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Results 351 - 400 of 1349
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Tausz Michael - - 2007
The level II approach of the critical loads concept adopted by the UNECE aims at a flux based evaluation and takes into account environmental factors governing stomatal conductance. These factors will probably be affected by global change. The flux concept predicts that a decrease in stomatal conductance would protect trees ...
Lotriet C J - - 2007
Ozone is a potent oxidizing agent with a variety of potential uses, including its antimicrobial and deodorising properties. The recent increased use of ozone led to questions regarding its safety in humans. This study specifically focussed on the in vitro effect of ozone on isolated guinea pig tracheal tissue as ...
Chiu Weihsueh A - - 2007
Trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (TETRA) are solvents that have been widely used in a variety of industries, and both are widespread environmental contaminants. In order to provide a better basis for understanding their toxicokinetics at environmental exposures, seven human volunteers were exposed by inhalation to 1 ppm of TRI or ...
Morrison Douglas - - 2006
The aim of the study was to investigate possible mechanisms of epithelial injury in normal subjects exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ozone. Fifteen healthy non-smoking subjects (M:F 12:3) were studied. Five of the 15 subjects were exposed to filtered air, six were exposed to ozone 100 parts per billion ...
Kennedy Christopher J - - 2006
The swimming performance and recovery from exercise were determined in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of North Slope crude oil for more than eight weeks. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations (mean +/- standard error) at the beginning of exposures were as follows: control, ...
Tierney Keith B - - 2006
For anadromous salmonids, olfaction is a critical sense, enabling return migration. In recent years, several pesticides have been identified that interfere with salmonid olfaction at concentrations in the microg/L range; thus, they may pose a risk to species longevity. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of five ...
Tauck S A - - 2006
The objective of this experiment was to determine if continuous exposure to bull urine alters resumption of ovarian cycling activity of primiparous, suckled beef cows. We tested the hypotheses that interval from urine exposure to resumption of luteal activity and proportions of cows that resume luteal activity by the end ...
Repace James - - 2006
We used physical and pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate personal exposures to respirable particle (RSP) and carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PPAH) air pollution from second-hand smoke (SHS) from the increase in urinary cotinine of eight patrons of three bars in Bismarck, North Dakota. We compared SHS-RSP levels to the U.S. ...
Monleau Marjorie - - 2006
In nuclear fuel cycle facilities, workers may inhale airborne uranium compounds that lead to internal contamination, with various exposure scenarios depending on the workplace. These exposures can be chronic, repeated, or acute, and can involve many different compounds. The effect of uranium after multiple scenarios of exposure is unknown. The ...
Armengol Gemma - - 2006
Dengue is a growing public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. At present, the only method of controlling or preventing the disease is to eliminate its vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In the current study, an experimental larvicide tablet formulation XL-47 based on Bacillus thuringiensis serovar ...
Persson Ola - - 2006
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents ...
Turnovska Tanya H - - 2007
AIM: The aim of the present study was to analyze the respiratory and cardiovascular functions among smoking and nonsmoking girls attending two schools situated in regions with different levels of air pollution. The characteristic of air pollution is based on the data gathered by stations 1 and 2 belonging to ...
Vermeulen Roel - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to use activated carbon cloth (ACC) patches to study the probability and extent of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in a shoe factory. METHODS: Inhalation and dermal exposure loading were measured simultaneously in 70 subjects on multiple days resulting in 113 observations. ...
Schneider Jay S - - 2006
Acute exposure to manganese is associated with complex behavioral/psychiatric signs that may include Parkinsonian motor features. However, little is known about the behavioral consequences of chronic manganese exposures. In this study, cynomolgus macaque monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate (10-15 mg/kg/week) over an exposure period lasting 272+/-17 days. Prior to ...
Dosman J A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that exposure in intense exposure in swine barn facilities is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and reduction in pulmonary functions. This study investigated if systemic response could be predicted by FEV(1) response following swine barn exposure. METHODS: Naïve males were tested at baseline, low and ...
Nadeau Véronique - - 2006
Physical exertion (work load) has been recognized as one of several factors that can influence the kinetics of xenobiotics within the human body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of physical exertion on two exposure indicators of toluene (TOL) in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an ...
Jiao Zhe - - 2006
Cardiac sensitization is the term used for malignant ventricular arrhythmias associated with exposure to inhaled halocarbons in the presence of catecholamines. We investigated the electrophysiological changes associated with cardiomyocyte exposure to epinephrine and a halocarbon known to be associated with cardiac sensitization (halon 1301, CF3Br). Cardiomyocytes (CMs) were isolated from ...
Fiala Zdenek - - 2006
Goeckerman regimen (GR) of psoriasis includes daily dermal application of crude coal tar (CCT) and dermal exposure to UV-A and UV-B radiation. Observed group consisted of 23 patients with psoriasis treated by GR. Therapeutic ointment contained 5% of CCT. The level of psoriasis area and severity index was significantly decreased ...
Ferretti M - - 2007
Ozone (O3) exposure at Italian background sites exceeds UN/ECE concentration-based critical levels (CLe(c)), if expressed in terms of AOT40. Yet the occurrence of adverse effects of O3 on forests and crops is controversial. Possible reasons include (i) ability of response indicators to provide an unbiased estimate of O3 effects, (ii) ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2006
In spite of epidemiological evidence concerning vehicular air pollution and adverse respiratory/cardiovascular health, many athletic fields and school playgrounds are adjacent to high traffic roadways and could present long-term health risks for exercising children and young adults. Particulate matter (PM(1),0.02-1.0 microm diameter) number counts were taken serially at four elementary ...
Miyakawa Masamitsu - - 2006
Effects of noise on the secretion of salivary chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a substitute measure of catecholamines, were investigated in a laboratory experiment. This study included 20 male subjects with normal hearing; their ages ranged from 21 to 24 years. Prior to the experiment, the subjects ...
Atli Emel - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Larvae of D. melanogaster were exposed to 10 GHz EMF continuously (3 h, 4 h and 5 h) and discontinuously (3 h exposure + 30 min interval + 3 h ...
Kirby M F - - 2006
This study was conducted as an initial investigation of 'differential response' in one of the main sentinel organisms used for monitoring programmes in United Kingdom estuaries, the flounder Platichthys flesus. It has been hypothesised that monitoring using species with a wide geographical spread and limited migration, such as flounder, might ...
Adams William C - - 2006
Hazucha et al. (1992) compared pulmonary function responses during 8-h square-wave exposures to FA and to 0.12 ppm O3, as well as to an acute triangular exposure to a mean O3 concentration of 0.12 ppm. With 30 min of moderate exercise each hour during 8 h of continuous exposure, significantly ...
Sánchez-Bayo Francisco - - 2006
The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no ...
Zha Jinmiao - - 2006
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is widely used to control termites and protect wood from fungal-rot and wood-boring insects, and is often detected in the aquatic environment. Few studies have evaluated PCP as an environmental endocrine disruptor. In the present work, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was exposed to PCP for 28 days (F0 ...
O'Gara Bruce A - - 2006
The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24 h LC(50) for copper exposure, with 100 microM Trolox elevating the ...
Sundblad Britt-Marie - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the protective effect of two respiratory protection devices during exposure in a pig confinement building. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy persons were exposed for 3 hours in the building, 12 without any protection, 12 with a particle-filter mask, and 12 with a mask filtering both particles and gases. ...
Antonini James M - - 2006
Respiratory effects observed in welders have included lung function changes, metal fume fever, bronchitis, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the causality and possible underlying mechanisms associated with the potential toxic effects of welding fume inhalation. The objective of the present ...
Shimizu Michiru - - 2006
We tested the hypothesis that sapling growth following a sudden increase in solar irradiance is related to recovery from photoinhibition and the balance between rate of production of new leaves and rate of abscision of old leaves. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative growth rate (RGR) of stem basal ...
Swanson John - - 2006
Comparatively high exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields produce established biological effects that are explained by accepted mechanisms and that form the basis of exposure guidelines. Lower exposures to magnetic fields (< 1 microT average in the home) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" on the basis of epidemiological studies ...
Kuhl Adam J - - 2006
In fish, exposure to estrogen or estrogen-mimicking chemicals (xenoestrogens) during a critical period of development can irreversibly invert sex differentiation. In medaka, a male-to-female reversal upon exposure to a xenoestrogen is accompanied by an increase in brain aromatase expression and activity. However, whether this increase is the direct cause of ...
Jacquot L - - 2006
Exposure to pollutant or toxic substances is known to induce adverse health effects but few studies have been devoted to study the impact on olfactory functioning although neuroreceptors in the nasal cavity are directly in contact with volatile molecules. Thus, this work was designed to evaluate in mice the potential ...
Dalvie Mohamed A - - 2006
A cluster of Guillaine-Barre syndrome cases in the Vaalharts region, South Africa prompted an investigation of the impact of aerial organophosphate spraying on cholinesterase levels of residents in the region. A prospective study of cholinesterase levels among residents and workers in the area and a control area was performed. Standardized ...
Ho Jeffrey D - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The TASER is a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) that has been used on people in custody. Individuals occasionally die unexpectedly while in custody, proximal to the application of a CEW. In this study, the authors sought to examine the effects of CEW application in resting adult volunteers to determine ...
Jones K - - 2006
This paper presents data from both a human volunteer study looking at exposure to 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) and an occupational hygiene study of a printing firm using screen wash containing technical grade TMB. The biomarkers measured were TMB in blood and breath, and urinary dimethylbenzoic acids (DMBAs). The volunteer (N = ...
Cardinale Marco - - 2006
Vibration transmitted to the whole body or part of it has been extensively studied in relation to the risks to the health and safety of workers. These studies have highlighted the particular danger of lower-back morbidity and spinal trauma arising after prolonged exposure to vibration. However, short-term exposure to whole-body ...
Torres-Jardón Ricardo - - 2006
Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), nitric acid (HNO3), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured during September 2003 at an urban site of Cincinnati, OH. The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate whether O3 formation in this population exposure-type site is NOx, ...
Hulet Stanley W - - 2006
The current studies estimated effective (miosis) concentrations of the nerve agents' sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) as a function of exposure duration in the Gottingen minipig and determined dependency of the median effective dosage (ECT50) over time. Male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of vapor GB ...
Flouris A D - - 2006
The present study investigated the specific atmospheric conditions expected in Athens during the summer of 2004 in relation to the performance of elite athletes. Atmospheric pollution and weather data for the period April 16th to September 30th covering the entire greater Athens area and collected from 1984 to 2003 were ...
Yuasa Kaoru - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field (pulsed EMF) emitted by a mobile phone for 30 min has short-term effects on human somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). METHODS: We studied somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in 12 normal volunteers before and after exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a ...
Ward Richard J S - - 2006
Little is known of the effects of aluminium (Al) on invertebrate immunity despite the ubiquitous nature of the metal and its toxicity to aquatic organisms. Here we examine the effect of Al at neutral pH on the immune system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifasticus leniusculus. Heat-killed bacteria were injected at ...
Pickrell J A - - 2006
In examining traditional dose-response and hormesis, we have considered the case examples of pulmonary hyperplasia following inhalation of carbon black and pulmonary hyperplasia after methyleneindolenine (3MEIN) exposures, development of irreversible pulmonary fibrosis, effect of continuous exercise and low-level lead exposures, and colorectal cancer. Adaptation can be used to estimate conventional ...
Dubé Monique G - - 2006
Mining of the world's second-largest nickel deposits in the area of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal saturation of some catchments. We conducted artificial stream studies in the years 2001 and 2002 to assess the effects of treated metal mine effluents (MMEs) from three different mining operations discharging ...
Ketpadung Ratsamee - - 2006
Weight specific oxygen consumption and heart rates were investigated in blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus to indicate the stress in response to increasing salinities (50, 75, 100 and 125%SW) and increasing copper concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 ppm copper) at temperature 25 degrees C. Oxygen consumption (micromol.g(-1).h(-1) was ...
Campen Matthew J - - 2006
Fresh vehicular emissions potentially represent a ubiquitous environmental concern for cardiovascular health. We compared electrocardiographic effects of fresh gasoline engine emissions with resuspended paved road dust in a mouse model of coronary insufficiency. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice on a high fat diet were exposed by whole-body inhalation to either gasoline ...
Pérez-Cadahía Beatriz - - 2006
Petroleum is one of the main energy sources worldwide. Its transport is performed by big tankers following some established marine routes. In the last 50 years a total amount of 37 oil tankers have given rise to great spills in different parts of the world, Prestige being the last one. ...
Antony Martin M - - 2006
Exposure to panic symptoms (interoceptive exposure) is often included as part of treatment for panic disorder (PD), although little is known about the relative effects of particular symptom induction exercises. This study describes responses of individuals with PD and nonclinical controls to 13 standard symptom induction exercises and 3 control ...
Florvaag E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A previous study showed a relation between pholcodine (PHO) consumption, prevalence of IgE-sensitization to PHO, morphine (MOR) and suxamethonium (SUX) and anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effect on IgE production, in IgE-sensitized and nonsensitized individuals, of exposure to ...
Lantow M - - 2006
The goal of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic-field (EMF) exposure at 1800 MHz causes production of free radicals and/or expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP70) in human immune-relevant cell systems. Human Mono Mac 6 and K562 cells were used to examine free radical release after exposure to ...
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