Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1093
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Levin Daniel Z - - 2006
Prior meta-analytic evidence has indicated no association between relationship length and perceived trustworthiness. Viewing trustors as information processors, the authors propose a model in which relationship length, although having no direct effect on perceived trustworthiness, moderates the association between perceived trustworthiness and the basis on which people decide to trust ...
Shroff Hemal - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Excessive exercise and motor restlessness are observed in a substantial number of patients with eating disorders. This trait has been studied extensively among animal models of activity anorexia nervosa (AN) and may hold particular interest as an endophenotype for AN. We explored features associated with excessive exercise across subtypes ...
Friedman B A - - 2006
We develop a renormalization group approach for cyclizing polymers for the case when chain ends are initially close together (ring initial conditions). We analyze the behavior at times much shorter than the longest polymer relaxation time. In agreement with our previous work (Europhys. Lett. 73, 621 (2006)) we find that ...
Vaynman Shoshanna - - 2006
Exercise, a behavior that is inherently associated with energy metabolism, impacts the molecular systems important for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. This implies that a close association must exist between these systems to ensure proper neuronal function. This review emphasizes the ability of exercise and other lifestyle implementations that ...
Elliott John Ottis - - 2006
It is well reported in the epilepsy literature that use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) leads to bone loss. Validated instruments were administered to assess knowledge, health behavior, quality of life, and stigma, to determine their effects on self-efficacy for osteoprotective and self-management behaviors. This adult epilepsy population had a mean ...
Cohen-Mansfield Jiska - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Two different models of exercise behavior in an older population have been previously published (Schuster et al., 1995 and Resnick et al., 2000). We aimed to validate the models with data from a different sample, and to examine whether any of these models explained a greater proportion ...
Houser-Marko Linda - - 2006
Why do some people persist in goal pursuit, even in the face of boredom or setbacks, whereas others quickly give up their goals? In this research, the authors introduce a new motivational construct, the "self-as-doer," to explore this question. Studies 1 and 2 found longitudinal evidence that those who more ...
Collins Lyndsey E - - 2006
Our investigation concerns the connection between the telencephalon and the startle response, mediated by reticulospinal neurons. Before surgery fish respond to the startle stimulus in 95% of the trials and 66% of the time with complete full turns. Following telencephalon removal fish respond in only 50% of the trials but ...
Nazzaro Ann-Marie - - 2006
The National Hemophilia Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a national survey focusing on knowledge about, attitudes toward, and behaviors associated with key prevention activities among youths with hemophilia and used the data gathered to design a health promotion campaign. A national, random sample of 459 ...
Spencer Leslie - - 2006
Three questions guided a literature review of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as applied to exercise to address the evidence for stage-matched interventions, the description of priority populations, and the identification of valid TTM measurement tools. One-hundredand-fifty studies were reviewed. Results indicate preliminary support for the use of stage-matched exercise interventions. ...
Casada J H JH University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, USA. - - 2006
We have previously reported that subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differ from trauma controls in their ability to produce and withhold responses in the Stop-Signal Task depending on the motivational context as determined by financial reward. This experiment measured skin conductance and heart rate to assess autonomic changes accompanying ...
Ros Albert F H - - 2006
We have investigated the effect of mirror-elicited agonistic behaviour on oxygen consumption in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae). Males exposed to their mirror image showed higher frequencies of both lateral display and tail-beating and escalated aggression more frequently than males exposed to a transparent glass that was used as ...
Neal Andrew - - 2006
The authors measured perceptions of safety climate, motivation, and behavior at 2 time points and linked them to prior and subsequent levels of accidents over a 5-year period. A series of analyses examined the effects of top-down and bottom-up processes operating simultaneously over time. In terms of top-down effects, average ...
Stuifbergen Alexa K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the trajectories of functional limitations, health behaviors (exercise), and quality of life (QOL) and their interrelations over a 5-year time period in a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Descriptive longitudinal survey study. SETTING: Southwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 611 people with MS ...
Lucidi Fabio - - 2006
The present study evaluated whether, and to what extent, the constructs implicated in the theory of planned behavior could predict behavioral intention to exercise and exercise-class attendance of older adults (age 65-90 years) already enrolled in a physical activity program. The study also evaluated whether including self-efficacy judgments might improve ...
Kramer Arthur F - - 2006
We provide a brief review of the literature on exercise effects on brain and cognition. To this end, we focus on both prospective and retrospective human epidemiological studies that have examined the influence of exercise and physical activity on cognition and dementia. We then examine the relatively small set of ...
Shirreffs Susan M - - 2006
The use of alcohol is often intimately associated with sport. As well as providing a source of energy, alcohol (ethanol) has metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and neuromuscular actions that may affect exercise performance. Strength is minimally affected, and performance impairments depend on the dose of alcohol and subject habituation to alcohol ...
Lee Yun-Mi - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to differentiate the change in exercise behavior into different stages and to investigate differences in the process of change, self efficacy, decisional balances and depression according to the stages of exercise behavior change among middle aged women in Korea by using the transtheoretical ...
Kim Young-Ho - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Current research on exercise behavior has largely been attempted to identify the relationship between psychological attributes and the initiation or adherence of exercise behavior based on psychological theories. A limited data are available on the psychological predictors of exercise behavior in public health. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the ...
Davis Caroline - - 2006
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, and appear to share a common neurophysiological dysfunction that contributes to the obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in both disorders. Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCP) traits are also important risk factors for AN. Since excessive exercise has also been associated with ...
Brickell Tracey A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), past behaviour, and spontaneous implementation intentions in predicting exercise behaviour. The psychological correlates of spontaneous implementation intentions and the moderating effects of intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and implementation intentions at various time points were also ...
Graham Kathryn - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between level of intoxication and the frequency and severity of aggression at the person, incident, visit, and bar level for aggressive incidents observed in bars or clubs. METHOD: Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of 1025 incidents of aggression documented ...
Linde Jennifer A - - 2006
Despite considerable clinical interest, attempts to link perceived self-efficacy with successful weight control have had mixed success. Definitive data on prospective associations between self-efficacy and weight loss are particularly sparse. This study examined relationships between self-efficacy beliefs, weight control behaviors, and weight change among individuals participating in a weight loss ...
Jones Lee W - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic, medical, and social cognitive determinants of exercise intentions in a population-based sample of multiple myeloma cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional survey, 70 multiple myeloma cancer survivors completed a questionnaire that assessed their medical and demographic characteristics, past exercise behavior, and ...
Marsh Herbert W - - 2006
Does prior physical self-concept influence subsequent exercise behavior? On the basis of a large sample of physical education classes (2,786 students, 200 classes, 67 teachers) collected early (Time 1) and late (Time 2) in the school year, findings support a reciprocal effects model in which prior physical self-concept and exercise ...
Thøgersen-Ntoumani Cecilie - - 2006
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether amotivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n = 375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed ...
Paoli T - - 2006
Many reports have claimed that the duration of the swelling cycle in female bonobos (Pan paniscus) is longer than that of chimpanzees, and that the bonobo maximum swelling phase is markedly prolonged. Field data on intermenstrual intervals (IMIs) in female bonobos are limited and restricted to interswelling intervals (ISIs), which ...
Mond Jonathan M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The current study informed the definition of "excessive exercise" by examining relations between exercise behavior, eating-disordered behavior, and quality of life (QOL) in a community sample of women. METHOD: Self-report measures of frequency of exercise, obligatory exercise and motivation for exercise, and of eating disorder psychopathology and QOL, were ...
Downs Danielle Symons - - 2006
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures ...
Sniehotta Falko F - - 2006
Prevailing social cognition models consider behavioural intentions as immediate precursors of actions. This view ignores the role of more proximal self-regulatory processes, such as action control. The latter emerges after an intention has been formed and is supposed to maintain the level of intentions over time and to translate them ...
De Souza T P - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the compression behavior of Phyllanthus niruri spray dried extract as well as the influence of excipients on the properties of tablets containing a high dose (70% by weight) of this product. The effect of excipients was studied by a 22 factorial design. ...
Ginzel Matthew D - - 2006
Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half ...
Gonçalves-de-Freitas E - - 2006
We tested the effect of social isolation on the aggressiveness of an Amazonian fish: Astronotus ocellatus. Ten juvenile fishes were transferred from a group aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm) containing 15 individuals (without distinguishing sex) to an isolation aquarium (50 x 40 x 40 cm). Aggressiveness was tested ...
Rhodes Ryan E - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate the measurement and predictive structure of multiple components of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive) and an alternative measure of perceived behavioural control (PBC; skills/ability, opportunity, and resources) in the exercise domain. An additional purpose of the study was ...
KILROY, KERI
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between exercise self-efficacy and the Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) among employees of a large global retail chain corporate headquarters. There were approximately 800 employees in this office, of which all were surveyed. The instrument asked the ...
Ransom-Flint, Terry
The trend toward physical inactivity in adults in the United States has been a growing concern of researchers and health care professionals for decades. The present study investigated effects of an integrated intervention based on implementation intentions and relapse prevention methods to promote exercise behavior in college students. In addition, ...
Griffin-Blake C Shannon - - 2006
PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of stage-matched vs. social-cognitive physical activity interventions in a work setting. Both interventions were designed as minimal-contact, self-help programs suitable for large-scale application. DESIGN: Randomized trial. Participants were randomized into one of the two intervention groups at baseline; the follow-up assessment was conducted 1 month ...
Shaughnessy Marianne - - 2006
Stroke is the leading cause of disability in older Americans, and survivors tend to be sedentary, thereby risking loss of functional gains achieved during rehabilitation and increasing cardiovascular risk. Studies of motivation to exercise in older adults suggest that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are key determinants of initiation and adherence ...
Burrell Angela M - - 2006
This study examined captive cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) behavior across 3 different exhibits: (a) a rainforest (30.5 m in diameter), where tamarins free-ranged with other species; (b) a caged outdoor exhibit (5 m in diameter); and (c) a caged enclosure, with access indoors (6 x 9m) and outdoors (2.5 x ...
Cramp Anita G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and ...
Fahrenwald Nancy L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Mothers of young children who live in low-income households are a population at-risk for sedentary living that could experience important health benefits from improved physical activity behavior. Previous research among Caucasian mothers attending the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program showed that the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change was ...
Bylina Maureen M - - 2006
This study assessed perceptions about exercise among a convenience sample of low-income, urban, older adult patients at a publicly operated ambulatory primary-care clinic, and results were then compared with the findings of a national study. Although it was expected that the predominantly minority and economically disadvantaged participants in this study ...
Kim YoungHo - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to examine the theorized association of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change constructs by stage of change for exercise behavior among Korean adults. A total of 1,335 Korean adults were recruited and surveyed from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul. Four Korean-version ...
Brickell Tracey A - - 2006
This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) along with additional constructs in predicting exercise, and explored the motivational antecedents of exercise intentions. Participants included 162 Canadian University College students (61% females). Measures of TPB, autonomous and controlling intention, perceived autonomy support and core autonomous intention ...
Rogers Laura Q - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Patients perceive physicians who practice healthy personal behaviors as more credible and better able to motivate patients to make healthy lifestyle choices. PURPOSES: To evaluate internal medicine resident physicians as role models for promoting exercise by an assessment of physician physical activity behavior, cardiovascular fitness, physical activity knowledge, personal ...
Ratcliffe John M - - 2006
We investigated the potential relationships between foraging strategies and relative brain and brain region volumes in predatory (animal-eating) echolocating bats. The species we considered represent the ancestral state for the order and approximately 70% of living bat species. The two dominant foraging strategies used by echolocating predatory bats are substrate-gleaning ...
Cornuz J - - 2006
Effective habit change usually requires a combination of psycho-educational, behavioural, and social learning strategies. Motivational interview and shared decision making are likely to be the most efficient approaches. Assessing the current motivation can be based on the transtheoretical model of change (TTM) with the goal to move from one behaviour ...
Krampen Günter - - 2006
This article presents results from four studies of the significance of type and number of initial treatment motives for acquisition and transfer to everyday life of progressive relaxation (PR) and autogenic training (AT). On the basis of theories of treatment motivation and compliance, we hypothesize that motives for participation are ...
Pinilla Fernando Gomez - - 2006
Lifestyle involves our preference to engage in behaviors that can remarkably influence the fitness level of our body and brain. Dietary factors are a powerful means to influence brain function on a daily basis. We have shown that the consumption of a diet rich in saturated fat decreases learning and ...
Stubbe Janine H - - 2006
A sedentary lifestyle remains a major threat to health in contemporary societies. To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the GenomEUtwin project were used. Self-reported data on leisure time exercise behavior ...
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