Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1109
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Jabbi Mbemba - - 2007
Anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (hereafter referred to as IFO) are active during exposure to tastants/odorants (particularly disgusting ones), and during the viewing of disgusted facial expressions. Together with lesion data, the IFO has thus been proposed to be crucial in processing disgust-related stimuli. Here, we examined IFO involvement ...
Thome Jennifer L - - 2007
Although disordered eating behaviors and obligatory exercise are relatively common among undergraduate females, many questions about their etiology remain unanswered. In the current study, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether a model of personality, exercise attitudes, and exercise behavior that was previously developed with a clinical sample [Davis, ...
Levy Susan S - - 2006
The Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & Marcus, 1994) has been widely used as a framework for understanding exercise behavior change. The purpose of this study was to clarify equivocal research findings reported for model predictions when examining stage movement over time rather than static stages and to provide some evidence of ...
Gillison F B - - 2006
Exercise has an important role to play in the prevention of child and adolescent obesity. Recent school-based interventions have struggled to achieve meaningful and lasting changes to exercise levels. Theorists have suggested that this may, in part, be due to the failure to incorporate psychosocial mediators as they relate to ...
Mackey Eleanor Race - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between peer crowd affiliation (e.g., Jocks, Populars, Burnouts, Brains) and adolescents' eating, exercise, and weight control behaviors. The roles of gender and ethnicity were also examined. METHOD: Ethnically diverse adolescents (N = 705; 66% girls) completed the Peer Crowd Questionnaire, eating and exercise items from ...
Der Ananian Cheryl A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine perceptions of exercise prior to arthritis, the ways in which arthritis affects exercise behavior, and current exercise behaviors in people with arthritis. METHODS: Qualitative analyses were used to identify themes in 12 focus groups segmented by exercise status, education, and race. RESULTS: Non exercisers identified arthritis as ...
Edmunds Jemma - - 2006
Background Pulling from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), this study examined whether individuals classified as 'nondependent-symptomatic' and 'nondependent-asymptomatic' for exercise dependence differed in terms of reported levels of exercise-related psychological need satisfaction, self-determined versus controlling motivation and exercise behavior. In addition, we examined the type of motivational regulations ...
Koestner Richard - - 2006
Recent studies suggest that implementation planning exercises may not be as helpful for long-term, self-initiated goals as for short-term, assigned goals. Two studies used the personal goal paradigm to explore the impact of implementation plans on goal progress over time. Study 1 examined whether administering implementation plans in an autonomy ...
Moritz Steffen - - 2006
The present study tested whether participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) overestimate the incidence frequency of OCD-relevant phenomena and display a decreased hindsight bias for concern-related information, which may represent a maintenance factor for OCD. Thirty participants with OCD and 39 control participants were requested to estimate the incidence frequency of ...
Shields Christopher A - - 2006
We examined: (a) the social-cognitions of those who differ in preferred level of proxy-assistance in both proxy-led and independent exercise contexts; and (b) the relationships between proxy-agency and reliance. Sixty-five fitness class participants completed measures of self-regulatory efficacy, task self-efficacy, exercise intentions, proxy-efficacy and perceived reliance. A 2 (exercise context) ...
Stubbe J H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between leisure time exercise participation and well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and happiness) and examined the causality underlying this association. METHOD: The association between exercise participation and well-being was assessed in around 8000 subjects, (age range 18-65 years) from The Netherlands Twin Registry (NTR). Causality was ...
Piper Brian J - - 2007
The entactogen +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug among college, high school, and, occasionally, middle school students. Preclinical research examining the acute and long-term effects of MDMA has predominately been conducted in reproductively mature subjects but there has been increasing interest in adolescent and in utero exposure. ...
Barrett Christopher B - - 2006
We argue that two problems weaken the claims of those who link corruption and the exploitation of natural resources. The first is conceptual and the second is methodological. Studies that use national-level indicators of corruption fail to note that corruption comes in many forms, at multiple levels, that may affect ...
Borkowski John J - - 2006
Managers of public lands are charged with protecting some of our most important natural resources and ecosystems, while providing for their use and enjoyment by visitors. Almost one million visitors entered Yellowstone National Park by motorized means on snowmobiles (87%) or snow coaches (13%) during 1992-2003. Most vehicles toured the ...
Gurev Viatcheslav V Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Clark Hall 201, Baltimore, MD 21218, - - 2006
Ventricular dilatation increases the defibrillation threshold (DFT). In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this increase, the present article investigates changes in the postshock behavior of the myocardium upon stretch. A two-dimensional electro-mechanical model of cardiac tissue incorporating heterogeneous fiber orientation was used to explore the effect of sustained ...
Hellio-Serughetti Dominique - - 2006
This paper deals with chemical gelation of gelatin in the presence of a cross-linker, bis(vinylsulfonyl)methane (BVSM), which is able to create covalent C-N bonds with amine groups. The investigation is performed at 40 degrees C, where no triple helices are present. Gelatin is in random coil conformation. The influence of ...
Levin Daniel Z - - 2006
Prior meta-analytic evidence has indicated no association between relationship length and perceived trustworthiness. Viewing trustors as information processors, the authors propose a model in which relationship length, although having no direct effect on perceived trustworthiness, moderates the association between perceived trustworthiness and the basis on which people decide to trust ...
Shroff Hemal - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Excessive exercise and motor restlessness are observed in a substantial number of patients with eating disorders. This trait has been studied extensively among animal models of activity anorexia nervosa (AN) and may hold particular interest as an endophenotype for AN. We explored features associated with excessive exercise across subtypes ...
Friedman B A - - 2006
We develop a renormalization group approach for cyclizing polymers for the case when chain ends are initially close together (ring initial conditions). We analyze the behavior at times much shorter than the longest polymer relaxation time. In agreement with our previous work (Europhys. Lett. 73, 621 (2006)) we find that ...
Vaynman Shoshanna - - 2006
Exercise, a behavior that is inherently associated with energy metabolism, impacts the molecular systems important for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. This implies that a close association must exist between these systems to ensure proper neuronal function. This review emphasizes the ability of exercise and other lifestyle implementations that ...
Elliott John Ottis - - 2006
It is well reported in the epilepsy literature that use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) leads to bone loss. Validated instruments were administered to assess knowledge, health behavior, quality of life, and stigma, to determine their effects on self-efficacy for osteoprotective and self-management behaviors. This adult epilepsy population had a mean ...
Cohen-Mansfield Jiska - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Two different models of exercise behavior in an older population have been previously published (Schuster et al., 1995 and Resnick et al., 2000). We aimed to validate the models with data from a different sample, and to examine whether any of these models explained a greater proportion ...
Houser-Marko Linda - - 2006
Why do some people persist in goal pursuit, even in the face of boredom or setbacks, whereas others quickly give up their goals? In this research, the authors introduce a new motivational construct, the "self-as-doer," to explore this question. Studies 1 and 2 found longitudinal evidence that those who more ...
Collins Lyndsey E - - 2006
Our investigation concerns the connection between the telencephalon and the startle response, mediated by reticulospinal neurons. Before surgery fish respond to the startle stimulus in 95% of the trials and 66% of the time with complete full turns. Following telencephalon removal fish respond in only 50% of the trials but ...
Nazzaro Ann-Marie - - 2006
The National Hemophilia Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a national survey focusing on knowledge about, attitudes toward, and behaviors associated with key prevention activities among youths with hemophilia and used the data gathered to design a health promotion campaign. A national, random sample of 459 ...
Spencer Leslie - - 2006
Three questions guided a literature review of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as applied to exercise to address the evidence for stage-matched interventions, the description of priority populations, and the identification of valid TTM measurement tools. One-hundredand-fifty studies were reviewed. Results indicate preliminary support for the use of stage-matched exercise interventions. ...
Casada J H JH University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, USA. - - 2006
We have previously reported that subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differ from trauma controls in their ability to produce and withhold responses in the Stop-Signal Task depending on the motivational context as determined by financial reward. This experiment measured skin conductance and heart rate to assess autonomic changes accompanying ...
Ros Albert F H - - 2006
We have investigated the effect of mirror-elicited agonistic behaviour on oxygen consumption in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae). Males exposed to their mirror image showed higher frequencies of both lateral display and tail-beating and escalated aggression more frequently than males exposed to a transparent glass that was used as ...
Neal Andrew - - 2006
The authors measured perceptions of safety climate, motivation, and behavior at 2 time points and linked them to prior and subsequent levels of accidents over a 5-year period. A series of analyses examined the effects of top-down and bottom-up processes operating simultaneously over time. In terms of top-down effects, average ...
Stuifbergen Alexa K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the trajectories of functional limitations, health behaviors (exercise), and quality of life (QOL) and their interrelations over a 5-year time period in a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Descriptive longitudinal survey study. SETTING: Southwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 611 people with MS ...
Lucidi Fabio - - 2006
The present study evaluated whether, and to what extent, the constructs implicated in the theory of planned behavior could predict behavioral intention to exercise and exercise-class attendance of older adults (age 65-90 years) already enrolled in a physical activity program. The study also evaluated whether including self-efficacy judgments might improve ...
Kramer Arthur F - - 2006
We provide a brief review of the literature on exercise effects on brain and cognition. To this end, we focus on both prospective and retrospective human epidemiological studies that have examined the influence of exercise and physical activity on cognition and dementia. We then examine the relatively small set of ...
Shirreffs Susan M - - 2006
The use of alcohol is often intimately associated with sport. As well as providing a source of energy, alcohol (ethanol) has metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and neuromuscular actions that may affect exercise performance. Strength is minimally affected, and performance impairments depend on the dose of alcohol and subject habituation to alcohol ...
Lee Yun-Mi - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to differentiate the change in exercise behavior into different stages and to investigate differences in the process of change, self efficacy, decisional balances and depression according to the stages of exercise behavior change among middle aged women in Korea by using the transtheoretical ...
Kim Young-Ho - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Current research on exercise behavior has largely been attempted to identify the relationship between psychological attributes and the initiation or adherence of exercise behavior based on psychological theories. A limited data are available on the psychological predictors of exercise behavior in public health. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the ...
Davis Caroline - - 2006
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, and appear to share a common neurophysiological dysfunction that contributes to the obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in both disorders. Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCP) traits are also important risk factors for AN. Since excessive exercise has also been associated with ...
Brickell Tracey A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), past behaviour, and spontaneous implementation intentions in predicting exercise behaviour. The psychological correlates of spontaneous implementation intentions and the moderating effects of intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and implementation intentions at various time points were also ...
Graham Kathryn - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between level of intoxication and the frequency and severity of aggression at the person, incident, visit, and bar level for aggressive incidents observed in bars or clubs. METHOD: Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of 1025 incidents of aggression documented ...
Linde Jennifer A - - 2006
Despite considerable clinical interest, attempts to link perceived self-efficacy with successful weight control have had mixed success. Definitive data on prospective associations between self-efficacy and weight loss are particularly sparse. This study examined relationships between self-efficacy beliefs, weight control behaviors, and weight change among individuals participating in a weight loss ...
Jones Lee W - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic, medical, and social cognitive determinants of exercise intentions in a population-based sample of multiple myeloma cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional survey, 70 multiple myeloma cancer survivors completed a questionnaire that assessed their medical and demographic characteristics, past exercise behavior, and ...
Marsh Herbert W - - 2006
Does prior physical self-concept influence subsequent exercise behavior? On the basis of a large sample of physical education classes (2,786 students, 200 classes, 67 teachers) collected early (Time 1) and late (Time 2) in the school year, findings support a reciprocal effects model in which prior physical self-concept and exercise ...
Thøgersen-Ntoumani Cecilie - - 2006
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether amotivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n = 375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed ...
Paoli T - - 2006
Many reports have claimed that the duration of the swelling cycle in female bonobos (Pan paniscus) is longer than that of chimpanzees, and that the bonobo maximum swelling phase is markedly prolonged. Field data on intermenstrual intervals (IMIs) in female bonobos are limited and restricted to interswelling intervals (ISIs), which ...
Mond Jonathan M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The current study informed the definition of "excessive exercise" by examining relations between exercise behavior, eating-disordered behavior, and quality of life (QOL) in a community sample of women. METHOD: Self-report measures of frequency of exercise, obligatory exercise and motivation for exercise, and of eating disorder psychopathology and QOL, were ...
Downs Danielle Symons - - 2006
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures ...
Sniehotta Falko F - - 2006
Prevailing social cognition models consider behavioural intentions as immediate precursors of actions. This view ignores the role of more proximal self-regulatory processes, such as action control. The latter emerges after an intention has been formed and is supposed to maintain the level of intentions over time and to translate them ...
De Souza T P - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the compression behavior of Phyllanthus niruri spray dried extract as well as the influence of excipients on the properties of tablets containing a high dose (70% by weight) of this product. The effect of excipients was studied by a 22 factorial design. ...
Ginzel Matthew D - - 2006
Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half ...
Gonçalves-de-Freitas E - - 2006
We tested the effect of social isolation on the aggressiveness of an Amazonian fish: Astronotus ocellatus. Ten juvenile fishes were transferred from a group aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm) containing 15 individuals (without distinguishing sex) to an isolation aquarium (50 x 40 x 40 cm). Aggressiveness was tested ...
Rhodes Ryan E - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate the measurement and predictive structure of multiple components of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive) and an alternative measure of perceived behavioural control (PBC; skills/ability, opportunity, and resources) in the exercise domain. An additional purpose of the study was ...
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