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Results 351 - 400 of 1374
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Noll J D - - 2007
Elemental carbon (EC) is currently used as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground mines since it can be accurately measured at low concentrations and diesels are the only source of submicrometer EC in underground mines. A disadvantage of using EC as a surrogate for DPM is that ...
Hammond Davyda - - 2007
Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) ...
Longnecker Matthew P - - 2007
The insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) is still used for disease control in some areas, resulting in high levels of human exposure. The main degradation product of DDT is 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), an antiandrogen. In animal experiments, in utero exposure to DDE decreases anogenital distance in male offspring. In these models, anogenital distance ...
Nielsen Line Winkel - - 2007
Eelgrass beds are important habitats for many organisms, but there has been a decline in the area covered by eelgrass during the last decades due to increased eutrophication resulting in increased shading from phytoplankton. The use of herbicides in terrestrial agriculture has also increased over the last century, and while ...
Martins Eduardo Monteiro - - 2007
A comprehensive monitoring campaign to assess aldehydes and BTEX concentrations was performed during 12 months, in the Tijuca district (Rio de Janeiro), an area with commercial activities and a high flux of vehicles. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 151 and 30 ppb, respectively. The high formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio ...
Müller-Schweinitzer Else - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved human blood vessels are important tools in reconstructive surgery. However, patency of frozen/thawed conduits depends largely on the freezing/thawing procedures employed. METHODS: Changes in tone were recorded on rings from human saphenous vein (SV) and used to quantify the degree of cryoinjury after different periods of exposure at ...
Campbell Kathleen C M - - 2007
A number of otoprotective agents are currently being investigated. Various types of agents have been found in animal studies to protect against hearing loss induced by cisplatin, carboplatin, aminoglycosides, or noise exposure. For over a decade we have been investigating D-methionine (D-met) as an otoprotective agent. Studies in our laboratory ...
Robinson Craig D - - 2007
The effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) on mortality, growth rates, sexual maturation, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression and reproductive success were investigated during an 8-month, water-borne exposure of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Indicators of oestrogenic exposure were investigated as predictors of population-level reproductive success. E2 exposure concentrations ...
Pain Sandrine - - 2007
The biological defence mechanism called MXR or MXD for multixenobiotic resistance or defence protects cells against the entry and the accumulation of xenobiotics. As the defence is modulated by man made chemicals, MXR is used as a biomarker of organisms' exposure to environmental contamination. However, to reliably assess and evidence ...
Cakmak Sabit - - 2007
The estimated mortality rate associated with ambient air pollution based on general population studies may not be representative of the effects on certain subgroups. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of relatively high concentrations of air pollution on mortality in a general population sample and ...
Burgess Jefferey L - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Although exposure to diesel exhaust has been linked with adverse health effects, little is known about the acute effects of exposure in the underground workplace. METHODS: Cross-shift spirometry and sputum induction were completed on twelve subjects associated with comminuted rock removal (mucking) operations in an underground copper mine using ...
Frampton Mark W - - 2007
Inhalation of ambient particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies play an important role in elucidating mechanisms for pollutant effects, and in establishing ambient air quality standards. Ultrafine particles (UFP; diameter <100 nm) may be important in the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM, yet there are few ...
Judzentiene Asta - - 2007
Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing ...
Nooij Suzanne A E - - 2007
It has been found that sustained centrifugation on Earth may evoke sickness symptoms that are similar to those of the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). As in SAS, incidence of this 'Sickness Induced by Centrifugation' (SIC) is about 50% and the symptoms are particularly evoked by head movements. By systematically varying ...
Speit Günter - - 2007
Volunteers (10 women, 11 men) were exposed to formaldehyde (FA) vapors for 4h per day over a period of 10 working days under strictly controlled conditions. Exposure varied randomly each day from constant 0.15 ppm up to 0.5 ppm with four peaks of 1.0 ppm for 15 min each (13.5 ...
Minov Jordan - - 2006
To assess the prevalence and the characteristics of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in subjects occupationally exposed to organic dusts we performed a cross-sectional study including 152 exposed subjects (67 textile workers, 42 agricultural workers, and 43 bakers) and 72 unexposed controls. Evaluation of exposed and unexposed subjects included a questionnaire, skin ...
De Boeck G - - 2007
Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 microM) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (P(aO(2))) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. P(aO(2)) was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased ...
Suski C D - - 2007
Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to ammonia for shorter durations, often following additional stressors such as ...
Ringø E - - 2007
Furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. The foregut of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and Vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, Carnobacterium ...
Ezratty Véronique - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 microg/m(3)) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. METHODS: Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind ...
Navar Daniel - - 2006
Epidemiological data suggest that prolonged exposure to cyclic lumbar flexion elicits a chronic neuromuscular disorder and disability in workers. This study provides a physiological and biomechanical assessment of various repetitions of cyclic lumbar flexion sessions as a risk factor for development of an acute neuromuscular disorder. An in vivo feline ...
Hill Ross - - 2006
Increased ocean temperatures are thought to be triggering mass coral bleaching events around the world. The intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (genus Symbiodinium) are expelled from the coral host, which is believed to be a response to photosynthetic damage within these symbionts. Several sites of impact have been proposed, and here we ...
Nedwell Jeremy R - - 2006
Underwater piling was undertaken in 2003 in Southampton Water on the South Coast of England. Monitoring was simultaneously undertaken of the waterborne sound from impact and vibropiling and its effects on brown trout in cages at increasing distances from the piling. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) were used as a model ...
Tausz Michael - - 2007
The level II approach of the critical loads concept adopted by the UNECE aims at a flux based evaluation and takes into account environmental factors governing stomatal conductance. These factors will probably be affected by global change. The flux concept predicts that a decrease in stomatal conductance would protect trees ...
Lotriet C J - - 2007
Ozone is a potent oxidizing agent with a variety of potential uses, including its antimicrobial and deodorising properties. The recent increased use of ozone led to questions regarding its safety in humans. This study specifically focussed on the in vitro effect of ozone on isolated guinea pig tracheal tissue as ...
Chiu Weihsueh A - - 2007
Trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (TETRA) are solvents that have been widely used in a variety of industries, and both are widespread environmental contaminants. In order to provide a better basis for understanding their toxicokinetics at environmental exposures, seven human volunteers were exposed by inhalation to 1 ppm of TRI or ...
Morrison Douglas - - 2006
The aim of the study was to investigate possible mechanisms of epithelial injury in normal subjects exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ozone. Fifteen healthy non-smoking subjects (M:F 12:3) were studied. Five of the 15 subjects were exposed to filtered air, six were exposed to ozone 100 parts per billion ...
Kennedy Christopher J - - 2006
The swimming performance and recovery from exercise were determined in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of North Slope crude oil for more than eight weeks. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations (mean +/- standard error) at the beginning of exposures were as follows: control, ...
Tierney Keith B - - 2006
For anadromous salmonids, olfaction is a critical sense, enabling return migration. In recent years, several pesticides have been identified that interfere with salmonid olfaction at concentrations in the microg/L range; thus, they may pose a risk to species longevity. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of five ...
Tauck S A - - 2006
The objective of this experiment was to determine if continuous exposure to bull urine alters resumption of ovarian cycling activity of primiparous, suckled beef cows. We tested the hypotheses that interval from urine exposure to resumption of luteal activity and proportions of cows that resume luteal activity by the end ...
Repace James - - 2006
We used physical and pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate personal exposures to respirable particle (RSP) and carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PPAH) air pollution from second-hand smoke (SHS) from the increase in urinary cotinine of eight patrons of three bars in Bismarck, North Dakota. We compared SHS-RSP levels to the U.S. ...
Monleau Marjorie - - 2006
In nuclear fuel cycle facilities, workers may inhale airborne uranium compounds that lead to internal contamination, with various exposure scenarios depending on the workplace. These exposures can be chronic, repeated, or acute, and can involve many different compounds. The effect of uranium after multiple scenarios of exposure is unknown. The ...
Armengol Gemma - - 2006
Dengue is a growing public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. At present, the only method of controlling or preventing the disease is to eliminate its vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In the current study, an experimental larvicide tablet formulation XL-47 based on Bacillus thuringiensis serovar ...
Persson Ola - - 2006
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents ...
Turnovska Tanya H - - 2007
AIM: The aim of the present study was to analyze the respiratory and cardiovascular functions among smoking and nonsmoking girls attending two schools situated in regions with different levels of air pollution. The characteristic of air pollution is based on the data gathered by stations 1 and 2 belonging to ...
Vermeulen Roel - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to use activated carbon cloth (ACC) patches to study the probability and extent of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in a shoe factory. METHODS: Inhalation and dermal exposure loading were measured simultaneously in 70 subjects on multiple days resulting in 113 observations. ...
Schneider Jay S - - 2006
Acute exposure to manganese is associated with complex behavioral/psychiatric signs that may include Parkinsonian motor features. However, little is known about the behavioral consequences of chronic manganese exposures. In this study, cynomolgus macaque monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate (10-15 mg/kg/week) over an exposure period lasting 272+/-17 days. Prior to ...
Dosman J A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that exposure in intense exposure in swine barn facilities is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and reduction in pulmonary functions. This study investigated if systemic response could be predicted by FEV(1) response following swine barn exposure. METHODS: Naïve males were tested at baseline, low and ...
Nadeau Véronique - - 2006
Physical exertion (work load) has been recognized as one of several factors that can influence the kinetics of xenobiotics within the human body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of physical exertion on two exposure indicators of toluene (TOL) in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an ...
Jiao Zhe - - 2006
Cardiac sensitization is the term used for malignant ventricular arrhythmias associated with exposure to inhaled halocarbons in the presence of catecholamines. We investigated the electrophysiological changes associated with cardiomyocyte exposure to epinephrine and a halocarbon known to be associated with cardiac sensitization (halon 1301, CF3Br). Cardiomyocytes (CMs) were isolated from ...
Fiala Zdenek - - 2006
Goeckerman regimen (GR) of psoriasis includes daily dermal application of crude coal tar (CCT) and dermal exposure to UV-A and UV-B radiation. Observed group consisted of 23 patients with psoriasis treated by GR. Therapeutic ointment contained 5% of CCT. The level of psoriasis area and severity index was significantly decreased ...
Ferretti M - - 2007
Ozone (O3) exposure at Italian background sites exceeds UN/ECE concentration-based critical levels (CLe(c)), if expressed in terms of AOT40. Yet the occurrence of adverse effects of O3 on forests and crops is controversial. Possible reasons include (i) ability of response indicators to provide an unbiased estimate of O3 effects, (ii) ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2006
In spite of epidemiological evidence concerning vehicular air pollution and adverse respiratory/cardiovascular health, many athletic fields and school playgrounds are adjacent to high traffic roadways and could present long-term health risks for exercising children and young adults. Particulate matter (PM(1),0.02-1.0 microm diameter) number counts were taken serially at four elementary ...
Miyakawa Masamitsu - - 2006
Effects of noise on the secretion of salivary chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a substitute measure of catecholamines, were investigated in a laboratory experiment. This study included 20 male subjects with normal hearing; their ages ranged from 21 to 24 years. Prior to the experiment, the subjects ...
Atli Emel - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Larvae of D. melanogaster were exposed to 10 GHz EMF continuously (3 h, 4 h and 5 h) and discontinuously (3 h exposure + 30 min interval + 3 h ...
Kirby M F - - 2006
This study was conducted as an initial investigation of 'differential response' in one of the main sentinel organisms used for monitoring programmes in United Kingdom estuaries, the flounder Platichthys flesus. It has been hypothesised that monitoring using species with a wide geographical spread and limited migration, such as flounder, might ...
Adams William C - - 2006
Hazucha et al. (1992) compared pulmonary function responses during 8-h square-wave exposures to FA and to 0.12 ppm O3, as well as to an acute triangular exposure to a mean O3 concentration of 0.12 ppm. With 30 min of moderate exercise each hour during 8 h of continuous exposure, significantly ...
Sánchez-Bayo Francisco - - 2006
The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no ...
Zha Jinmiao - - 2006
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is widely used to control termites and protect wood from fungal-rot and wood-boring insects, and is often detected in the aquatic environment. Few studies have evaluated PCP as an environmental endocrine disruptor. In the present work, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was exposed to PCP for 28 days (F0 ...
O'Gara Bruce A - - 2006
The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24 h LC(50) for copper exposure, with 100 microM Trolox elevating the ...
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