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Gilbert Jeffrey S JS Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA. - - 2012
An imbalance between proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) and antiangiogenic (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) factors plays an important role in hypertension associated with reduced uteroplacental perfusion (RUPP). Exercise has been shown to stimulate proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, in both the pregnant and nonpregnant state; thus, ...
Item Flurin - - 2012
We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically ...
Lammers Gerwen - - 2012
Physical inactivity and exercise training result in opposite adaptations of vascular structure. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these adaptations are not completely understood. Therefore, we used a unique study design to examine both vascular characteristics of the superficial femoral artery (using ultrasound) and gene expression levels (from a muscle biopsy) ...
Baek Hey-Sung - - 2013
This study assessed the association between the ratio of leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) to fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) in the response of children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) enrolled in a therapeutic trial with montelukast or inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate [FP]). Children aged 6 to 18 years with EIB were randomized ...
Genest Dominique S - - 2012
Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension and de novo proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world, and to date, the only means of treating the disease is by inducing delivery. Many studies have shown the benefits of exercise ...
Marshall Janice M JM School of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, College of Medical & Dental Sciences, The Medical School, Vincent Drive, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. - - 2012
This review considers the contributions to exercise hyperaemia of substances released into the interstitial fluid, with emphasis on whether they are endothelium dependent or O(2) dependent. The early phase of exercise hyperaemia is attributable to K(+) released from contracting muscle fibres and acting extraluminally on arterioles. Hyperpolarization of vascular smooth ...
Müller-Bühl U - - 2012
Eligibility of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) for exercise therapy is the most important requirement for predicting their training group adherence. In this prospective, exploratory study over a period of 1 year, a total of 462 PAD patients of an angiological outpatient routine care setting were consecutively recruited to ...
Schuster Andres - - 2012
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is recognized as a marker of pulmonary endothelial function. Oxidative stress is associated with systemic endothelial nitric oxide production, but its correlation with eNO in heart failure (HF) patients has not been described. Previous studies have reported increased eNO levels after exercise in symptomatic HF ...
Birk Gurpreet K - - 2012
Exercise training is associated with rapid changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which occur within days of training. Whilst long-term physical inactivity has potent effects on vascular structure, little is known about the immediate impact of inactivity on vascular function. Aim of this study was to measure vascular function before, during (day ...
Dawson Ellen A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: RADIAL ARTERY CATHETERIZATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENDOTHELIAL DENUDATION AND IMPAIRED VASODILATOR FUNCTION, WHILE POSTCATHETERIZATION EXERCISE TRAINING MAY ENHANCE ARTERY FUNCTION. THE IMPACT OF CATHETERIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT EXERCISE TRAINING ON LOW-FLOW MEDIATED VASOCONSTRICTION (L-FMC) HAS NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN STUDIED. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EXAMINE WHETHER RADIAL ARTERY ...
Hasegawa Makoto - - 2012
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition that classically causes dyspnea during physical activity. Destruction of alveoli and bronchostenosis are thought to lead to shortness of breath and result in decreased physical activity. In this study, we examined the influence of inhaled procaterol on exercise therapy for pulmonary ...
Hoier Birgitte - - 2012
The effect of acute intense intermittent exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise, on angiogenic factors and the effect of four weeks of intense intermittent training on capillary growth were examined in nine young healthy males, pre-conditioned by moderate intensity endurance training. The intense training consisted of 24 one-min cycling bouts ...
Park Jong Sun - - 2012
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and there is no effective pharmacological treatment for COPD-associated PH. We evaluated the effect of udenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, on the exercise capacity of patients with severe COPD. Patients with severe and very severe COPD ...
Roongsirisangrat Sujira - - 2012
Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is currently considered as the first line conservative management for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, it is difficult for some women to self-identify the contraction of the pelvic floor muscle after they were trained by verbal instruction. Various techniques including rectal balloon probe ...
Bulur Serkan - - 2012
Objectives: In clinical practice, autonomic functions are indirectly investigated with heart rate recovery (HRR) index measurements. Our aim was to evaluate the HRR index in patients with psoriasis, which is a systemic inflammatory disease. Study design: The study population included 39 psoriasis patients (18 female, mean age 48±15 years) and ...
Barroso Renato - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Barroso, R, Tricoli, V, dos Santos Gil, S, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Roschel, H. Maximal strength, number of repetitions, and total volume are differently affected by static-, ballistic-, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. J Strength Cond Res 26(9): 2432-2437, 2012-Stretching exercises have been traditionally incorporated into warm-up routines before training ...
Mandal P P Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK. - - 2012
The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in addition to regular chest physiotherapy in non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Thirty patients with clinically significant bronchiectasis and limited exercise tolerance were randomized into either the control group receiving chest physiotherapy (8 weeks) or into the intervention ...
Wolff Gretchen G Department of Physiology, Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, - - 2012
It has been well established in mammals that circadian behavior as well as the molecular clockwork can be synchronized to the light-dark cycle via the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). In addition to light, it has been demonstrated that nonphotic time cues, such as restricting the time of food ...
Sujkowski Alyson - - 2012
Nutrient allocation and usage plays an important part in regulating the onset and progression of age-related functional declines. Here, we describe a heterozygous mutation in Drosophila (dFatp) that alters nutrient distribution and multiple aspects of physiology. dFatp mutants have increased lifespan and stress resistance, altered feeding behavior and fat storage, ...
Goebel Björn - - 2012
Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of normobaric hypoxia on myocardial function in healthy humans. Fourteen subjects underwent two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) examination during normoxia and in a normobaric hypoxia chamber. Examinations were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise test. The following parameters were quantified ...
Donath Lars - - 2012
Impaired balance and gait performance increase fall-risk in seniors. Acute effects of different exercise bouts on gait and balance were not yet addressed. Therefore, 19 healthy seniors (10 women, 9 men, age: 64.6 ± 3.2 years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive treadmill testing, participants randomly completed a 2-km treadmill walking test (76 ± 8 % ...
Ho Suleen S - - 2012
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012; 14:848-854. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The authors investigated the effects of moderate-intensity resistance, aerobic, or combined exercise on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals compared with no exercise. Participants were randomized to 4 groups: control, aerobic, resistance, and combination. Assessments were ...
Childers Julie W - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a motivational interviewing (MI) curriculum is effective in teaching internal medicine residents core MI skills and the empathic, nonjudgmental MI style. METHODS: Nineteen third-year residents met for 12h with a faculty instructor. Teaching methods included lecture, written exercises, a simulated patient exercise, and discussion of residents' ...
Pang Xu - - 2013
To investigate the effects of temperature and exercise training on swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), we measured the following: (1) the resting oxygen consumption rate (MO(2rest)), critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and active oxygen consumption rate (MO(2active)) of fish at acclimation temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ...
Reed Justy - - 2012
Grit and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) Conscientiousness dimension were examined with respect to the transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change for exercise behavior. Participants (N = 1171) completed an online survey containing exercise-related TTM staging questions, the Short Grit Scale and BFI Conscientiousness. Ordinal regression analyses showed that grit ...
Waldron Mark - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify changes in heart rate (HR) and movement speeds in interchanged and whole match players during 35 elite rugby league performances. METHODS: Performances were separated in to whole match, interchange bout 1 and interchange bout 2 and further subdivided in to relative match quartiles. Mean ...
Noren Shawn R - - 2012
A hallmark of the dive response, bradycardia, promotes the conservation of onboard oxygen stores and enables marine mammals to submerge for prolonged periods. A paradox exists when marine mammals are foraging underwater because activity should promote an elevation in heart rate (f(H)) to support increased metabolic demands. To assess the ...
Venckunas Tomas - - 2012
Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) is an integral part of the Z line of the sarcomere. The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism determines the presence or absence of functional ACTN3, which may influence the extent of exercise-induced muscle damage. This study aimed to compare the impact of, and recovery from, muscle-damaging eccentric exercise on ...
Hedayatpour N - - 2012
Contracting the knee flexor muscles immediately before a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension increases the maximal force that the extensor muscles can exert. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon can be impaired by muscle fiber damage following eccentric exercise [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)]. This study investigates the ...
Snieckus Audrius - - 2012
Here, we test the hypothesis that continuous concentric exercise training renders skeletal muscles more susceptible to damage in response to eccentric exercise. Elite road cyclists (CYC; n = 10, training experience 8.1 ± 2.0 years, age 22.9 ± 3.7 years), long-distance runners (LDR; n = 10, 9.9 ± 2.3 years, 24.4 ± 2.5 years), and healthy untrained (UT) men (n = 10; 22.4 ± 1.7 years) performed 100 submaximal eccentric contractions ...
Miyazaki Tsuyoshi - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the increased laxity of the knee during daily physical activities such as stair climbing is associated with progression of knee joint OA. METHODS: During 2001-2003, 136 patients with primary bilateral medial compartment knee joint OA managed at our Orthopaedic Unit were enrolled in this prospective study. ...
Pereira Ana - - 2012
Genetic variation of the human ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, muscle power performance (counter-movement jump), and functional capacity (sit-to-stand test) was examined in older Caucasian women [n = 139; mean age 65.5 (8.2) years; ...
Jacobs Robert A - - 2012
Hypoxia-stimulated erythropoiesis, such as that observed when red blood cell volume (RCV) increases in response to high-altitude exposure, is well understood while the physiological importance is not. Maximal exercise tests are often performed in hypoxic conditions following some form of RCV manipulation in an attempt to elucidate oxygen transport limitations ...
Illi Sabine K - - 2012
Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after ...
Sundstrup Emil - - 2012
Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed to induce high level of muscle activation. To compare muscle activation ...
Morris Michael J MJ Department of Psychology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1407, - - 2012
Physical exercise has mood-enhancing and antidepressant properties although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. The present experiment investigated the effects of prolonged access to a running wheel on electrical self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LHSS), a measure of hedonic state, in rats. Rats with continuous voluntary access to ...
Keir Daniel A - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Mechanical efficiency (ME) describes the ratio between mechanical (PMECH) and metabolic (PMET) power. The purpose of the study was to include an estimation of anaerobic energy expenditure (AnE) into the quantification of the PMET using the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) and to examine its effect on the value of ...
Gojanovic Boris - - 2012
Abstract Whole-body vibration training improves strength and can increase maximal oxygen consumption ([Vdot]O(2max)). No study has compared the metabolic demand of synchronous and side-alternating whole-body vibration. We measured [Vdot]O(2) and heart rate during a typical synchronous or side-alternating whole-body vibration session in 10 young female sedentary participants. The 20-min session ...
Pitman Bradley M - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to use paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of eccentric exercise on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) after damage to elbow flexor muscles. Nine young (22.5 ± 0.6 yr; mean ± SD) male subjects performed maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexor ...
Beckitt T A - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that the improvement following supervised exercise for claudication results from skeletal muscle adaptation. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) determines muscle fibre type and therefore efficiency. Immunohistochemical analysis has failed to take account of hybrid MHC expression within myofibres. This study sought evidence of differential MHC protein ...
Chung Eunhee - - 2012
Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was ...
Moon Hyo Youl - - 2012
Voluntary exercise is known to have an antidepressant effect. However, the underlying mechanism for this antidepressant action of exercise remains unclear, and little progress has been made in identifying genes that are directly involved. We have identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by analyzing existing mRNA microarray data and confirmed ...
Dempsey Jerome A - - 2012
The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory ...
Yang Kai-Chien - - 2012
In contrast with pathological hypertrophy, exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy is not associated with electrical abnormalities or increased arrhythmia risk. Recent studies have shown that increased cardiac-specific expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-α (PI3Kα), the key mediator of physiological hypertrophy, results in transcriptional upregulation of ion channel subunits in parallel with the increase in myocyte ...
Grünbaum Thomas - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Through developmental and evolutionary time, organisms respond variably to their environment not only in terms of size and shape but also in term of timing. Developmental plasticity can potentially act on various aspects of the timing of developmental events (i.e., appearance, cessation, duration, sequence). In this study, we address ...
Hopkinson Nicholas S NS NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit at Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College London, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. - - 2013
The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with ...
Bryanton Megan A - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Resistance training is used to develop muscular strength and hypertrophy. Large muscle forces, in relation to the muscle's maximum force generating ability, are required to elicit these adaptations. Previous biomechanical analyses of multi-joint resistance exercises provide estimates of muscle force but not relative muscular effort (RME). The purpose of ...
Agarwal Vanjul - - 2012
PURPOSE:: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease with various outcomes of importance, for example, exercise capacity and dyspnea. These variables may follow different trajectories over time. It is established that physical activity decreases in COPD, although its process over time has not been evaluated. Accordingly, we compared ...
Ochiai Masaru - - 2012
Up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is closely related to improved insulin resistance. We investigated whether the SCD indices in tissues were influenced by a single-endurance exercise and low content of dietary medium-chain fatty acid (FA). Wistar rats were fed a long-chain (S) or medium- and long-chain FA (M) diet for ...
Bishop David J - - 2012
There is a reversible decline in the force production by muscles when contracting at or near their maximum capacity. The task dependent nature of fatigue means that the mechanisms of fatigue may differ between different types of contractions. This paper examines how fatigue manifests during whole-body, intermittent-sprint exercise, and discusses ...
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