Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1349
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Borue Xenia - - 2007
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are utilized in the treatment of depression in pregnant and lactating women. SSRIs may be passed to the fetus through the placenta and the neonate through breastfeeding, potentially exposing them to SSRIs during peri- and postnatal development. However, the long-term effects of this SSRI exposure ...
Liu H H - - 2007
Many toxic substances including heavy metals, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are generated during welding. Ozone (O(3)) is a strong oxidant that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue, and ambient ROS exposure associated with particles has been determined to cause DNA damage. Ozone is produced within ...
Hemmilä Matti - - 2007
The two hexachloroethane (HC)-based smoke formulations studied consisted of HC/Zn/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and HC/Zn. In the in vitro tests, human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to the smokes at various concentrations. The responses studied were acute toxicity (viability of cells, trypan blue exclusion method) and genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks, COMET assay). ...
Tardif Robert - - 2007
This study evaluated the impact of physical exertion on two n-hexane (HEX) exposure indicators in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (two women, two men) were exposed to HEX (50 ppm; 176 mg/m(3)) according to several scenarios involving several periods when ...
Faltermeier Andreas - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: An undesirable effect of plastic brackets is their discoloration after a short time in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the filler level of plastic brackets on color stability after exposure to food dyes or ultraviolet (UV) light. METHODS: Three bracket ...
Dalton Pamela - - 2007
The primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system are chronically exposed to the ambient environment and may therefore be susceptible to damage from occupational exposure to many volatile chemicals. To investigate whether occupational exposure to styrene was associated with olfactory impairment, we examined olfactory function in 2 groups: workers in ...
Halliwell Emma - - 2007
This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular ...
Béraud Eric - - 2007
This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by ...
Buckley D A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The seventh amendment of the European Union (EU) Cosmetics Directive (March 2005) and the Detergents Regulations of the EU (October 2005) are now legal requirements in Europe. Cosmetic products and detergents must be labelled for 26 individual named fragrances, when present at concentrations of > 10 parts per million ...
Bernardi Guglielmo - - 2008
The aim of this work was to evaluate and quantify the impact of an invasive training of cardiology fellows on some exposure parameters. From 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2002, three staff members performed 2.582 diagnostic procedures (Group 1) that were compared with 819 performed by, or with the ...
Carlton William K - - 2007
An analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acetaldehyde in wine samples. The method utilizes headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization using O-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and quantification by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The technique showed good sensitivity and reproducibility in samples of Chardonnay, Petite Sirah, and Merlot wines containing ...
Chattopadhyay Bhaskar P - - 2007
Grain storage depot workers suffer from different respiratory problems after getting the exposure to storage grain dust. Which is a mixture of pesticides, fungi, silica, bacteria, spores, storage mites, animal hairs, pollens etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fungal spore concentration in summer and winter season as ...
Björ Bodil - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates possible acute effects on heart rate variability (HRV) when people are exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise individually and simultaneously. METHODS: Ten male and 10 female subjects were recruited by advertisement. Subjects completed a questionnaire concerning their work environment, general health, medication, hearing, and physical ...
Curtis Daniel L - - 2007
The relationship between the behavioral and physiological responses to hyposaline exposure was investigated in Cancer gracilis, the graceful crab. The status of C. gracilis as an osmoconformer was confirmed. Survival decreased with salinity: the LT(50) in 50% seawater (a practical salinity of 16, or 16 per thousand) was 31.5 +/- ...
Gunnare Sara - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetics and some effects of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) in humans. Nine male volunteers were experimentally exposed to 500ppm HFC-143a for 2h during light physical exercise (50W) in an exposure chamber. Blood, urine and exhaled air were sampled before, during and up to ...
Slotnick Melissa J - - 2008
Arsenic concentration in toenail clippings is used as a biomarker of exposure in epidemiological studies, often under the assumption that a single measurement represents long-term exposure. For this assumption to hold, the measured arsenic concentrations must be stable over time, yet temporal variability has not been adequately assessed. This study ...
Buters Jeroen T M - - 2007
The interior of motor vehicles is made of a wide variety of synthetic materials, which emit volatile organic compounds (VOC). We tested the health effects of emissions from vehicles exposed to "parked in sunshine" conditions. A new and a 3 year old vehicle with identical interior were exposed to 14 ...
Worton David R - - 2007
The atmospheric histories of two potent greenhouse gases, tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6), have been reconstructed for the 20th century based on firn air measurements from both hemispheres. The reconstructed atmospheric trends show that the mixing ratios of both CF4 and C2F6 have increased during the 20th century by factors ...
Moon In Seok - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss is a preventive disease and yet the effective treatment modality has not been established. Acute acoustic traumas caused by an exposure to gunshot noise are common in young South Korean males in military service. Considering the significant lack of awareness on this serious issue as well ...
Wittmann Christiane - - 2007
Effects of ozone impact on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch (Betula pendula) stems and leaves were investigated. Significant differences in the response of leaves and stems to ozone were found. In leaves, O3 exposure led to a significant decline in photosynthetic rates, whereas stems revealed an increased ...
Cheng W W - - 2007
Rotenone, a natural insecticide and piscicide, was shown to have an extremely small margin between no lethality (5.0 microg/L) and 100% mortality (6.6 microg/L) for static-renewal 96-hour toxicity tests with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 3.0 and 4.0 mg/L significantly increased the rotenone ...
Duvdevany Amnon - - 2007
The ear vulnerability of a group of combat soldiers was tested. The study initially included 84 soldiers and lasted two years. The soldiers were exposed to the noise of small-arms fire. Measurements included transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and pure-tone audiometry. Measurements, initially performed prior to the soldiers' basic training, were ...
Kim Hyo-Sang - - 2007
The purposes of this study were to investigate the behavior of brominated by-products, such as bromate ion and total organic bromide, formed during ozonation for the removal of estrogenic activity in sewage effluents and to propose operation parameters for the ozonation process. It is necessary to reduce the E(2) equivalent ...
Sheppard Paul R - - 2007
Since 1997, Fallon, Nevada, has experienced a cluster of childhood leukemia that has been declared "one of the most unique clusters of childhood cancer ever reported." Multiple environmental studies have shown airborne tungsten and cobalt to be elevated within Fallon, but the question remains: Have these metals changed through time ...
Patton Gregory - - 2007
We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted ...
Crestani Márcia - - 2007
The effects of the herbicide, clomazone, on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase and TBARS formation in teleost fish (Rhamdia quelen) were studied. The fish were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h. After 192 h of exposure period, fish were transferred to ...
Ho Jeffrey D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement to subdue combative subjects. Occasionally, subjects will die after a CEW has been used on them. It is theorized that CEWs may contribute to these deaths by impairing respiration. OBJECTIVES: To examine the respiratory effects of CEWs. METHODS: Human volunteers ...
Noll J D - - 2007
Elemental carbon (EC) is currently used as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground mines since it can be accurately measured at low concentrations and diesels are the only source of submicrometer EC in underground mines. A disadvantage of using EC as a surrogate for DPM is that ...
Hammond Davyda - - 2007
Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) ...
Longnecker Matthew P - - 2007
The insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) is still used for disease control in some areas, resulting in high levels of human exposure. The main degradation product of DDT is 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), an antiandrogen. In animal experiments, in utero exposure to DDE decreases anogenital distance in male offspring. In these models, anogenital distance ...
Nielsen Line Winkel - - 2007
Eelgrass beds are important habitats for many organisms, but there has been a decline in the area covered by eelgrass during the last decades due to increased eutrophication resulting in increased shading from phytoplankton. The use of herbicides in terrestrial agriculture has also increased over the last century, and while ...
Martins Eduardo Monteiro - - 2007
A comprehensive monitoring campaign to assess aldehydes and BTEX concentrations was performed during 12 months, in the Tijuca district (Rio de Janeiro), an area with commercial activities and a high flux of vehicles. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 151 and 30 ppb, respectively. The high formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio ...
Müller-Schweinitzer Else - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved human blood vessels are important tools in reconstructive surgery. However, patency of frozen/thawed conduits depends largely on the freezing/thawing procedures employed. METHODS: Changes in tone were recorded on rings from human saphenous vein (SV) and used to quantify the degree of cryoinjury after different periods of exposure at ...
Campbell Kathleen C M - - 2007
A number of otoprotective agents are currently being investigated. Various types of agents have been found in animal studies to protect against hearing loss induced by cisplatin, carboplatin, aminoglycosides, or noise exposure. For over a decade we have been investigating D-methionine (D-met) as an otoprotective agent. Studies in our laboratory ...
Robinson Craig D - - 2007
The effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) on mortality, growth rates, sexual maturation, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression and reproductive success were investigated during an 8-month, water-borne exposure of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Indicators of oestrogenic exposure were investigated as predictors of population-level reproductive success. E2 exposure concentrations ...
Pain Sandrine - - 2007
The biological defence mechanism called MXR or MXD for multixenobiotic resistance or defence protects cells against the entry and the accumulation of xenobiotics. As the defence is modulated by man made chemicals, MXR is used as a biomarker of organisms' exposure to environmental contamination. However, to reliably assess and evidence ...
Cakmak Sabit - - 2007
The estimated mortality rate associated with ambient air pollution based on general population studies may not be representative of the effects on certain subgroups. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of relatively high concentrations of air pollution on mortality in a general population sample and ...
Burgess Jefferey L - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Although exposure to diesel exhaust has been linked with adverse health effects, little is known about the acute effects of exposure in the underground workplace. METHODS: Cross-shift spirometry and sputum induction were completed on twelve subjects associated with comminuted rock removal (mucking) operations in an underground copper mine using ...
Frampton Mark W - - 2007
Inhalation of ambient particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies play an important role in elucidating mechanisms for pollutant effects, and in establishing ambient air quality standards. Ultrafine particles (UFP; diameter <100 nm) may be important in the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM, yet there are few ...
Judzentiene Asta - - 2007
Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing ...
Nooij Suzanne A E - - 2007
It has been found that sustained centrifugation on Earth may evoke sickness symptoms that are similar to those of the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). As in SAS, incidence of this 'Sickness Induced by Centrifugation' (SIC) is about 50% and the symptoms are particularly evoked by head movements. By systematically varying ...
Speit Günter - - 2007
Volunteers (10 women, 11 men) were exposed to formaldehyde (FA) vapors for 4h per day over a period of 10 working days under strictly controlled conditions. Exposure varied randomly each day from constant 0.15 ppm up to 0.5 ppm with four peaks of 1.0 ppm for 15 min each (13.5 ...
Minov Jordan - - 2006
To assess the prevalence and the characteristics of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in subjects occupationally exposed to organic dusts we performed a cross-sectional study including 152 exposed subjects (67 textile workers, 42 agricultural workers, and 43 bakers) and 72 unexposed controls. Evaluation of exposed and unexposed subjects included a questionnaire, skin ...
De Boeck G - - 2007
Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 microM) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (P(aO(2))) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. P(aO(2)) was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased ...
Suski C D - - 2007
Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to ammonia for shorter durations, often following additional stressors such as ...
Ringø E - - 2007
Furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. The foregut of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and Vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, Carnobacterium ...
Ezratty Véronique - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 microg/m(3)) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. METHODS: Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind ...
Navar Daniel - - 2006
Epidemiological data suggest that prolonged exposure to cyclic lumbar flexion elicits a chronic neuromuscular disorder and disability in workers. This study provides a physiological and biomechanical assessment of various repetitions of cyclic lumbar flexion sessions as a risk factor for development of an acute neuromuscular disorder. An in vivo feline ...
Hill Ross - - 2006
Increased ocean temperatures are thought to be triggering mass coral bleaching events around the world. The intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (genus Symbiodinium) are expelled from the coral host, which is believed to be a response to photosynthetic damage within these symbionts. Several sites of impact have been proposed, and here we ...
Nedwell Jeremy R - - 2006
Underwater piling was undertaken in 2003 in Southampton Water on the South Coast of England. Monitoring was simultaneously undertaken of the waterborne sound from impact and vibropiling and its effects on brown trout in cages at increasing distances from the piling. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) were used as a model ...
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