Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1214
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Scheef Lukas - - 2012
Endurance exercise is known to promote sustained antinociceptive effects, and there is evidence that the reduction of pain perception mediated by exercise is driven by central opioidergic neurotransmission. To directly investigate the involved brain areas and the underlying neural mechanisms in humans, thermal heat-pain challenges were applied to 20 athletes ...
Jendzjowsky Nicholas G - - 2012
We tested the hypotheses that 4 weeks of exercise training (ET) would diminish the magnitude of vasoconstriction in response to sympathetic nerve stimulation and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDD) in resting skeletal muscle in a training intensity-dependent manner. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sedentary time-control (S), mild- (M; 20m•min(-1), 5% ...
Fortes Matthew B - - 2012
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exercise-induced dehydration and subsequent overnight fluid restriction on saliva antimicrobial proteins important for host defence (secretory IgA (SIgA), α-amylase, and lysozyme). On two randomized occasions, 13 participants exercised in the heat, either without fluid intake to evoke progressive body ...
Sander Andre - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The process of warming up prepares athletes for subsequent stress and increases their level of performance. Functional exercises are often included in warm-up programs for power sports, although a positive effect of functional exercises has not been confirmed. The aim of this study was to measure a possible effect ...
Franchini Emerson - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to compare the physiological and performance responses to different judo techniques and time structure uchi-komi (technique entrance) protocols. Ten judo athletes (25±6 years old, 73±9 kg, 173±5 cm, and 15±6 years of judo experience) were submitted to nine all-out uchi-komi sessions. Three ...
Martinez Josefa L JL Yale University, School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA. - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine if messages tailored to an individual's regulatory focus (i.e. their tendency to focus on prevention or promotion) increased exercise intentions and behavior in a medically underserved sample. Adult English as a Second Language students (N = 58) were presented with tailored exercise ...
Burt Dean - - 2012
It is well established that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has a detrimental effect on endurance exercise performed in the days that follow. However, it is unknown whether such effects remain after a repeated bout of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated bouts ...
Jessop Traci - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent one session of isotonic and isometric ankle dorsi and plantar flexion training induces changes in the frequency-dependent depression of the soleus H-reflex. Further, adaptation of reciprocal Ia inhibition exerted from tibialis anterior flexor group I afferents on soleus motoneurons, ...
Abedelmalek Salma - - 2012
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on short-term maximal performance and level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in trained subjects. In a randomized order, 12 football players were asked to perform a 30-s Wingate test during which we measured the ...
Derbyshire Philip J - - 2012
This review provides a critical overview of the literature published in the area of lactate in human sweat between 1934 and the present. The first section summarizes the relevant pieces of literature, the second evaluates the literature across a range of topics and the third presents potential applications for sweat ...
Greco Camila Coelho - - 2012
This study aimed at assessing the sensitivity of both maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and critical power (CP) in populations of different aerobic training status to ascertain whether CP is as sensitive as MLSS to a change in aerobic fitness. Seven untrained subjects (UT) (maximal oxygen uptake = 37.4 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) ...
Hirai Daniel M - - 2012
Exercise training induces multiple adaptations within skeletal muscle that may improve local O(2) delivery-utilization matching (i.e., Po(2)mv). We tested the hypothesis that increased nitric oxide (NO) function is intrinsic to improved muscle Po(2)mv kinetics from rest to contractions after exercise training. Healthy young Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary (n ...
Heinrich Dieter - - 2012
It was hypothesized that for each mountain running competition, there is a certain individual performance level below which running times increase dramatically. The running times of 869 finishers of 3 international mountain running competitions have been analysed. A hyperbolic association was demonstrated between finish times in mountain running competitions and ...
Afroundeh R - - 2012
To clarify the ventilatory kinetics during recovery after impulse-like exercise, subjects performed one impulse-like exercise test (one-impulse) and a five-times repeated impulse-like exercises test (five-impulse). Duration and intensity of the impulse-like exercise were 20 sec and 400 watts (80 rpm), respectively. Although blood pH during recovery (until 10 min) was ...
Docking S I - - 2012
Investigations into the response of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the Thoroughbred horse to mechanical stimuli have been limited to in vitro cell culture studies focused primarily on gene expression of critical matrix proteins. It is uncertain how well in vitro outcomes translate to the tendon of the ...
Krzemiński Krzysztof - - 2012
Our previous study showed a significant relationships between static exercise-induced changes in plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) and those in endothelin-1 (ET-1), noradrenaline (NA) and pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio (PEP/LVET) in older healthy men. It is hypothesized that ADM, ET-1, NA and adrenaline (A) may function as endogenous regulators of ...
Eston Roger - - 2012
The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a recognized marker of intensity and of homeostatic disturbance during exercise. It is typically monitored during exercise tests to complement other measures of intensity. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the remarkable value of RPE as a psychophysiological integrator in adults. ...
Boone Jan - - 2012
An incremental ramp exercise is a protocol that is frequently used in the domain of exercise testing to get an insight into the exercise tolerance of both healthy active populations (including athletes) and patients, due to the specific characteristics of the protocol. The continuous and linear increase in work rate ...
Govindan Malini - - 2012
AIMS: We propose to assess the value of exercise-induced change in N-terminal-pro atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and left atrial expansion index (LAEI) in predicting AFR after cardioversion and their effect on AF-free survival.METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with persistent AF of <18 months duration needing cardioversion were recruited for the ...
Farinatti Paulo T V - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of resistance exercise order on the number of repetitions, oxygen uptake (VO2), and perceived exertion (RPE) in younger [YG: N=10; 22±2yrs; VO2peak 42.2±2.9 mL.kg.min] and older [EG: N=8; 69±7yrs; VO2peak 22.7±2.5 mL.kg.min] women. Subjects performed 3 sets of each exercise until fatigue using 10 ...
Shibata Shigeki - - 2012
Recent studies have suggested the presence of cardiac atrophy as a key component of the pathogenesis of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), similar to physical deconditioning. It has also been shown that exercise intolerance is associated with a reduced stroke volume (SV) in POTS, and that the high heart ...
Vercruyssen Fabrice - - 2012
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of kick frequency on metabolic efficiency and performance in elite monofin-swimmers at the surface. Seven participants of international calibre were requested to perform three separate Time Limit exercises conducted at an intensity corresponding to 97.5% of the velocity at ...
Arandjelović Ognjen - - 2012
Our work investigates the use of "external momentum" in the context of hypertrophy-oriented training. This is momentum supplied to the load (such as a dumbbell) used in an exercise by means of action of muscles not inherently involved in the exercise. We challenge the general consensus that the use of ...
de Toledo Joelly Mahnic - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Following shoulder arthroplasty, any well-planned rehabilitation program should include muscle strengthening. However, it is not always clear how different external loads influence shoulder kinematics in patients with shoulder prostheses. The objective of this study was to describe shoulder kinematics and determine the contribution of the scapulothoracic joint to total ...
Sciolino Natale R - - 2012
Although exercise improves anxiety in humans, it is controversial whether exercise is anxiolytic in rodents. We tested the hypothesis that stress influences the effect of exercise on anxiety-like and defensive behaviors. To explore the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise, we also examined whether exercise alters gene expression for the stress-related peptide ...
Leicht C A - - 2012
Study design:Experimental study.Objectives:To examine salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses and α-amylase activity during court training in highly trained tetraplegic athletes.Setting:Loughborough, UK.Methods:Seven highly trained wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia performed two separate wheelchair rugby court training sessions, lasting 23 and 41.5 min, respectively, with either an aerobic or an interval focus. ...
Okuno Nilo M - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes on repeated sprint ability (RSA) performance after heavy load exercise in elite handball players. Twelve subjects were submitted to the following experimental sessions: 1) one repetition maximum test (1RM) on the half squat exercise, 2) RSA test (control condition), ...
Rounding Kevin - - 2012
Researchers have proposed that the emergence of religion was a cultural adaptation necessary for promoting self-control. Self-control, in turn, may serve as a psychological pillar supporting a myriad of adaptive psychological and behavioral tendencies. If this proposal is true, then subtle reminders of religious concepts should result in higher levels ...
Kusha Marjan - - 2012
Background: Epidemiological studies have assessed T wave alternans (TWA) as a possible mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias related to air pollution in high risk subjects and have reported associations with increased TWA magnitude. Objective: In this controlled human exposure study we assessed the impact of exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter ...
Fernandes-Silva Miguel Morita - - 2012
Although the impact of exercise on survival of patients with heart failure has been recently questioned, exercise training improves quality of life, functional capacity, inflammation, endothelial and autonomic function. In recent years, interest has increased regarding a group of small non-protein coding RNAs called microRNAs. Studies have shown that the ...
Uemura Hiromi - - 2012
To compare two different types of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance, a protocol was devised consisting of a combination of a 4-week, 12-session resistive respiratory muscle training (RRMT) followed by a 4-week, 12-session voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea training (VIHT) and conducted in experienced runners (4 men, 4 women). Measurements before ...
Paulo Caetano A - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Paulo CA, Roschel H, Ugrinowitsch C, Kobal R and Tricoli V. Influence of different resistance exercise loading schemes on mechanical power output in work to rest ratio-equated and -nonequated conditions. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1308-1312, 2012-It is well known that most sports are characterized by the performance of ...
Davis Sean A - - 2012
A variety of physiological changes are experienced by astronauts during both short- and long-duration space missions. These include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, orthostatic hypotension, muscle atrophy, bone demineralization, increased cancer risk, and a compromised immune system. This review focuses on countermeasures used to moderate these changes, particularly exercise devices ...
Rothman Sarah M SM Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. - - 2012
Overweight sedentary individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some neurological disorders. Beneficial effects of dietary energy restriction (DER) and exercise on brain structural plasticity and behaviors have been demonstrated in animal models of aging and acute (stroke and trauma) and chronic (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) neurological ...
Moorcroft Lynda - - 2012
Vibrato rate and vibrato extent were acoustically assessed in 12 classically trained female singers before and after 25 minutes of vocal warm-up exercises. Vocal warm-up produced three notable changes in vibrato rate: (1) more regularity in the cyclic undulations comprising the vibrato rate of a note, (2) more stability in mean ...
Giphart J Erik - - 2012
Background: The pectineus muscle has been reported to function primarily as a hip flexor and secondarily as a hip internal rotator; the piriformis muscle has been reported to function as an abductor and external rotator of the hip. The recruitment and activations of these muscles during hip rehabilitation exercises have ...
Zavin Alexandra - - 2012
Background: While cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) assessment is generally regarded as an optimal means to assess functional capacity in heart failure (HF) patients, strength parameters are omitted. CPX indices collected in recovery may provide additional insight regarding function, including strength.Design and methods: We performed a cross-sectional controlled study. Systolic HF ...
Chtourou Hamdi - - 2012
This article focuses on physical performances after training at a specific time-of-day. To date, although the effect of time-of-day on aerobic performances appears to be equivocal, during anaerobic exercises, the effect of time-of-day has been well established with early morning nadirs and peak performances in the late afternoon. These diurnal ...
Dowdy Sharon - - 2012
Sixth graders are at a prime age to modify behaviors and beliefs regarding exercise, nutrition, body image, and smoking. Empower U was created to change knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding these topics. This pilot study utilized pre/post assessments of 58 sixth graders from a private middle school in the midsouth. ...
Raichlen David A - - 2012
Humans report a wide range of neurobiological rewards following moderate and intense aerobic activity, popularly referred to as the 'runner's high', which may function to encourage habitual aerobic exercise. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous neurotransmitters that appear to play a major role in generating these rewards by activating cannabinoid receptors in ...
McKenzie David J - - 2012
The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 ...
He S-B - - 2012
Physical activity is an effective component of depression management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise affects behavioral disorders remain unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanisms by which voluntary exercise ameliorates depression. Plasma cortisol levels and hippocampal monoamine neurotransmitters were measured. Chronic mild stress (CMS) was used to ...
Quintão Júnior Judson Fonseca - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Aerobic capacity is essential to physical performance, and low aerobic capacity is related to the triggering of various cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphology and contractility of isolated rat cardiomyocytes with low performance and standard performance for exercise. METHODS: Wistar rats with 10 weeks of age underwent a ...
Biedermann Sarah - - 2012
Voluntary exercise has tremendous effects on adult hippocampal plasticity and metabolism and thus sculpts the hippocampal structure of mammals. High-field (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) investigations at 9.4T of metabolic and structural changes can be performed non-invasively in the living rodent brain. Numerous molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating the effects of ...
Anand Ashima - - 2012
Juxta-pulmonary capillary (J or pulmonary C fiber) receptors are stimulated by an increase in pulmonary blood flow and give rise to respiratory acceleration and related sensations and inhibit exercise. However, the reverse, i.e., the effect of reducing pulmonary blood flow on their reflexes, is as yet not known. This was ...
Davenport M H - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Better physical fitness in later life is positively associated with cognitive functioning. Novel data suggest this association is mediated, in part, by increases in brain perfusion and the ability of cerebral blood vessels to respond to demand. This review presents evidence on the beneficial effects of exercise on cerebrovascular ...
Karapetian G K - - 2012
Caffeine has many diverse physiological effects including central nervous system stimulation. Ventilatory threshold and a recently described heart rate variability threshold both have a relationship with autonomic control that could be altered by caffeine consumption. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of caffeine on lactate, ventilatory, ...
Gwenael Layec - - 2012
To better understand the mechanisms underlying the pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) slow component during high-intensity exercise, we used 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS), gas exchange, surface electromyography (EMG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to examine the potential relationship between the slow components of VO2p and PCr, muscle recruitment and ...
Shepherd Sam O - - 2012
The lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) appears to colocalise with LDs in human skeletal muscle fibres, although the function of PLIN2 in the regulation of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) metabolism is currently unknown. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the presence of PLIN2 in skeletal muscle LDs helps to ...
Malm Christer - - 2012
Using proteomics combined with immunohistochemistry (IHC), we re-evaluated our previous hypothesis that voluntary eccentric exercise does not result in inflammation or necrosis while it does lead to muscular adaptation/remodeling through Z-band related proteins. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were taken from five control and five exercised subjects 48 h after ...
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