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Results 401 - 450 of 1236
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Yardley Jane E - - 2012
To determine the effects of exercise order on acute glycemic responses in individuals with type 1 diabetes performing both aerobic and resistance exercise in the same session. Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA(1c) 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed aerobic exercise (45 min of running at 60% V(O(2peak))) before ...
Clark Dave R - - 2012
Langenfeld, E. Muscle activation in the loaded free barbell squat: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res 26(X): 000-000, 2012-The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18) where muscle activation in the free barbell back squat was measured and discussed. The loaded barbell ...
de Lima Sandro G - - 2012
The factors which contribute to an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during the exercise treadmill test (ETT) are not wholly understood. The association between the insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and M235T of the angiotensinogen with EBPR during ETT still remains unstudied. To identify and compare the risk ...
Mattson Mark P - - 2012
This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte ...
Jutand Luce - - 2012
AIM: The neural structures responsible for the coupling between ventilatory control and pulmonary gas exchange during exercise have not been fully identified. Suprapontine mechanisms have been hypothesized but not formally evidenced. Because the involvement of a premotor circuitry in the compensation of inspiratory mechanical loads has recently been described, we ...
Stern Javier E - - 2012
Elevated sympathetic outflow and altered autonomic reflexes, including impaired baroreflex function, are common findings observed in hypertensive disorders. Although a growing body of evidence supports a contribution of preautonomic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to altered autonomic control during hypertension, the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we ...
Martin Louise - - 2012
Given the paucity of research on pacing strategies during competitive events, this study examined changes in dynamic high-resolution performance parameters to analyze pacing profiles during a multiple-lap mountain-bike race over variable terrain. A global-positioning-system (GPS) unit (Garmin, Edge 305, USA) recorded velocity (m/s), distance (m), elevation (m), and heart rate ...
Yamaguchi Tomofumi T Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, - - 2012
Pedaling is widely used for rehabilitation of locomotion because it induces similar muscle activity to that observed during locomotion. However, no study has examined the effects of pedaling exercise on intracortical inhibition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pedaling exercise on short-interval intracortical inhibition ...
García-Manso Juan Manuel - - 2012
The purpose of the present study was to assess the ability of TMG in detecting mechanical fatigue induced by two different resistance exercises on biceps brachii: high-volume (HV), and high-load (HL). Sixteen healthy subjects (age 25.1±2.6years; body mass 79.9±8.9kg; height 179±7.4cm) performed arm-curl in two different protocols (HV: 8×15×10kg, HL: ...
Dutra D B - - 2012
Myostatin (MSTN) has been implicated in metabolic adaptation to physiological stimuli, such as physical exercise, which is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on the expression of MSTN, MSTN receptors (ActRIIB and ALK4), and Follistatin (FS) in muscle ...
Schuenke Mark D - - 2012
Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus "normal" speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensions were performed 2 days/week for the first week and 3 days/week for the ...
Mc Loughlin Santiago - - 2012
Arm elevation induces diastolic retrograde flow in the brachial artery and an incremental rise in arterial compliance in healthy subjects with no modifications in vascular resistance. In contrast, changes in resistance have been observed after handgrip exercise. Our objective was to investigate if the resistance change induced by isometric handgrip ...
Snijders Tim - - 2012
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle satellite cell content has been reported to increase following a single bout of exercise. Data on muscle fiber type-specific satellite cell (SC) content and/or SC activation status are presently lacking. OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of a single bout of exercise on muscle fiber type-specific SC content ...
Xie Wei - - 2012
Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) has been shown to contribute to enhanced vascular function after exercise training. Recent studies have revealed that relatively low concentrations of reactive oxygen species can contribute to endothelium-dependent vasodilation under physiological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training enhances endothelial function via endothelium-derived ...
Verges Samuel - - 2012
Reduction of aerobic exercise performance observed under hypoxic conditions is mainly attributed to altered muscle metabolism due to impaired O(2) delivery. It has been recently proposed that hypoxia-induced cerebral perturbations may also contribute to exercise performance limitation. A significant reduction in cerebral oxygenation during whole-body exercise has been reported in ...
Maxwell Melanie J - - 2012
Background:Topical anesthesia of the upper airway is often recommended when difficulty in airway management is anticipated. There are published reports, however, of administration of topical anesthesia resulting in complete loss of airway control. Adverse effects are mostly attributed to interference with involuntary protective airway reflexes, while gross motor function itself ...
Koch Lauren Gerard - - 2012
The association between low exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality is statistically strong yet mechanistically unresolved. By connecting clinical observation with a theoretical base, we developed a working hypothesis that variation in capacity for oxygen metabolism is the central mechanistic determinant between disease and health (aerobic hypothesis). As an ...
Newcomer S C SC 1Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, - - 2012
The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise training during pregnancy enhances endothelial function in offspring at birth. Six-month-old gilts (n = 8) were artificially inseminated and randomized into exercise-trained (n = 4) and sedentary groups (n = 4). Exercise training consisted of 15 weeks ...
Biernacki Marcin P - - 2012
Physiological effects of +Gz centrifugation are well known. Psychological functioning combined with +Gz centrifugation also appears to be important, but has not yet been sufficiently studied. This study was designed to evaluate whether mood (energetic arousal, tense arousal, and hedonic tone) is influenced by a centrifuge run with +Gz stress. ...
Heilman Keri J - - 2012
Cardiovascular response patterns to laboratory-based social and physical exercise challenges were evaluated in 69 children and adolescents, 20 with selective mutism (SM), to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral features of SM. Results suggest that SM is associated with a dampened response of the vagal brake to ...
Aroian Karen J - - 2012
PURPOSE: This qualitative study used focus group methodology to explore attitudes and beliefs of Hispanics regarding hypertension prevention behaviors. Method: The sample was composed of 17 participants from varied Hispanic backgrounds. The theory of planned behavior guided interview questions. FINDINGS: Analysis indicated that participants were knowledgeable about and had a ...
de Assis Ferreira Sandra Lívia - - 2012
Ferreira, SLA, Panissa, VLG, Miarka, B, and Franchini, E. Postactivation potentiation: effect of various recovery intervals on bench press power performance. J Strength Cond Res 26(X): 000-000, 2012-Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy used to improve performance in power activities. The aim of this study was to determine if power ...
Atherton P J - - 2012
Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is the driving force behind adaptive responses to exercise and represents a widely adopted proxy for gauging chronic efficacy of acute interventions, (i.e. exercise/nutrition). Recent findings in this arena have been progressive. Nutrient-driven increases in MPS are of finite duration (∼1.5 h), switching off thereafter despite ...
Johnson Blair D - - 2012
Purpose:  We tested the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise would elicit the greatest alterations in postexercise shear rate (SR) patterns when compared to moderate intensity exercise, and moderate duration exercise would produce similar postexercise SR patterns as long-duration exercise. Methods:  On separate days, ten healthy men completed three acute treadmill exercise ...
Moxnes John F - - 2012
Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while ...
Nicastro Humberto - - 2012
This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE), based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is ...
Wallsten Hanna - - 2012
Clipping the winter coat in horses is done to improve heat dissipation during exercise and make grooming easier. It is often combined with blanketing to keep the horse warm. The aims of the present study were to investigate how clipping and the use of blankets affect thermoregulation during exercise and ...
Moxnes John F - - 2012
This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to ...
Peng Chiung-Chi - - 2012
The renal function of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may be improved by a number of rehabilitative mechanisms. Swimming exercise training was supposed to be beneficial to its recovery. Doxorubicin-induced CKD (DRCKD) rat model was performed. Swimming training was programmed three days per week, 30 or 60 min per day ...
Bordbar Somayeh - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week endurance and resistance exercise training on release of brain natriuretic peptide. Study population was categorized into 4 groups: Group-1 (n = 6) consisted of sedentary individuals who volunteered to complete 8-weeks of endurance exercise; Group-2 (n=6) consisted of ...
Karoly Hollis C - - 2012
Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective ...
Bouchard Claude - - 2012
Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed. An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected day-to-day variation. Sixty subjects were ...
Balsamo Sandor - - 2012
The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them - for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different ...
Bacon Simon L - - 2012
Impaired endothelial function has been shown to limit exercise in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and has been implicated in myocardial ischemia. However, the association of endothelial function and ischemia on peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO(2)) has not been previously reported. A total of 116 CAD patients underwent standard exercise ...
Zhao Guanggao - - 2012
Type 1 (TI) and Type 2 (T2) lymphocytes promote cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity respectively. Evidence accumulated over the past two decades has demonstrated diverse responses of T1 and T2 cells to acute exercise or long-term training at moderate and high intensities. This brief review highlights the current findings from ...
Banfi Giuseppe - - 2012
Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When ...
Swift Damon L - - 2012
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Men and women (N = 150) ...
Jeong Hyun Woo - - 2012
By catabolizing glucose and lipids, mitochondria produce ATPs to meet energy demands. When the number and activity of mitochondria are not sufficient, the human body becomes easily fatigued due to the lack of ATP, thus the control of the quantity and function of mitochondria is important to optimize energy balance. ...
Goh Jorming - - 2012
Regular exercise and physical activity provide many health benefits and are encouraged by medical professionals for the primary prevention of and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer Current consensus in the discipline of exercise oncology is that both regular physical activity and exercise training exert some protective effect against breast cancer ...
Zhao Liping - - 2012
The mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue have not been investigated using proteomic techniques, an approach that could improve our understanding and generate novel information regarding the effects of exercise. In this study, the proteom alterations of rat skeletal muscle were investigated during exercise-induced fatigue. The proteins were extracted from the skeletal ...
Faganeli Pucer Jana - - 2012
Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST ...
Bartels Meike - - 2012
This study tests in a genetically informative design whether exercise behavior causally influences subjective wellbeing (SWB) and internalizing problems (INT). If exercise causally influences SWB and INT, genetic and environmental factors influencing exercise behavior will also influence SWB and INT. Furthermore, within genetically identical (MZ) twin pairs, the twin who ...
Pendergast D R - - 2012
Because it has earlier been shown that exercise 24 or two hours pre-dive may suppress the appearance of venous gas bubbles (VGB) in connection with the dive, we studied whether exercise before or during N2 elimination would influence the rate of the latter. Nitrogen elimination was recorded in eight volunteers ...
Zhang Qi - - 2012
Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
Cruz Rogério Santos de Oliveira - - 2012
Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that can be used as a fuel by several cells of the human body, particularly during physical exercise. Traditionally, it has been believed that the first step of lactate oxidation occurs in cytosol; however, this idea was recently challenged. A new hypothesis has been ...
Gonçalves Luis Carlos - - 2012
Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this ...
Mille-Hamard Laurence - - 2012
Erythropoietin (EPO) is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of) EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when ...
Naeije R - - 2012
The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L(-1) in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L(-1) over 4-6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant ...
Houghton David - - 2012
Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies ...
Kang Youn Joo - - 2011
To delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals are asked to exercise their hand using observation, motor imagery, voluntary exercise, and exercise with a mirror. The participants consisted of 30 healthy subjects and 30 stroke patients. In healthy subjects, the amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potential (MEP) were ...
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