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Derave Wim - - 2013
Despite the large variety of so-called ergogenic supplements used by the sporting community, only few of them are effectively supported by scientific proof. One of the recent evidence-based supplements that entered the market is β-alanine. β-Alanine is the rate-limiting precursor for the synthesis of the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in human ...
Tipton Kevin D - - 2013
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a beneficial adaptation for many individuals. The metabolic basis for muscle hypertrophy is the balance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), i.e. net muscle protein balance (NMPB = MPS - MPB). Resistance exercise potentiates the response of muscle to ...
Harris Roger C - - 2013
Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and L-histidine found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle. Combined with β-alanine, the pKa of the histidine imidazole ring is raised to ∼6.8, placing it within the muscle intracellular pH high-intensity exercise transit range. Combination with β-alanine renders the dipeptide inert to intracellular enzymic ...
Aguirre Nick - - 2013
The synthesis of new protein is necessary for both strength and endurance adaptations. While the proteins that are made might differ, myofibrillar proteins following resistance exercise and mitochondrial proteins and metabolic enzymes following endurance exercise, the basic premise of shifting to a positive protein balance after training is thought to ...
Lee Hosung - - 2013
Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT); however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity ...
Boivin G P - - 2013
The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any ...
Ra Song-Gyu - - 2013
Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation for preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise, their findings have been inconclusive. Since taurine has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, the present study investigated the combined effect of BCAA and taurine on ...
Lee Sang-Won SW Department of Physical Education, Korea Military Academy, Seoul, - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the duration-dependence of the one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation, stress, and central fatigue in rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: the non-exercise group, 1-h exercise group, 2-h exercise group, 4-h exercise group, and 6-h ...
Hobson Ruth M - - 2012
Newsholme's theory of central fatigue suggests that acute tryptophan depletion should improve endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment by reducing serotonergic activity in the brain. Eight males cycled to volitional exhaustion at 55 % [Formula: see text] peak in 30.1 ± 0.5 °C and 30 ± 7 % relative humidity on two separate occasions, after consuming ...
McDonald Cameron - - 2013
Myopenia or muscle wasting due to ageing, chronic disease, and various medical interventions has been associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and poorer physical function. Attempts through nutrient and exercise interventions have been made to prevent this deterioration. In addition, while a measure of lean body mass (LBM) is associated with ...
Ishikawa Junko - - 2012
The axonal development of serotonin- (5-HT), noradrenaline- (NA), or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning ...
Robinson Meghann J - - 2013
Aging impairs the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to anabolic stimuli, such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Beef is a nutrient-rich source of dietary protein capable of stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates in older men at rest. To date, the dose-response of myofibrillar protein synthesis to graded ingestion of ...
Bassini Adriana - - 2012
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of caffeine on the ammonia and amino acid metabolism of elite soccer players. METHODS: In the double-blind, randomized study, the athletes (n=19) received 5 mg·kg caffeine or lactose (LEx, control) and performed 45 min of intermittent exercise followed by an intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo IR2) ...
Fogelman David - - 2012
Vigorous exercise has long been associated with improved health in many domains. Results of clinical observation have suggested that neurocognitive performance also is improved by vigorous exercise. Data derived from animal model-based research have been emerging that show molecular and neuroanatomic mechanisms that may explain how exercise improves cognition, particularly ...
Ranchordas Mayur K - - 2012
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days ...
van de Bool Coby C Department of Respiratory Medicine, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology, and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The - - 2012
This review presents current knowledge regarding the rationale and efficacy of nutrition as an ergogenic aid to enhance the effects of exercise and training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Altered body composition and skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD suggest that exercise capacity can be targeted via several metabolic routes. ...
Cynober Luc - - 2012
Based on recent research, an upper limit of safe intake (ULSI) for leucine is proposed for healthy adults: 0.53 g/(kg⋅d). Because leucine has been used as a dietary supplement for many years in people practicing exercise and sport, further study with long-term exposure to leucine in this specific subpopulation should ...
Harris Roger C - - 2013
Glycolysis involves the oxidation of two neutral hydroxyl groups on each glycosyl (or glucosyl) unit metabolised, yielding two carboxylic acid groups. During low-intensity exercise these, along with the remainder of the carbon skeleton, are further oxidised to CO(2) and water. But during high-intensity exercise a major portion (and where blood ...
Watson Phillip - - 2012
Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml ...
Choe Myoung-Ae - - 2012
This study was to determine the effect of exercise on the recovery of dopaminergic neuron loss and muscle atrophy in 6-OHDA-induced hemi Parkinson's disease model. Exercise was loaded twice per day for 30 minutes each time, at 5 days after 6-OHDA lesioning and continued for 16 days using a treadmill. ...
Spillane Mike M Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, - - 2012
Purpose: This study determined the effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training combined with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on body composition and muscle performance. Methods: Resistance training was performed by 19 non-resistance-trained males (three sets of 8-10 repetitions) four times/week, for 8 weeks, while also ingesting 9 g/day ...
Schneider Stefan - - 2012
With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined ...
Wang Siyu - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. AIMS: We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. MATERIALS & METHODS: 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled ...
Clayton Hilary M - - 2012
Objective-To identify differences in intersegmental bending angles in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar portions of the vertebral column between the end positions during performance of 3 dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses. Animals-8 nonlame horses. Procedures-Skin-fixed markers on the head, cervical transverse processes (C1-C6) and spinous processes ...
Huijsmans Roy - - 2012
Based on fieldwork material from Lao People's Democratic Republic, this paper introduces an analytical framework that transcends compartmentalized approaches towards migration involving young people. The notions of fluid and institutionalized forms of migration illuminate key differences and commonalities in the relational fabric underpinning empirically diverse migration scenarios. Applying this framework ...
Chinapaw Mai J M - - 2012
Previous studies showed that exercise in cancer patients is feasible and may reduce fatigue and improve physical fitness and quality of life. However, many previous studies had methodological weaknesses related to trial design, sample size, comparison group, outcome measures, short follow-up durations and programme content. This paper aims to present ...
Moore Isabel Sarah - - 2012
Controversy surrounds whether running mechanics make good predictors of running economy (RE) with little known about the development of an economical running gait. PURPOSE:: The aim of this study was to identify if mechanical or physiological variables changed over 10 weeks of running in beginners and whether these changes could ...
Zeppetzauer Markus - - 2012
Introduction: Exercise is a cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention. Because many individuals are not willing or not able to perform regular exercise, new methods of exercise (like eccentric exercise) are necessary. Eccentric endurance exercise is supposed to be less strenuous than concentric exercise but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolism ...
Addison Odessa - - 2012
Physical therapists treat older individuals, characterized as both a needy and expanding population. Frailty, a predisability condition with links to chronic inflammatory conditions, is estimated to affect 7% of individuals older than 60 years and 40% of people older than 80 years. Chronic inflammation is one of the most important ...
Hirao Tomomi - - 2012
Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is rich in glutamyl residue; glutamine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid under physical stress. WGH has been reported to suppress post-exercise rises in serum creatine kinase in male distance runners. This study aimed to reproduce the effects in female distance runners under similar conditions. ...
Firsovaite Vida - - 2012
A 40-year-old man developed a near syncope during exercise due to a wide complex tachycardia with periods of changing RR intervals accompanied by changes in QRS morphology. The differential diagnosis of this electrocardiographic pattern is discussed.
- - 2012
The following articles are being highlighted as part of Circulation's Topic Review series. This series will summarize the most important manuscripts, as selected by the editors, published in Circulation and the Circulation subspecialty journals. The studies included in this article represent the articles related to exercise physiology and rehabilitation that ...
Harms Arvic - - 2012
In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were ...
Paderin N M - - 2012
The effects of pectin polysaccharides on leukocyte migration into the oral cavity during exercise were studied. The migration and hence, counts of neutrophils in the oral cavity increased during exercise. Pectins reduced neutrophil migration into the oral cavity during exercise because of hyperstimulation of their functional activity.
Heinonen Ilkka - - 2012
The distribution of blood flow between active and inactive skeletal muscles has been sparsely studied in humans. Here we investigated non-exercising leg blood flow in six healthy young women during intermittent isometric one leg knee extension exercise with increasing workloads. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow in ...
Drummond Micah J - - 2012
Muscle atrophy is associated with healthy aging (i.e., sarcopenia) and may be compounded by comorbidities, injury, surgery, illness, and physical inactivity. While a bout of resistance exercise increases protein synthesis rates in healthy young skeletal muscle, the effectiveness of resistance exercise to mount a protein synthetic response is less pronounced ...
Greenwood Benjamin N - - 2012
Physical activity reduces the incidence and severity of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Similarly, voluntary wheel running produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rodent models. The specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial properties of exercise, however, remain unclear. One relevant pharmacological target in the treatment of psychiatric disorders ...
Caraiani Petre - - 2012
We test for the presence of multifractality in the daily returns of the three most important stock market indices from Central and Eastern Europe, Czech PX, Hungarian BUX and Polish WIG using the Empirical Mode Decomposition based Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We found that the global Hurst coefficient varies with ...
Patki Gaurav - - 2011
The etiology of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease remains unknown, although many genetic and environmental factors are suggested as likely causes. Neuronal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated as possible triggers for the onset and progression of Parkinson's neurodegeneration. We have recently shown that long-term treadmill exercise prevented ...
Hurwitz Eric L - - 2011
COMMENTARY ON: Bronfort G, Maiers MJ, Evans RL, et al. Supervised exercise, spinal manipulation, and home exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine J 2011;11:585-598 (in this issue).
Kim B-S - - 2011
The present study investigated whether chronic exercise suppressed hippocampal neuronal death due to repeated stress followed by i.c.v. kainic acid (KA) injection, and whether cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and CaMKII activation contributed to the neuroprotective effect in this experimental paradigm. To achieve the objective, mice ...
Courtney Ardith M - - 2011
This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding and management of symptoms and dysfunctions associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). A broad spectrum of dysfunctions associated with MS are under investigation. Research published in the past year and a half addresses gait dysfunction, exercise training, fatigue, bowel/bladder and sexual dysfunction, ...
Booth Sara - - 2011
Breathlessness is difficult to palliate and nonpharmacological interventions are effective management strategies currently available for mobile patients. These are a diverse group of interventions, currently poorly defined and inconsistently used. This review concentrates on identifying and recommending the most effective nonpharmacological strategies for breathlessness, to aid clinical practice. Much of ...
Williams Marie - - 2011
Determining which palliative interventions are appropriate within and between groups remains difficult because of the lack of prospective studies and heterogeneity in dyspnoea context, assessment and reporting. This review presents an evolution of dyspnoea theories, summarizes literature published during 2010 concerning intervention effectiveness between conditions and highlights the lag between ...
- - 2011
The editors of The FASEB Journal have been informed by Bente Klarlund Pedersen, MD, DMSc, Professor of Integrative Medicine, Director of Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases and CMRC Rigshospitalet at the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark, of an ongoing investigation into the ...
Jones Andrew M - - 2011
The V˙O2 slow component, a slowly-developing increase in V˙O2 during constant-work-rate (CWR) exercise performed above the lactate threshold, represents a progressive loss of skeletal muscle contractile efficiency and is associated with the fatigue process. This brief review outlines the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanistic bases of the V˙O2 ...
Eynon Nir - - 2011
Aerobic ATP generation by the mitochondrial respiratory oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) is a vital metabolic process for endurance exercise. Notably, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codifies 13 out of the 83 polypeptides implied in the respiratory chain. As such, there is a strong rationale for identifing an association between mtDNA variants and ...
Page Carolyn J - - 2011
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic joint disease causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy, which encompasses a number of modalities, is a non-invasive treatment option in the management of OA. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used physiotherapy interventions. There is strong evidence to show short-term beneficial effects of ...
Keteyian Steven J - - 2011
After decades of concern about the safety and effectiveness of exercise training in patients with heart failure (HF) due to reduced ejection fraction, initial research demonstrated the feasibility and physiologic benefits associated with such an intervention. Subsequent controlled studies confirmed these results and suggested improved clinical outcomes as well. This ...
O'Keefe James H - - 2011
A large proportion of the health woes beleaguering modern cultures are because of daily physical activity patterns that are profoundly different from those for which we are genetically adapted. The ancestral natural environment in which our current genome was forged via natural selection called for a large amount of daily ...
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