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Results 401 - 450 of 1349
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Al-Azmi Darwish - - 2006
The feasibility of using small quantities of activated charcoal and a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) well-type detector was investigated for indoor radon measurements. Vials, filled with 10 g of charcoal, were exposed for different indoor radon concentration levels typical of Kuwait dwellings. After exposure, the vials were sealed ...
Vargas A - - 2006
The first Spanish intercomparison exercise for continuous radon monitors was carried out with the participation of nine monitoring systems from eight laboratories. The exposures were carried out in the radon and thoron chambers at the Institute of Energy Techniques (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), which is considered ...
Streffer Christian - - 2006
The congenital malformation gastroschisis has a genetic disposition in the inbred mouse strain HLG/Zte. It is increased after preconceptional irradiation of males or females. Radiation exposures during the meiotic stages are most efficient. This malformation can also be induced by ionising radiation when the exposure takes place during the preimplantation ...
Mounier-Geyssant Estelle - - 2006
Few studies have investigated exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne irritants. This study describes exposure levels of apprentices to chemical products used in hairdressing salons in relation with their activity. Following a two stages study design, a group of 300 students completed a questionnaire on their work activities and environment. ...
Frampton Mark W - - 2006
Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. ...
Long Manhai - - 2006
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides can cause a series of adverse effects on e.g. reproduction in animals and humans, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of the present study was to compare the integrated serum level ...
Valacchi G - - 2005
The aim of this brief review is to summarize the recent literature on the effect of ozone (O3) on cutaneous tissues. Recently it has been reported that a chronic contact with O3 can be deleterious for the skin. Our group and others have shown a progressive depletion of antioxidant content ...
Reeser Wade H - - 2005
To investigate whether intersubject variations in the dose of inhaled ozone (O(3)) cause corresponding variations in the physiological response, 28 female and 32 male nonsmokers participated in a 1-h continuous inhalation of clean air or 0.25 ppm O(3) while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a constant ventilation rate of ...
Coast J Richard JR Departments of Exercise Science ; Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University , Flagstaff, AZ, - - 2005
Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such ...
Väänänen Virpi - - 2006
Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, ...
Frati L - - 2006
The results of a survey aimed at investigating whether NO2 and NH3 emitted by road traffic can influence lichen diversity, lichen vitality and the accumulation of nitrogen in lichen thalli are reported. For this purpose, distance from a highway in a rural environment of central Italy was regarded as the ...
Clark J M - - 2006
Optimization of oxygen tolerance extension by intermittent exposure was studied in groups of 20 rats exposed to systematically varied patterns of alternating oxygen and normoxic breathing periods at 4.0, 2.0, and 1.5 ATA. Oxygen periods of 20, 60, and 120 min were alternated with normoxic intervals that provided oxygen-to-normoxia ratios ...
Dikou Angela - - 2006
Six reef sites were chosen along the west coasts of Singapore's southern islands, to: (1) quantitatively assess and compare coral community composition and structure, and recruitment rates, (2) assess the relationship between the aforementioned patterns and the environmental conditions, and (3) provide insights on potential processes that incorporate history at ...
Zimmer Holger - - 2006
The aim of the study was to develop and to validate a suitable analytical method in order to assess the internal exposure of persons to commercial products of hydrocarbon solvent mixtures (HSM). Twenty healthy volunteers were exposed to vapours of five commercial HSM for 8h at 200-1,000 mg/m(3) air. Aromatic-rich, ...
Leung Michael K H - - 2005
The extensive use of multiple organic solvents in offset lithographic printing causing high emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indeed poses a serious risk to printing workers' health. In this study, indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments were carried out in seven printing plants and the main objectives were to understand ...
Gerard Claudia - - 2005
In the context of increasing freshwater pollution, the impact on life-traits (survival, growth and fecundity) and locomotion of Potamopyrgus antipodarum of a 5-week field-concentration exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the triazine herbicide, atrazine was studied. Whatever the age of exposed snails (juveniles, subadults, adults), microcystin-LR induced a decrease ...
Lorimier C - - 2005
Due to their bad effects on human health, removing Volatile Organic Compounds from indoor air has become an issue of major interest. In this study, the potential use of six commercial activated carbon felts and cloths for indoor toluene removal was investigated. Both batch and dynamic adsorption studies were performed, ...
Taylor Adekemi B - - 2006
The objectives of this study were to quantify pulmonary responses to ozone (O3) exposure by parameters computed from the carbon dioxide expirogram and to compare these responses to decrements in forced expired spirometry. Anatomical dead space (VD) was determined from the pure dead space and transition regions of the expirogram. ...
Wilson J Gaines - - 2006
Epidemiological studies relating air pollution to health effects often utilise one or few central monitoring sites for estimating wider population exposures to outdoor particulate air pollution. These studies often assume that highly correlated particulate concentrations between intraurban sites equate to a uniform concentration field. Several recent studies have questioned the ...
Hemvani Nanda - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of He-Ne and nitrogen lasers on the apoptosis of PMN in normal versus burn patients. BACKGROUND DATA: Nitrogen and He-Ne laser exposure increases the apoptotic death rate for human macrophages. Inflammation is a major consequence of thermal injury, and ...
Jang An-Soo - - 2005
Allergic airway diseases are related to exposure to atmospheric pollutants, which have been suggested to be one factor in the increasing prevalence of asthma. Little is known about the effect of ozone and diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) on the development or aggravation of asthma. We have used a mouse asthma ...
Bussotti Filippo - - 2006
This paper aims to identify the problems regarding the evaluation of ozone (and ozone-like) symptoms, by examining the results of the 4th UN/ECE ICP-Forests Intercalibration Course for the assessment of ozone-induced visible symptoms. Trees, shrubs and herbaceous species were evaluated in a tree nursery, at Lattecaldo (Switzerland) and under open ...
del Carmen Alvarez María - - 2005
Red drum larvae (Sciaenops ocellatus) were exposed to environmentally realistic and sublethal levels of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamin-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine) to evaluate its effects on ecologically critical traits: growth, behavior, survival potential, and resting respiration rate. Settlement size larvae (7 mm total length) were given an acute exposure of atrazine at 0, ...
Magnant Julie - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a potential association between occupational risk factors and severity markers of systemic sclerosis (SSc) defined by diffuse cutaneous extent, pulmonary involvement, and immunologic profile, i.e., presence of antitopoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I). METHODS: Occupational exposures were assessed in 105 patients with SSc from 1998 to 2002. Exposures ...
Berteretche M-V - - 2005
Variations in amplitude of responses of the chorda tympani to repeated application of various novel tastants were measured in familiarized and control groups of adult hamsters. Three groups of 10 hamsters were pre-exposed to 5 mM dulcin, 50 mM potassium L-glutamate (KGlu) or 1 mM 5'guanosine monophosphate (5'GMP). In the ...
Morrison Matthew A - - 2005
Particulate matter in urban rivers transports a significant fraction of pollutants, changes rapidly during storm events, and is difficult to characterize. In this study, the physical speciation of trace metals and organic C in an urban river and upstream headwaters site in Torrington, CT, were measured during a winter rain-on-snow ...
Skogstad M - - 2005
AIMS: To study possible effects of endotoxin exposure among bacterial single cell protein workers on pulmonary function, blood parameters, and lachrymal fluid before and after a work shift. METHODS: The study included 23 men and five women who were examined at the start and at the end of a work ...
Yang Fumo - - 2005
One-week integrated fine particulate matter (i.e., particles <2.5 microm in diameter; PM2.5) samples were collected continuously with a low-flow rate sampler at a downtown site (Chegongzhuang) and a residential site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing between July 1999 and June 2000. The annual average concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental ...
Bini Giada - - 2006
Acute exposure to waterborne copper is followed by a reduction in heart rate in gastropod limpets. In order to understand the mechanism of this effect, exposure to copper (0.25 or 0.5 mg l(-1); for 3 and 6 h) was combined with an injection of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 20 microl, 0.5 or ...
Watson Karen - - 2005
CS spray (2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile 5% w/v in methyl isobutyl ketone) has been used by the police force in the UK as an incapacitant for nearly a decade. It causes a number of well-recognized cutaneous reactions, which are generally regarded as short-lived. These include skin burning, erythema and blistering. However, a ...
Mosleh Yahia Y - - 2005
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered to be a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction ...
Mehta A J - - 2005
This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed ...
Palen Wendy J - - 2005
Increasing ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) has recently captured the attention of ecologists as a key environmental stressor. Certain species may be particularly vulnerable as a result of either high natural exposure to UV-B or limited physiological capacity to withstand it. UV-B sensitivity has been examined at the cellular and individual level ...
Chew S F - - 2005
Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. ...
Lopes Isabel - - 2005
The development of resistance to toxicants has been reported for a wide range of organisms. Two questions were addressed in the present study: Are genetically determined resistance responses at lethal levels (min to h) of copper associated with responses at extreme lethal (h to d) and sublethal levels and does ...
Kimura Kimiko - - 2005
We examined the effect of lactational exposure to tributyltin on innate immunodefenses in the F1 generation using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 15, or 50 microg/ml of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) from parturition to weaning. At weaning time, offspring were inoculated ...
Routledge H C - - 2006
To measure the inflammatory and autonomic responses of healthy humans and patients with coronary artery disease to controlled concentrations of two specific components of vehicle derived air pollution, carbon particles and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Placebo controlled, double blind, random order human challenge study examining the effects of carbon particles (50 ...
Ip Y K - - 2005
The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus lives in freshwater, is an obligatory air breather, and can survive on land during drought. The objective of this study was to elucidate how C. gariepinus defends against ammonia toxicity when exposed to terrestrial conditions. During 4 d of aerial exposure, there was no ...
Fishwick David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Metal working fluids (MWF) constitute a significant respiratory hazard, although symptoms experienced by workers are often poorly investigated and attributed. AIMS: A single possible case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) led to a formal workplace investigation. It was clear that other exposed workers were affected. The aim of this ...
Duydu Yalçin - - 2005
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency and high-frequency cells (HFCs) were analyzed in 50 storage battery plant workers with mean blood lead level (BLL) of 40.14 +/- 9.99 microg/dL. The mean BLL in the control group (n=30) was 9.77 +/-1.67 microg/dL. This difference in mean BLLs between control and exposed group ...
Reynaldi Sebastián - - 2005
This study compares lethal and sublethal responses of Daphnia magna Straus exposed to fenvalerate continuously (21 d) and as a pulse (24 h). Survival was reduced more severely in the continuous- than in the pulse-exposure regime. Complete mortality occurred at 1 microg/L for continuous exposure and at 3.2 microg/L for ...
Oakes Ken D - - 2005
This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus ...
Schiffman Susan S - - 2005
Aerial emissions from a swine house at North Carolina State University's field laboratory were diluted to a level that could occur at varying distances downwind from a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) both within and beyond the property line, and these emissions were delivered to an environmental exposure chamber. The ...
Backer Lorraine C LC National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, MS F-46, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA. - - 2005
Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to ...
Lockman P R PR Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 So. Coulter Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106-1712, USA. - - 2005
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) nicotine transfer has been well documented in view of the fact that this alkaloid is a cerebral blood flow marker. However, limited data are available that describe BBB penetration of the major tobacco alkaloids after chronic nicotine exposure. This question needs to be addressed, given long-term nicotine ...
Violante N - - 2005
Airborne particulate matter was collected and biomonitoring of workers was performed by sampling blood, urine and hair of 84 exposed subjects, 17 occasionally exposed employees, 21 controls from administrative offices and 25 unexposed people (external controls). Determination of Pd was performed using Quadrupole and High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass ...
Maciejczyk Polina - - 2005
We modified, assembled, tested, and validated the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) developed by Sioutas et al. (1999) for use in a subchronic experiment that involved exposure of mice in vivo and of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Since the labor-intensive nose-only exposure regimen ...
Gaber Mohamed H - - 2005
Steadily growing use of electromagnetic fields, especially in conjunction with wireless communication systems, has led to increasing public concern about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiation. However, besides the well-known thermal effect of electromagnetic fields on biological tissue, there is no clear evidence of further athermal interaction mechanisms with biological ...
Faherty Ciaran J - - 2005
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) affects 2% of adults over 50 years of age. PD patients demonstrate a progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). One model that recapitulates the pathology of PD is the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Here we show that exposure to an ...
Kaspari Michael - - 2005
Body mass shapes processes from cell metabolism to community dynamics. Little is known, however, about how the average body mass of individuals varies among ecological communities. Ants alter colony mass by independently changing worker mass and/or worker number. In a survey of 49 ecosystems from tundra to tropical rainforest, average ...
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