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Zavin Alexandra - - 2012
Background: While cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) assessment is generally regarded as an optimal means to assess functional capacity in heart failure (HF) patients, strength parameters are omitted. CPX indices collected in recovery may provide additional insight regarding function, including strength.Design and methods: We performed a cross-sectional controlled study. Systolic HF ...
Chtourou Hamdi - - 2012
This article focuses on physical performances after training at a specific time-of-day. To date, although the effect of time-of-day on aerobic performances appears to be equivocal, during anaerobic exercises, the effect of time-of-day has been well established with early morning nadirs and peak performances in the late afternoon. These diurnal ...
Dowdy Sharon - - 2012
Sixth graders are at a prime age to modify behaviors and beliefs regarding exercise, nutrition, body image, and smoking. Empower U was created to change knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding these topics. This pilot study utilized pre/post assessments of 58 sixth graders from a private middle school in the midsouth. ...
Raichlen David A - - 2012
Humans report a wide range of neurobiological rewards following moderate and intense aerobic activity, popularly referred to as the 'runner's high', which may function to encourage habitual aerobic exercise. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous neurotransmitters that appear to play a major role in generating these rewards by activating cannabinoid receptors in ...
McKenzie David J - - 2012
The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 ...
He S-B - - 2012
Physical activity is an effective component of depression management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise affects behavioral disorders remain unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanisms by which voluntary exercise ameliorates depression. Plasma cortisol levels and hippocampal monoamine neurotransmitters were measured. Chronic mild stress (CMS) was used to ...
Quintão Júnior Judson Fonseca - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Aerobic capacity is essential to physical performance, and low aerobic capacity is related to the triggering of various cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphology and contractility of isolated rat cardiomyocytes with low performance and standard performance for exercise. METHODS: Wistar rats with 10 weeks of age underwent a ...
Biedermann Sarah - - 2012
Voluntary exercise has tremendous effects on adult hippocampal plasticity and metabolism and thus sculpts the hippocampal structure of mammals. High-field (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) investigations at 9.4T of metabolic and structural changes can be performed non-invasively in the living rodent brain. Numerous molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating the effects of ...
Anand Ashima - - 2012
Juxta-pulmonary capillary (J or pulmonary C fiber) receptors are stimulated by an increase in pulmonary blood flow and give rise to respiratory acceleration and related sensations and inhibit exercise. However, the reverse, i.e., the effect of reducing pulmonary blood flow on their reflexes, is as yet not known. This was ...
Davenport M H - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Better physical fitness in later life is positively associated with cognitive functioning. Novel data suggest this association is mediated, in part, by increases in brain perfusion and the ability of cerebral blood vessels to respond to demand. This review presents evidence on the beneficial effects of exercise on cerebrovascular ...
Karapetian G K - - 2012
Caffeine has many diverse physiological effects including central nervous system stimulation. Ventilatory threshold and a recently described heart rate variability threshold both have a relationship with autonomic control that could be altered by caffeine consumption. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of caffeine on lactate, ventilatory, ...
Gwenael Layec - - 2012
To better understand the mechanisms underlying the pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) slow component during high-intensity exercise, we used 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS), gas exchange, surface electromyography (EMG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to examine the potential relationship between the slow components of VO2p and PCr, muscle recruitment and ...
Shepherd Sam O - - 2012
The lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) appears to colocalise with LDs in human skeletal muscle fibres, although the function of PLIN2 in the regulation of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) metabolism is currently unknown. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the presence of PLIN2 in skeletal muscle LDs helps to ...
Malm Christer - - 2012
Using proteomics combined with immunohistochemistry (IHC), we re-evaluated our previous hypothesis that voluntary eccentric exercise does not result in inflammation or necrosis while it does lead to muscular adaptation/remodeling through Z-band related proteins. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were taken from five control and five exercised subjects 48 h after ...
Vanderlaan R D - - 2012
Following heart transplantation (HTx), loss of autonomic input to the allograft results in elevated resting heart rate (HR) and decreased chronotropic reserve. As enhanced exercise capacity and HR recovery post exercise are suggestive of reinnervation in pediatric cohorts, we used heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to assess autonomic reinnervation in ...
Schmid Jean-Paul - - 2012
Background: In most patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), endurance training improves exercise capacity. However, some patients do not respond favourably. The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons of non-response and to determine their predictive value.Methods: We studied a cohort of 120 consecutive CHF patients with sinus ...
Green Howard J - - 2012
To investigate the hypothesis that increases in fibre capillary density would precede increases in oxidative potential following training onset, tissue was extracted from the vastus lateralis prior to (0 days) and following 3 and 6 consecutive days of submaximal cycle exercise (2 h·day(-1)). Participants were untrained males (age = 21.4 ± 0.58 years; ...
Jagim Andrew R - - 2012
PURPOSE: Recent research has shown that beta-alanine supplementation can increase intramuscular carnosine levels. Carnosine is an intramuscular buffer and has been linked to improvements in performance, specifically during bouts of high intensity exercise that are likely limited by muscle acidosis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the ...
Kim Woong - - 2012
Objective-To describe and measure histologic features of midcarpal joint cartilage defects in Thoroughbreds and evaluate the influence of early conditioning exercise on defect development. Sample-24 midcarpal joints from twelve 18-month-old Thoroughbreds. Procedures-Midcarpal joints from 12 horses (6 exercised spontaneously at pasture only and 6 given additional conditioning exercise beginning at ...
Poh Paula Y S - - 2012
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs among several populations; elevated temperatures increase an individual's susceptibility, whereas the effect of sleep loss (SL) remains inconclusive. The purpose was: 1) to evaluate the effects of 10 d of heat acclimation (HA) and 28 h of SL on OH; and 2) to determine the best ...
Braschi Annabella - - 2012
Background: T peak-T end, QT peak/QT ratio and T peak-T end/QT ratio are markers able to test myocardial repolarization homogeneity, their increase has been related to a higher risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. These parameters have not yet been studied in left ventricular hypertrophy due to training. Aim of the research ...
Jo Eun-Jung - - 2012
Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a type of exercise-induced anaphylaxis associated with postprandial exercise. We describe a 19-year-old man with FDEIA. Our patient complained of urticaria, angioedema, dizziness and hypotension associated with exercise after ingestion of walnut-containing foods in a warm environment. Skin prick test and prick to prick test ...
Coza Aurel - - 2012
The effects of compression on gastrocnemius medialis muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during a short term dynamic exercise was investigated in a sample of fifteen male subjects (mean ± SD; age 25.8 ± 4.9 years; mass 70.6 ± 4.3 kg). Elastic compression sleeves were used to apply multiple levels of compression ...
Katayama Keisho - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of inspiratory muscle fatigue on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and BP response during submaximal exercise. We hypothesized that inspiratory muscle fatigue would elicit increases in sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and BP during dynamic leg exercise. The subjects carried out four ...
Minor Brian D - - 2012
We previously showed that consumption of protein immediately after exercise in older adults enhances nitrogen balance when energy balance (EB) is maintained. Because daily EB routinely varies, it is important to know whether benefits of postexercise protein consumption also occur with changing EB. Within an experiment, participants consumed an isonitrogenous-isocaloric ...
Slattery Katie May - - 2012
This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance. Seven team sport athletes (maximal oxygen uptake, 47.6 ± 4.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 60-min simulated team sport match before and after either 4 days of ...
Russ David W - - 2012
PURPOSE: Sprint training is associated with several beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle, including an enhancement of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. Unfortunately, several patient populations (e.g., the elderly, those with cardiac dysfunction) that might derive great benefit from sprint exercise are unlikely to tolerate it. The purpose of this report ...
Fukuma Nagaharu - - 2012
Past reports showed that the baroreflex continuously regulates hemodynamics during exercise. However, it is still clinically unclear. If baroreflex mechanism is able to influence actually exercise cardiovascular control, baroreflex sympathetic and/or parasympathetic function relates to response to exercise. Therefore, we examined the relationship of heat rate changes to both blood ...
Munehiro Teppei - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs after unaccustomed exercise and is particularly associated with eccentric exercise. Previous studies have proposed the use of a single bout of eccentric exercise to prevent the muscle damage subsequent to a bout of eccentric exercise. This study aimed to establish a suitable animal model ...
White Amanda T - - 2012
The pyridine nucleotides, NAD(+) and NADH, are coenzymes that provide oxidoreductive power for the generation of ATP by mitochondria. In skeletal muscle, exercise perturbs the levels of NAD(+), NADH, and consequently, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and initial research in this area focused on the contribution of redox control to ATP production. ...
Sandsund Mariann - - 2012
This study assessed the effects of exposure to cold (-14 and -9 °C), cool (-4 and 1 °C) and moderate warm (10 and 20 °C) environments on aerobic endurance performance-related variables: maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), running time to exhaustion (TTE), running economy and running speed at lactate threshold (LT). Nine male endurance athletes ...
Bori Zoltan Z Research Institute of Sport Science, Semmelweis University, Budapest, - - 2012
Aging results in a significant decline in aerobic capacity and impaired mitochondrial function. We have tested the effects of moderate physical activity on aerobic capacity and a single bout of exercise on the expression profile of mitochondrial biogenesis, and fusion and fission related genes in skeletal muscle of human subjects. ...
Sugawara Jun - - 2012
Exercise training elicits morphological adaptations in the left ventricle (LV) and large-conduit arteries that are specific to the type of training performed (i.e., endurance vs. resistance exercise). We investigated whether the mode of chronic exercise training, and the associated cardiovascular adaptations, influence the blood pressure responses to orthostatic stimulation in ...
Kim Jong-Hee JH Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mild therapeutic exercise (treadmill) in preventing the inactivity-induced alterations in contractile properties (e.g., power, force, and velocity) of type I soleus single fibers in three different age groups. Young adult (5- to 12-mo-old), middle-aged (24- to 31-mo-old), and old ...
Fiorelli Alfonso - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine cardio-respiratory changes after endothoracic sympathetic denervation and their correlation with the extent of denervation. METHODS: A total of 45 patients with essential palmar hyperhidrosis were randomized into two groups: the conventional group (CG; 23 patients) and the simplified group (SG; 22 ...
Juvancic-Heltzel Judith A - - 2012
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that increasing the variety of available food and purchasing options reliably increases eating and consumer spending behavior respectively. However, the potential pro-behavioral effect of increasing the variety of exercise equipment options on the amount of exercise individuals perform is very limited. The purpose of this ...
de Bruin Marijn - - 2012
Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive ...
Debevec Tadej - - 2012
This study investigated the effects of four exposures to normobaric hypoxia (SIH group; [Formula: see text] N=10) or placebo-control normoxia (Control group; [Formula: see text] N=9) on cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxic exercise. Before and after the exposures all subjects performed a constant power test (CP) to exhaustion in hypoxia [Formula: ...
Onazi S O - - 2012
Background: Childhood asthma was said to be rare in Northern Nigeria three decades ago. However, since then, there has been rapid industrial development with increase in especially textile and quarry factories. Hyperresponsiveness of the bronchi of asthmatic children to various challenge tests differentiate them from non-asthmatic children. One of these, ...
Dulin Jennifer A - - 2012
Objective-To determine the effects of exercise on the distribution and pharmacokinetics of technetium Tc 99m medronate ((99m)Tc-MDP) following intra-articular (IA) injection in horses. Animals-5 horses. Procedures-1 antebrachiocarpal joint (ACJ)/horse was assigned to the exercised group (n = 5), and the contralateral ACJ was evaluated in the nonexercised group (5) after ...
Waterman Jason J - - 2012
Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the ...
Weiner Rory B - - 2012
Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous ...
Spink Kevin S - - 2012
To explore whether setting type (structured versus unstructured) might moderate the relationship between specific theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs and exercise intention. It was hypothesized that perceived behavioral control (PBC) would predict intention only in an unstructured setting. Students (N=122) completed a questionnaire that assessed TPB constructs and exercise ...
Yardley Jane E - - 2012
To determine the effects of exercise order on acute glycemic responses in individuals with type 1 diabetes performing both aerobic and resistance exercise in the same session. Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA(1c) 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed aerobic exercise (45 min of running at 60% V(O(2peak))) before ...
Clark Dave R - - 2012
Langenfeld, E. Muscle activation in the loaded free barbell squat: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res 26(X): 000-000, 2012-The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18) where muscle activation in the free barbell back squat was measured and discussed. The loaded barbell ...
de Lima Sandro G - - 2012
The factors which contribute to an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during the exercise treadmill test (ETT) are not wholly understood. The association between the insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and M235T of the angiotensinogen with EBPR during ETT still remains unstudied. To identify and compare the risk ...
Mattson Mark P - - 2012
This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte ...
Jutand Luce - - 2012
AIM: The neural structures responsible for the coupling between ventilatory control and pulmonary gas exchange during exercise have not been fully identified. Suprapontine mechanisms have been hypothesized but not formally evidenced. Because the involvement of a premotor circuitry in the compensation of inspiratory mechanical loads has recently been described, we ...
Stern Javier E - - 2012
Elevated sympathetic outflow and altered autonomic reflexes, including impaired baroreflex function, are common findings observed in hypertensive disorders. Although a growing body of evidence supports a contribution of preautonomic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to altered autonomic control during hypertension, the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we ...
Martin Louise - - 2012
Given the paucity of research on pacing strategies during competitive events, this study examined changes in dynamic high-resolution performance parameters to analyze pacing profiles during a multiple-lap mountain-bike race over variable terrain. A global-positioning-system (GPS) unit (Garmin, Edge 305, USA) recorded velocity (m/s), distance (m), elevation (m), and heart rate ...
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