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Klempin Friederike - - 2013
Voluntary wheel running has long been known to induce precursor cell proliferation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents. However, mechanisms that couple activity with the promitotic effect are not yet fully understood. Using tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 2 deficient (Tph2-deficient) mice that lack brain serotonin, we explored the relationship between serotonin ...
Reitelseder Søren - - 2013
PURPOSE: Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean body mass), or a non-caloric control after heavy resistance exercise ...
Nelson Andre R - - 2013
Whey protein and leucine ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and could influence neutrophil function during recovery from prolonged intense exercise. We examined the effects of whey protein and leucine ingestion post-exercise on neutrophil function and immunomodulators during a period of intense cycling. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 12 ...
Watson Emma L - - 2013
Muscle-wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) arises from several factors including sedentary behaviour and metabolic acidosis. Exercise is potentially beneficial but might worsen acidosis through exercise-induced lactic acidosis. We studied the chronic effects of exercise in CKD stage 4-5 patients (brisk walking, 30 min, 5 times/week), and non-exercising controls; each group ...
Qun Z - - 2013
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is often used to attenuate exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and promote adaptation, but no definitive conclusion on the benefits of BCAA on muscle recovery after injurious exercise can be drawn. Exploration of the systematic BCAA alteration in muscular injury-repair stage per se without any ...
Tang Fu-Chun - - 2013
PURPOSE: Few studies have focused on the metabolic changes induced by creatine supplementation. This study investigated the effects of creatine supplementation on plasma and urinary metabolite changes of athletes after endurance and sprint running. METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3 ± 1.4 y) performed two identical (65-70 % maximum heart rate reserved) 60 min running ...
Hosseini Nasrin - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons ...
Sasaki Eiji - - 2013
Glutamine is an important amino acid for immune function. Though high intensity and prolonged exercise decreases plasma glutamine concentration and causes immune suppression, the relationship between neutrophil functions and glutamine has not yet been found. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of glutamine supplementation on neutrophil ...
Kullman E L EL Cleveland Clinic, Pathobiology, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2013
Aging may alter protein metabolism during periods of metabolic and physiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age on whole-body amino acid turnover in response to eccentric exercise and hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia. 16 healthy men were divided into young (N=8) and older (N=8) groups. Protein ...
Tumilty Les - - 2013
Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design ...
Sugiura Hiromichi - - 2013
Taurine protects against tissue damage in a variety of models involving inflammation, especially the muscle. We set up a heavy exercise bout protocol for rats consisting of climbing ran on a treadmill to examine the effect of an intraabdominal dose of taurine (300 mg/kg/day) administered 1 h before heavy exercise ...
Ra Song-Gyu - - 2013
Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the ...
van Loon Luc J C - - 2013
Dietary protein ingestion after exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown and, as such, stimulates net muscle protein accretion following resistance as well as endurance type exercise. Protein ingestion during and/or immediately after exercise has been suggested to facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session, resulting ...
Derave Wim - - 2013
Despite the large variety of so-called ergogenic supplements used by the sporting community, only few of them are effectively supported by scientific proof. One of the recent evidence-based supplements that entered the market is β-alanine. β-Alanine is the rate-limiting precursor for the synthesis of the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in human ...
Tipton Kevin D - - 2013
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a beneficial adaptation for many individuals. The metabolic basis for muscle hypertrophy is the balance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), i.e. net muscle protein balance (NMPB = MPS - MPB). Resistance exercise potentiates the response of muscle to ...
Harris Roger C - - 2013
Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and L-histidine found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle. Combined with β-alanine, the pKa of the histidine imidazole ring is raised to ∼6.8, placing it within the muscle intracellular pH high-intensity exercise transit range. Combination with β-alanine renders the dipeptide inert to intracellular enzymic ...
Aguirre Nick - - 2013
The synthesis of new protein is necessary for both strength and endurance adaptations. While the proteins that are made might differ, myofibrillar proteins following resistance exercise and mitochondrial proteins and metabolic enzymes following endurance exercise, the basic premise of shifting to a positive protein balance after training is thought to ...
Lee Hosung - - 2013
Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT); however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity ...
Boivin G P - - 2013
The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any ...
Ra Song-Gyu - - 2013
Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation for preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise, their findings have been inconclusive. Since taurine has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, the present study investigated the combined effect of BCAA and taurine on ...
Lee Sang-Won SW Department of Physical Education, Korea Military Academy, Seoul, - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the duration-dependence of the one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation, stress, and central fatigue in rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: the non-exercise group, 1-h exercise group, 2-h exercise group, 4-h exercise group, and 6-h ...
Leahy Danielle T DT Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, - - 2013
Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 ...
Perrey Stephane S Movement to Health (M2H), EuroMov, Montpellier-1 University, 700 avenue du pic saint loup, 34090 Montpellier, France. - - 2013
Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement ...
Hackney Kyle J KJ Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, 820 Comstock Avenue, Women's Building 201, Syracuse, NY 13244, - - 2013
Increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis is an energy consuming process that explains the acute elevations in resting energy expenditure (REE) observed 12 to 72 hours after a resistance exercise session. We hypothesized that multiple sessions of resistance exercise combined with the intake of amino acids would increase REE ...
Hobson Ruth M - - 2012
Newsholme's theory of central fatigue suggests that acute tryptophan depletion should improve endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment by reducing serotonergic activity in the brain. Eight males cycled to volitional exhaustion at 55 % [Formula: see text] peak in 30.1 ± 0.5 °C and 30 ± 7 % relative humidity on two separate occasions, after consuming ...
McDonald Cameron - - 2013
Myopenia or muscle wasting due to ageing, chronic disease, and various medical interventions has been associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and poorer physical function. Attempts through nutrient and exercise interventions have been made to prevent this deterioration. In addition, while a measure of lean body mass (LBM) is associated with ...
Ishikawa Junko - - 2012
The axonal development of serotonin- (5-HT), noradrenaline- (NA), or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning ...
Robinson Meghann J - - 2013
Aging impairs the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to anabolic stimuli, such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Beef is a nutrient-rich source of dietary protein capable of stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates in older men at rest. To date, the dose-response of myofibrillar protein synthesis to graded ingestion of ...
Bassini Adriana - - 2012
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of caffeine on the ammonia and amino acid metabolism of elite soccer players. METHODS: In the double-blind, randomized study, the athletes (n=19) received 5 mg·kg caffeine or lactose (LEx, control) and performed 45 min of intermittent exercise followed by an intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo IR2) ...
Fogelman David - - 2012
Vigorous exercise has long been associated with improved health in many domains. Results of clinical observation have suggested that neurocognitive performance also is improved by vigorous exercise. Data derived from animal model-based research have been emerging that show molecular and neuroanatomic mechanisms that may explain how exercise improves cognition, particularly ...
Ranchordas Mayur K - - 2012
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days ...
van de Bool Coby C Department of Respiratory Medicine, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology, and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The - - 2012
This review presents current knowledge regarding the rationale and efficacy of nutrition as an ergogenic aid to enhance the effects of exercise and training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Altered body composition and skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD suggest that exercise capacity can be targeted via several metabolic routes. ...
Cynober Luc - - 2012
Based on recent research, an upper limit of safe intake (ULSI) for leucine is proposed for healthy adults: 0.53 g/(kg⋅d). Because leucine has been used as a dietary supplement for many years in people practicing exercise and sport, further study with long-term exposure to leucine in this specific subpopulation should ...
Harris Roger C - - 2013
Glycolysis involves the oxidation of two neutral hydroxyl groups on each glycosyl (or glucosyl) unit metabolised, yielding two carboxylic acid groups. During low-intensity exercise these, along with the remainder of the carbon skeleton, are further oxidised to CO(2) and water. But during high-intensity exercise a major portion (and where blood ...
Watson Phillip - - 2012
Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml ...
Choe Myoung-Ae - - 2012
This study was to determine the effect of exercise on the recovery of dopaminergic neuron loss and muscle atrophy in 6-OHDA-induced hemi Parkinson's disease model. Exercise was loaded twice per day for 30 minutes each time, at 5 days after 6-OHDA lesioning and continued for 16 days using a treadmill. ...
Spillane Mike M Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, - - 2012
Purpose: This study determined the effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training combined with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on body composition and muscle performance. Methods: Resistance training was performed by 19 non-resistance-trained males (three sets of 8-10 repetitions) four times/week, for 8 weeks, while also ingesting 9 g/day ...
Schneider Stefan - - 2012
With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined ...
Wang Siyu - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. AIMS: We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. MATERIALS & METHODS: 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled ...
Clayton Hilary M HM Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. - - 2012
To identify differences in intersegmental bending angles in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar portions of the vertebral column between the end positions during performance of 3 dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses. 8 nonlame horses. Skin-fixed markers on the head, cervical transverse processes (C1-C6) and spinous processes ...
Huijsmans Roy - - 2012
Based on fieldwork material from Lao People's Democratic Republic, this paper introduces an analytical framework that transcends compartmentalized approaches towards migration involving young people. The notions of fluid and institutionalized forms of migration illuminate key differences and commonalities in the relational fabric underpinning empirically diverse migration scenarios. Applying this framework ...
Chinapaw Mai J M - - 2012
Previous studies showed that exercise in cancer patients is feasible and may reduce fatigue and improve physical fitness and quality of life. However, many previous studies had methodological weaknesses related to trial design, sample size, comparison group, outcome measures, short follow-up durations and programme content. This paper aims to present ...
Moore Isabel Sarah - - 2012
Controversy surrounds whether running mechanics make good predictors of running economy (RE) with little known about the development of an economical running gait. PURPOSE:: The aim of this study was to identify if mechanical or physiological variables changed over 10 weeks of running in beginners and whether these changes could ...
Zeppetzauer Markus - - 2012
Introduction: Exercise is a cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention. Because many individuals are not willing or not able to perform regular exercise, new methods of exercise (like eccentric exercise) are necessary. Eccentric endurance exercise is supposed to be less strenuous than concentric exercise but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolism ...
Addison Odessa - - 2012
Physical therapists treat older individuals, characterized as both a needy and expanding population. Frailty, a predisability condition with links to chronic inflammatory conditions, is estimated to affect 7% of individuals older than 60 years and 40% of people older than 80 years. Chronic inflammation is one of the most important ...
Hirao Tomomi - - 2012
Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is rich in glutamyl residue; glutamine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid under physical stress. WGH has been reported to suppress post-exercise rises in serum creatine kinase in male distance runners. This study aimed to reproduce the effects in female distance runners under similar conditions. ...
Firsovaite Vida - - 2012
A 40-year-old man developed a near syncope during exercise due to a wide complex tachycardia with periods of changing RR intervals accompanied by changes in QRS morphology. The differential diagnosis of this electrocardiographic pattern is discussed.
- - 2012
The following articles are being highlighted as part of Circulation's Topic Review series. This series will summarize the most important manuscripts, as selected by the editors, published in Circulation and the Circulation subspecialty journals. The studies included in this article represent the articles related to exercise physiology and rehabilitation that ...
Harms Arvic - - 2012
In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were ...
Paderin N M - - 2012
The effects of pectin polysaccharides on leukocyte migration into the oral cavity during exercise were studied. The migration and hence, counts of neutrophils in the oral cavity increased during exercise. Pectins reduced neutrophil migration into the oral cavity during exercise because of hyperstimulation of their functional activity.
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