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Results 301 - 350 of 1379
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Masini Cher V - - 2008
The phenomenon of spaced (longer intertrial interval) compared with massed (shorter intertrial interval) training leading to better long-term habituation and associative learning is well documented. However, the effects of intertrial intervals on response habituation to repeated stress exposures have not been previously examined. The present experiments found that massed (six ...
Yamashita Daisuke - - 2008
Oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species and other free radicals, is thought to play an important role in neuronal cell death, including noise-induced hearing loss. 1-{3-[2-(1-Benzothiophen-5-yl)ethoxy]propyl}azetidin-3-ol maleate (T-817MA), a novel neurotrophic agent, protects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. This study examines the effects of T-817MA in noise-induced ototoxicity in the cochlea. ...
Bernard Alfred - - 2008
Biomarkers of effects are molecular tools that can serve to identify changes or effects occurring in the organism because of exposure to a given toxicant or stressor. The potential of biomarkers of effects in epidemiology resides mainly in their greater sensitivity and specificity as compared with more traditional endpoints. Noninvasiveness ...
Kawada Shigeo - - 2008
This study comprised 2 main experiments: one was to determine the oxidative DNA damage under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO), and the other was to evaluate the effects of pre-exposure to HBO on high-intensity exercise performance. Healthy subjects (n = 8) inspired 100% O2 in an experimental chamber at a pressure of ...
Hagberg Mats - - 2008
The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure in a cohort consisting of male office and manual workers. The baseline population consisted of 94 office and 147 manual workers at an engineering plant. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was assessed at ...
Whitehead Mark C - - 2008
Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with ...
Ren Xiushui - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Second-hand tobacco smoke has been associated with cardiopulmonary dysfunction. We sought to examine the residual effects of remote second-hand smoke exposure on resting and exercise cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. We hypothesized that remote secondhand smoke exposure results in persistent cardiopulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities. METHODS: Participants were non-smoking flight attendants who worked in ...
Bräuner Elvira V - - 2008
Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on microvascular function and biomarkers related to inflammation, haemostasis and lipid ...
Piekarz Arkadiusz M - - 2007
Semivolatile fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) were measured in archived air sample extracts collected from Hedo Station Observatory (HSO) on Okinawa, Japan and Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO), Oregon U.S. during the springs of 2004 (MBO and HSO) and 2006 (MBO). Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were measured in both Asian and western U.S. ...
McCreanor James - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health hazard, and people with preexisting respiratory disease may be at increased risk. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to diesel traffic in people with asthma in an urban, roadside environment. METHODS: We recruited 60 adults with either mild or ...
Gehring Hartmut - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The calibration and testing procedures of a pulse oximeter with arterial blood samples from healthy subjects are based on reference values from the hemoximeter. There are no tests to identify the accuracy of the reference devices. Because of this limitation and since the true values of oxygen saturation (sO2 ...
Singh Suresh Kumar - - 2007
This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and ...
McKenzie D J - - 2007
Complex physiological traits, such as routine aerobic metabolic rate or exercise performance, are indicators of the functional integrity of fish that can reveal sub-lethal toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants. These traits have proved valuable in laboratory investigations of the sub-lethal effects of heavy metals, ammonia and various xenobiotics. It is ...
Marder Amanda L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal damage of neonates with gastroschisis is thought to be attributed to prolonged exposure to the toxic environment of the amniotic fluid. Amnioexchange/infusion has been a proposed method to improve bowel quality. The aim of the current study was to design an in vitro model to determine the volume ...
Park June-Woo - - 2007
This study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of uptake and elimination of perchlorate in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Perchlorate--an oxidizer used in solid fuel rockets, fireworks, and illuminating munitions--has been shown to effect thyroid function, causing hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. For the uptake study, catfish ...
Rozenek Ralph - - 2007
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure involves the breathing of 100% oxygen under conditions of elevated atmospheric pressure and is used to increase the oxygen content of the plasma fraction of arterial blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute HBO exposure on selected physiological responses and ...
Yung Pun To - - 2007
A fully automated anthrax smoke detector (ASD) has been developed and tested. The ASD is intended to serve as a cost effective front-end monitor for anthrax surveillance systems. The principle of operation is based on measuring airborne endospore concentrations, where a sharp concentration increase signals an anthrax attack. The ASD ...
Keutgen Anna J - - 2008
Cell wall polysaccharides, pectin composition, as well as apoplastic superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were investigated in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) cultivars (cvs) Korona and Elsanta differing in their ozone sensitivity. Plants were exposed to 140-170 microg m(-3) ozone either short-term for 7 days or long-term for 2 months in ...
Quemerais, Bernadette
Atmospheric emissions produced by live gun firing of the 155 mm howitzer were characterized during a live firing training exercise in Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Valcartier in January 2007. Sampling was performed continuously for three hours during the exercise during which particles and chemicals accumulated on sampling media. Sixty-nine rounds ...
Littlefield-Wyer J G - - 2008
We investigated changes in biomass, biochemical fingerprints, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile and functional status of the natural aquatic microbial communities upon impact of an Atradex pulse. The Atradex was applied to microcosm tanks at concentrations ranging from 24.5microgL(-1) to 245mgL(-1). The biomass of all microbial communities declined to ...
Zera Jan - - 2007
Attenuation of high-level acoustic impulses (noise reduction) by various types of earmuffs was measured using a laboratory source of type A impulses and an artificial test fixture compatible with the ISO 4869-3 standard. The measurements were made for impulses of peak sound-pressure levels (SPLs) from 150 to 170 dB. The ...
Sumi Y - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) may cause alterations of airways with inflammation and remodelling after cessation of exposure. Although the long-term clinical, functional and induced sputum sequelae have been examined in workers removed from exposure, the long-term pathological outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether airway inflammation and remodelling ...
Mills Nicholas L NL Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Sweden. - - 2007
Exposure to air pollution from traffic is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The mechanisms for this association are unknown. We conducted a controlled exposure to dilute diesel exhaust in patients with stable coronary heart disease to determine the direct effect of air pollution on myocardial, vascular, and fibrinolytic function. In ...
Suski Cory D - - 2007
Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed ...
Bleiziffer S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: It is presumed that patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) influences morbidity and mortality after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The aim of our study was to determine the impact of PPM on physical capacity. METHODS: Six months after AVR with a bioprosthesis, stress echocardiography was performed on a bicycle ergometer in 312 ...
Tekol Yalcin - - 2008
Despite the abundant studies and overwhelming evidences demonstrating the essential role of salt (sodium chloride) for developing "essential" hypertension (EH), the controversies about salt-hypertension (HT) relations are still continuing. One of important mistakes in this topic is assuming that the HT-producing effect of salt is reversible. The present paper explains ...
Zhou Zhi-Jun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine a) the effect of organophosphorus pesticide exposure on activity of carboxylic esterases, namely butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CarbE) and paraoxonase (PonE); and b) the association of polymorphisms of BChE and PonE with individual genetic susceptibility to organophosphorus pesticide exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 workers ...
Karlsson P E - - 2007
Trends were found for increasing surface ozone concentrations during April-September in northern Sweden over the period 1990-2006 as well as for an earlier onset of vegetation growing season. The highest ozone concentrations in northern Sweden occurred in April and the ozone concentrations in April showed a strong increasing trend. A ...
Borue Xenia - - 2007
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are utilized in the treatment of depression in pregnant and lactating women. SSRIs may be passed to the fetus through the placenta and the neonate through breastfeeding, potentially exposing them to SSRIs during peri- and postnatal development. However, the long-term effects of this SSRI exposure ...
Liu H H - - 2007
Many toxic substances including heavy metals, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are generated during welding. Ozone (O(3)) is a strong oxidant that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue, and ambient ROS exposure associated with particles has been determined to cause DNA damage. Ozone is produced within ...
Hemmilä Matti - - 2007
The two hexachloroethane (HC)-based smoke formulations studied consisted of HC/Zn/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and HC/Zn. In the in vitro tests, human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to the smokes at various concentrations. The responses studied were acute toxicity (viability of cells, trypan blue exclusion method) and genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks, COMET assay). ...
Tardif Robert - - 2007
This study evaluated the impact of physical exertion on two n-hexane (HEX) exposure indicators in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (two women, two men) were exposed to HEX (50 ppm; 176 mg/m(3)) according to several scenarios involving several periods when ...
Faltermeier Andreas - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: An undesirable effect of plastic brackets is their discoloration after a short time in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the filler level of plastic brackets on color stability after exposure to food dyes or ultraviolet (UV) light. METHODS: Three bracket ...
Dalton Pamela - - 2007
The primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system are chronically exposed to the ambient environment and may therefore be susceptible to damage from occupational exposure to many volatile chemicals. To investigate whether occupational exposure to styrene was associated with olfactory impairment, we examined olfactory function in 2 groups: workers in ...
Halliwell Emma - - 2007
This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular ...
Béraud Eric - - 2007
This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by ...
Buckley D A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The seventh amendment of the European Union (EU) Cosmetics Directive (March 2005) and the Detergents Regulations of the EU (October 2005) are now legal requirements in Europe. Cosmetic products and detergents must be labelled for 26 individual named fragrances, when present at concentrations of > 10 parts per million ...
Bernardi Guglielmo - - 2008
The aim of this work was to evaluate and quantify the impact of an invasive training of cardiology fellows on some exposure parameters. From 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2002, three staff members performed 2.582 diagnostic procedures (Group 1) that were compared with 819 performed by, or with the ...
Carlton William K - - 2007
An analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acetaldehyde in wine samples. The method utilizes headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization using O-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and quantification by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The technique showed good sensitivity and reproducibility in samples of Chardonnay, Petite Sirah, and Merlot wines containing ...
Chattopadhyay Bhaskar P - - 2007
Grain storage depot workers suffer from different respiratory problems after getting the exposure to storage grain dust. Which is a mixture of pesticides, fungi, silica, bacteria, spores, storage mites, animal hairs, pollens etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fungal spore concentration in summer and winter season as ...
Björ Bodil - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates possible acute effects on heart rate variability (HRV) when people are exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise individually and simultaneously. METHODS: Ten male and 10 female subjects were recruited by advertisement. Subjects completed a questionnaire concerning their work environment, general health, medication, hearing, and physical ...
Curtis Daniel L - - 2007
The relationship between the behavioral and physiological responses to hyposaline exposure was investigated in Cancer gracilis, the graceful crab. The status of C. gracilis as an osmoconformer was confirmed. Survival decreased with salinity: the LT(50) in 50% seawater (a practical salinity of 16, or 16 per thousand) was 31.5 +/- ...
Gunnare Sara - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetics and some effects of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) in humans. Nine male volunteers were experimentally exposed to 500ppm HFC-143a for 2h during light physical exercise (50W) in an exposure chamber. Blood, urine and exhaled air were sampled before, during and up to ...
Slotnick Melissa J - - 2008
Arsenic concentration in toenail clippings is used as a biomarker of exposure in epidemiological studies, often under the assumption that a single measurement represents long-term exposure. For this assumption to hold, the measured arsenic concentrations must be stable over time, yet temporal variability has not been adequately assessed. This study ...
Buters Jeroen T M - - 2007
The interior of motor vehicles is made of a wide variety of synthetic materials, which emit volatile organic compounds (VOC). We tested the health effects of emissions from vehicles exposed to "parked in sunshine" conditions. A new and a 3 year old vehicle with identical interior were exposed to 14 ...
Worton David R - - 2007
The atmospheric histories of two potent greenhouse gases, tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6), have been reconstructed for the 20th century based on firn air measurements from both hemispheres. The reconstructed atmospheric trends show that the mixing ratios of both CF4 and C2F6 have increased during the 20th century by factors ...
Moon In Seok - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss is a preventive disease and yet the effective treatment modality has not been established. Acute acoustic traumas caused by an exposure to gunshot noise are common in young South Korean males in military service. Considering the significant lack of awareness on this serious issue as well ...
Wittmann Christiane - - 2007
Effects of ozone impact on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch (Betula pendula) stems and leaves were investigated. Significant differences in the response of leaves and stems to ozone were found. In leaves, O3 exposure led to a significant decline in photosynthetic rates, whereas stems revealed an increased ...
Cheng W W - - 2007
Rotenone, a natural insecticide and piscicide, was shown to have an extremely small margin between no lethality (5.0 microg/L) and 100% mortality (6.6 microg/L) for static-renewal 96-hour toxicity tests with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 3.0 and 4.0 mg/L significantly increased the rotenone ...
Duvdevany Amnon - - 2007
The ear vulnerability of a group of combat soldiers was tested. The study initially included 84 soldiers and lasted two years. The soldiers were exposed to the noise of small-arms fire. Measurements included transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and pure-tone audiometry. Measurements, initially performed prior to the soldiers' basic training, were ...
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