletes receive appropriate and on-going physiological assessment and support. Moreover, as young ...
Ratel Sébastien - - 2011
Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with ...
Cole Judith A - - 2011
The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with ...
Daley Amanda - - 2011
Many menopausal women are keen to find alternatives to HRT; exercise might be useful in this regard but more trial evidence is required. Before we conduct such trials however, it is important to understand the exercise preference of these women so that appropriate exercise interventions can be developed for inclusion ...
Dusdal K - - 2010
A systematic literature review was conducted and revealed nine studies investigating the effects of therapeutic exercise for persons with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Although modest improvements were noted in strength and balance, results were inconsistent in supporting therapeutic exercise as effective in improving outcomes such as pain and quality of life ...
Thijssen D H J - - 2011
Aim:  Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine ...
Dagfinrud H - - 2010
OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate if exercise programs in trials for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have the potential for effectiveness. METHODS.: A systematic literature research was performed and randomised trials examining the effectiveness of exercise programs in patients with AS were analysed according to three elements: if the exercise programs were ...
Knols R H - - 2011
Patients who undergo hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) often experience physical and psychological problems, even long after treatment has been completed. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week outpatient physical exercise (PE) program, incorporating aerobic and strength exercises, as compared with a usual care control condition on patients' ...
Sutherland William J - - 2011
This review describes outcomes of a 2010 horizon-scanning exercise building upon the first exercise conducted in 2009. The aim of both horizon scans was to identify emerging issues that could have substantial impacts on the conservation of biological diversity, and to do so sufficiently early to encourage policy-relevant, practical research ...
Picconatto William J - - 2010
Many Minnesotans with asthma participate in recreational and competitive sports. If asthma is undiagnosed or if it is poorly controlled, its symptoms can compromise health, impair athletic performance, and limit sports participation. It can even lead to death. Asthma-related deaths during sports participation, while not common, have occurred in Minnesota. ...
Hofmann Peter - - 2010
The heart rate performance curve (HRPC) has been shown to be nonlinearly related to work load. This phenomenon has been used to determine a deflection point and to be related to the lactate anaerobic threshold. The original method was heavily criticized, and the method was challenged by several authors. However, ...
Simard Catherine - - 2010
Objectives: To determine the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) rehabilitation for elderly women with urinary incontinence after five years of follow-up, and to assess the adherence to PFM exercises five years after physiotherapy. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women >/= 60 years old who underwent PFM ...
Roos Ewa M - - 2011
Lower-extremity muscle strength and afferent sensory dysfunction, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity, are potentially modifiable putative risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Findings from current studies suggest that muscle weakness is a predictor of knee OA onset, while there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of muscle weakness in OA ...
Gyrd-Hansen D - - 2010
The main purpose of the present study was to test for outcome scope insensitivity. Respondents were initially asked to value one of two severe health states by way of a time-trade-off (TTO) exercise. Subsequent to the TTO exercise all respondents were asked to value an intervention, which offered a reduction ...
Kjeken Ingvild - - 2011
Abstract Aims: The aims of this study were to develop recommendations for occupational therapy assessment and design of hand exercise programmes in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Methods: An expert group followed a Delphi procedure to reach consensus for up to 10 recommendations for assessment and exercises, respectively. Thereafter, an evidence-based ...
Simmons Grant H - - 2011
Acute leg exercise increases brachial artery retrograde shear rate (SR), while chronic exercise improves vasomotor function. These combined observations are perplexing given the proatherogenic impacts of retrograde shear stress on the vascular endothelium and may be the result of brief protocols used to study acute exercise responses. Therefore, we hypothesized ...
Cui Jian - - 2011
During exercise, sympathetic nervous system activity increases and this contributes to an increase in blood pressure (i.e. exercise pressor reflex). Although animal studies suggest that purinergic P2 receptors on thin fibre sensory nerves are stimulated and evoke this reflex, human data are lacking. In this study, young healthy volunteers performed ...
Hayashi Naoyuki - - 2011
We examined a hypothesis that static exercise and activation of sympathetic activation by metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (metaboreflex) influence the sympathetic nervous activity modulating pupil diameter. Nine subjects performed 2 min isometric handgrip exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction, which was followed by either 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) ...
Hildebrandt Tom - - 2011
Appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use includes the use of a range of pharmacologically distinct substances and concurrent investment in outward appearance or achievement, dietary control, and frequent exercise. A number of existing reviews and conceptual papers have defined pathological forms of APED use within the APED class of ...
Cazzola M - - 2010
All of the specialists who deal in some way with fibromyalgia (FM) broadly agree that physical reconditioning programmes are useful, but it is not yet clear what type of physical activity is the most appropriate for different subsets of patients. The aim of this review was to examine the randomised ...
Drużbicki Mariusz - - 2010
Background and purpose: One of the most important goals of rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegic patients is the recovery of their locomotion function. The aim of the study was to assess walking function recovery by means of in-patient rehabilitation procedures, as well as the effectiveness of treadmill gait training with the ...
Green Daniel J - - 2011
Beneficial effects of exercise training on the vasculature have been consistently reported in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors or disease, whereas studies in apparently healthy subjects have been less uniform. In this review, we examine evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise training on conduit and resistance vessel function and ...
Roseguini Bruno T - - 2011
During dynamic exercise, the vasculature embedded within skeletal muscle intermittently collapses due to increased intramuscular pressure (IMP). The aim of this study was to ascertain whether oscillations in IMP during muscle contractions independently contribute to exercise training-induced increases in blood flow capacity (BFC). Based on IMP measurements during handgrip exercise, ...
Collier Scott R - - 2010
Previous research has shown significantly lower arterial distensibility (AD) after resistance exercise (RE) yet higher AD after aerobic exercise (AE). These changes may be related to exercise-induced differences in vasodilatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory and AD responses to acute AE and RE. Forearm ...
Wray D Walter - - 2010
Unlike quadrupeds, human limbs are exposed to differing homeostatic challenges and uses across the life span. This raises the question of whether vascular function and skeletal muscle blood flow regulation differs between human limbs and whether these limb-specific parameters may be altered during exercise as a consequence of aging and ...
Adeniyi A F - - 2010
Background and Objectives: Usual line of management of diabetes patients is drug and diet with their physical needs usually receiving minimal attention. Among the physical needs, requiring attention is their neuromusculoskeletal disorders. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a twelve-week therapeutic exercise on neuromusculoskeletal disorders of Type ...
Faisal Azmy - - 2010
Muscle oxygen uptake ( ˙VO₂,mus) dynamics at the onset of exercise can be affected by prior heavy exercise.We tested the hypothesis that elevated forearm blood flow (FBF) following prior circulatory occlusion would also be associated with accelerated ˙VO₂,mus dynamics during subsequent heavy hand-grip exercise. Ten trained young men performed 5 ...
Afawi Zaid - - 2010
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) and epilepsy without intellectual disability have recently been recognized as manifestations of deficiency of the glucose transporter GLUT1, due to mutations in the gene SLC2A1. We describe a family with six definitely affected members in two generations. Two had PED, three had epilepsy, and one had ...
Metelitsina Tatyana I - - 2010
We compared the regulatory responses induced by isometric exercise in control subjects and patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to investigate choroidal vascular regulation in AMD. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with dry AMD in the study eye and 19 eyes of 19 controls were included in this study. Both ...
Hayman Melissa A - - 2010
To better characterize the contribution of both central and peripheral mechanisms to passive limb movement-induced hyperemia, we studied nine recent (<2 yr) heart transplant (HTx) recipients (56 ± 4 yr) and nine healthy controls (58 ± 5 yr). Measurements of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and ...
Slade Susan C - - 2010
Objectives.  The objective of this review was to identify measuring instruments that might be suitable for assessment of satisfaction and experience of exercise programs designed to help people with persistent, recurrent low back pain. Design.  The review was designed as a structured literature review adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration Systematic ...
Crecelius Anne R - - 2010
Acute ascorbic acid (AA) administration increases muscle blood flow during dynamic exercise in older adults, and this is associated with improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. We directly tested the hypothesis that increase in muscle blood flow during AA administration is mediated via endothelium-derived vasodilators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). In 14 ...
Desai Pratikkumar - - 2010
Although it is generally accepted that exercise accelerates lymph flow, no study has directly measured lymph flow as a function of exercise intensity. In this study, we have measured flow in the thoracic lymph duct of five instrumented dogs while they ran on a treadmill. Dogs were surgically instrumented with ...
Limberg Jacqueline K JK Department of Kinesiology, School of Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2010
Sex differences exist in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. This study was designed to directly test sex or female menstrual phase-related differences in α-adrenergic control of blood flow during exercise. We hypothesized that women would exhibit reduced α-adrenergic vasoconstriction compared with men during exercise; in addition, women would constrict ...
DeLorey D S - - 2010
We tested the hypothesis that tonic adrenergic and nonadrenergic receptor-mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction would increase at rest and during exercise with advancing age. Young (n = 6; 22 ± 1 mo; means ± SE) and old (n = 6; 118 ± 9 mo) beagles were studied. Selective antagonists for alpha-1, alpha-2, ...
Grzelak Piotr - - 2010
BACKGROUND: At present, endothelial dysfunction is best assessed in vivo with measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) with Doppler ultrasound scanning. This test, however, does not account for the subject's age and is uncomfortable for patients. The aim of the study was to compare a new test for endothelium function assessment ...
Stabler Thomas - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is crucial for normal vascular endothelial function and health. Recent studies have demonstrated an endocrine role for NO equivalents that may be transported in the blood to peripheral tissue beds, where under hypoxic conditions they can liberate NO and cause vasodilation. Exercise training improves endothelial function ...
Arbour-Nicitopoulos Kelly P - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of exercise in smoking cessation in women with severe mental illness (SMI). Semistructured interviews with 12 women diagnosed with SMI receiving smoking cessation treatment were conducted. Participants perceived three roles for exercise in assisting smoking cessation-addressing fears with preexisting ...
Seifert Thomas - - 2010
Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose ...
Lasta Michael - - 2012
Purpose:  It has been shown that retinal blood flow is autoregulated, meaning that flow is independent of perfusion pressure within a certain range. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition alters the response of retinal arterial and venous vessels during isometric exercise. Methods:  In this study, nine ...
Negrao Marcelo V - - 2010
Allele T at promoter region of the eNOS gene has been associated with an increase in coronary disease mortality, suggesting that this allele increases susceptibility for endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, exercise training improves endothelial function. Thus, we hypothesized that: 1) Muscle vasodilatation during exercise is attenuated in individuals homozygous for ...
Queiroz Andréia Cristiane Carrenho - - 2010
The aging process drastically reduces muscle mass, strength and power, decreasing the capacity to perform the activities of daily living. The practice of resistance exercises can reverse this picture, helping to maintain the muscular mass and improving muscular strength and resistance. However, the aging process causes cardiovascular alterations, which can ...
Barbosa Priscila B - - 2010
Muscle vascular dysfunction, a hallmark of chronic diseases such as heart failure and diabetes, impairs the matching of blood flow (Q(m)) to O(2) utilization (V(O(2m))) following exercise onset. One recently described consequence of this behavior is that arterial-venous O(2) difference [(a-v)(O(2)), the mirror image of muscle vascular oxygenation] transiently overshoots ...
Boutcher Y N - - 2011
The effect of one single bout of aerobic exercise on the vascular and baroreceptor function of individuals with a family history of hypertension was investigated. Forty young males, mean age 21 years, comprising offspring with (FH(+); n=20) and without (FH(-); n=20) a family history of hypertension participated in this study. ...
van Duijnhoven Noortje T L - - 2010
Physical inactivity is a potent stimulus for vascular remodeling, leading to a marked decrease in conduit artery diameter. However, little is known about the impact of physical inactivity on artery wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio or the potential of exercise countermeasures to modify artery wall thickness. The purpose of the ...
Kumar S - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Blood flow and vessel diameter are predictors of the success of vascular access procedures. This study investigated whether a simple exercise programme could influence these variables. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chronic kidney disease were prescribed a simple exercise programme for one arm only; the investigators were blinded to the ...
Wiltshire E Victoria - - 2010
This study tested the hypothesis that one of the ways sports massage aids muscle recovery from exercise is by increasing muscle blood flow to improve "lactic acid" removal. Twelve subjects performed 2 min of strenuous isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise at 40% maximum voluntary contraction to elevate forearm muscle lactic acid. ...
Padilla Jaume - - 2010
Although the beneficial effects of exercise training on conduit artery endothelial function are well-established in animals and humans with compromised basal function, whether exercise exerts favorable effects on a healthy endothelium is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether long-term exercise training enhances endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries of healthy ...
Faria Thaís de Oliveira Tde - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on resting blood pressure (BP) and on endothelial function of vascular bed of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hemodynamic measurements were performed before and after acute dynamic resistance exercise in conscious animals. After exercise, the tail ...
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