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Results 251 - 300 of 1349
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Dorman David C - - 2008
Neurotoxicity is linked with high-dose manganese inhalation. There are few biomarkers that correlate with manganese exposure. Blood manganese concentrations depend upon the magnitude and duration of the manganese exposure and inconsistently reflect manganese exposure concentrations. The objective of this study was to search for novel biomarkers of manganese exposure in ...
Song Jiakun - - 2008
An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). "Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, ...
Glindmeyer Henry W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A 5-year longitudinal study examined nonmalignant respiratory effects of wood processing dust exposure. METHODS: Ten study plants, investigator selected from 447 candidate plants, included 1 sawmill-planing-plywood, 1 plywood, 1 milling, 3 cabinet and 4 furniture facilities. Personal dust samples (2363) were divided into three size fractions (extrathoracic, tracheobronchial, and ...
Brown Kathleen Ward KW Exposure, Epidemiology and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2008
Despite strong longitudinal associations between particle personal exposures and ambient concentrations, previous studies have found considerable inter-personal variability in these associations. Factors contributing to this inter-personal variability are important to identify in order to improve our ability to assess particulate exposures for individuals. This paper examines whether ambient, home outdoor ...
Cai C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens or air pollutants often leads to asthma exacerbations associated with aggravation of airway inflammation. Although, repeated allergen challenge often induces chronic allergic airway inflammation (CAAI) and airway remodelling, yet, the effects of brief exposure to air pollutants such as SO(2) on development of CAAI and airway ...
Buttemer William A - - 2008
We measured aerobic metabolism during cold exposure and exercise performance (run duration and oxygen consumption while running at 1 m s(-1)) in the fat-tailed dunnart Sminthopsis crassicaudata, a dasyurid marsupial, before and after ingestion of 30 mg kg(-1) of fenitrothion, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide. Running endurance of OP-exposed animals was ...
Hamdan Abdul-Latif - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) measured in a group of normal-hearing professional singers, who were frequently exposed to high-level sound during rehearsals and performances, differed from those measured in age- and gender-matched normal-hearing non-singers, who were at minimal risk of hearing ...
Schreijer Anja J M - - 2008
The mechanism of air travel-related venous thrombosis is unclear. Although immobility plays a pivotal role, other factors such as fluid loss may contribute. We investigated whether fluid loss occurred more in individuals with coagulation activation after air travel than in subjects without. As a secondary aim, we investigated whether fluid ...
Kemp David - - 2008
Otoacoustic emission (OAE) intensity is highly stable in healthy ears but can be temporarily reduced following noise exposure. This reduction in OAE intensity is well correlated with temporary noise induced hearing threshold elevation and is presumed to be due to metabolic fatigue in the outer hair cells. These cells are ...
Stabenau Erich K - - 2008
The present study exposed frogs to the PAH pyrene and measured exercise performance, muscle contractile ability, mitochondrial O(2) consumption, and membrane potential. Leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were exposed for seven days in control or pyrene saturated water aquaria. Frogs were randomly placed into one of four groups: (i) pyrene-exposed exercised, ...
Ravindra Khaiwal - - 2008
The levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined with a fast analytical approach to study their seasonal variations at Menen (Belgium) during 2003; they were found to be 5-7 times higher in January, February and December, in comparison to May, June and August. The annual average concentration of ...
Mills Michael J - - 2008
We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess ...
Cozen Wendy - - 2008
Most epidemiologic studies employ a vacuum cleaner used by a trained technician to collect household allergens. This approach is labor intensive, equipment dependent, and impractical if study subjects reside over a wide geographic area. We examined the feasibility of a self-administered dust collection method, using an electrostatic cloth sent by ...
Takemura Yoko - - 2008
To decrease the incidence of pneumoconiosis, we examined dust protective mask performance and its relation to pulmonary function as well as the effects of worker education on the proper wearing of masks. One hundred and seventy-eight workers from 15 factories subject to dust exposure participated in this study. All participants ...
Perry Tamara T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The impact of preschool environmental conditions on classroom aeroallergen concentrations is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between school environmental conditions and classroom aeroallergen concentrations in the Pulaski County Head Start (HS) Program. METHODS: Thirty-three HS centers in Pulaski County, Arkansas, underwent a detailed environmental evaluation. Classroom ...
Gong Henry H - - 2008
Adult volunteers (17 healthy, 14 asthmatic) were exposed in a controlled environmental chamber to concentrated ultrafine particles (UFP) collected in a Los Angeles suburb with substantial motor vehicle pollution. Exposures lasted 2 h with intermittent exercise. Inhaled particle counts (mean 145,000/cm(3), range 39,000-312,000) were typically 7-8 times higher than ambient ...
Nguyen Hang Thi - - 2009
Measurements of 56 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were undertaken at a monitoring site in Seoul, Korea in 2004. The VOC pollution at the site was evaluated for both functional groups and individual compounds. The highest concentrations for the functional groups were recorded by aromatic (AR: 430ppbC) followed by paraffin (PR), ...
Vijayavel K - - 2009
The presence of xenobiotic contaminants especially metals in coastal waters is a major concern as they are immunotoxic to aquatic animals even at low concentrations. In our present study, mud crab Scylla serrata was exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg/L) of nickel for 30 days under ...
Szeinuk Jaime - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that result from damage to the lung parenchyma. While the cause of most DPLDs remains unknown, extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked exposure to environmental toxins to the pathogenesis of some of those diseases. The purpose ...
Widder Pamela D - - 2008
While physiological biomarkers exist to verify exposure of amphibians in natural populations to agricultural chemicals, the ecological relevance of changes in these parameters is often difficult to determine. We compare the relationship between tadpole cholinesterase (ChE; a common enzymatic biomarker of exposure to OP pesticides) and measures of size and ...
Salam Md A - - 2008
The discharge of environmental estrogenic substances into the environment has an adverse effect on human and wildlife, especially aquatic organisms. Therefore, a simple, practical and sensitive method of detecting environmental estrogenicity is required. Previously, we established a transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain harboring choriogenin L (ChgL) tagged with green fluorescence ...
Thaller Ephraim I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to pollutants would adversely affect lung function of healthy athletes. METHODS: Pulmonary function was recorded on beach lifeguards at three different times during the day. Daily and average peak pollutant levels were calculated. Linear regression analyses were made comparing lung function changes in response to pollutant levels. A ...
Masini Cher V - - 2008
The phenomenon of spaced (longer intertrial interval) compared with massed (shorter intertrial interval) training leading to better long-term habituation and associative learning is well documented. However, the effects of intertrial intervals on response habituation to repeated stress exposures have not been previously examined. The present experiments found that massed (six ...
Yamashita Daisuke - - 2008
Oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species and other free radicals, is thought to play an important role in neuronal cell death, including noise-induced hearing loss. 1-{3-[2-(1-Benzothiophen-5-yl)ethoxy]propyl}azetidin-3-ol maleate (T-817MA), a novel neurotrophic agent, protects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. This study examines the effects of T-817MA in noise-induced ototoxicity in the cochlea. ...
Bernard Alfred - - 2008
Biomarkers of effects are molecular tools that can serve to identify changes or effects occurring in the organism because of exposure to a given toxicant or stressor. The potential of biomarkers of effects in epidemiology resides mainly in their greater sensitivity and specificity as compared with more traditional endpoints. Noninvasiveness ...
Kawada Shigeo - - 2008
This study comprised 2 main experiments: one was to determine the oxidative DNA damage under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO), and the other was to evaluate the effects of pre-exposure to HBO on high-intensity exercise performance. Healthy subjects (n = 8) inspired 100% O2 in an experimental chamber at a pressure of ...
Hagberg Mats - - 2008
The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure in a cohort consisting of male office and manual workers. The baseline population consisted of 94 office and 147 manual workers at an engineering plant. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was assessed at ...
Whitehead Mark C - - 2008
Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with ...
Ren Xiushui - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Second-hand tobacco smoke has been associated with cardiopulmonary dysfunction. We sought to examine the residual effects of remote second-hand smoke exposure on resting and exercise cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. We hypothesized that remote secondhand smoke exposure results in persistent cardiopulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities. METHODS: Participants were non-smoking flight attendants who worked in ...
Bräuner Elvira V - - 2008
Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on microvascular function and biomarkers related to inflammation, haemostasis and lipid ...
Piekarz Arkadiusz M - - 2007
Semivolatile fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) were measured in archived air sample extracts collected from Hedo Station Observatory (HSO) on Okinawa, Japan and Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO), Oregon U.S. during the springs of 2004 (MBO and HSO) and 2006 (MBO). Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were measured in both Asian and western U.S. ...
McCreanor James - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health hazard, and people with preexisting respiratory disease may be at increased risk. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to diesel traffic in people with asthma in an urban, roadside environment. METHODS: We recruited 60 adults with either mild or ...
Gehring Hartmut - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The calibration and testing procedures of a pulse oximeter with arterial blood samples from healthy subjects are based on reference values from the hemoximeter. There are no tests to identify the accuracy of the reference devices. Because of this limitation and since the true values of oxygen saturation (sO2 ...
Singh Suresh Kumar - - 2007
This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and ...
McKenzie D J - - 2007
Complex physiological traits, such as routine aerobic metabolic rate or exercise performance, are indicators of the functional integrity of fish that can reveal sub-lethal toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants. These traits have proved valuable in laboratory investigations of the sub-lethal effects of heavy metals, ammonia and various xenobiotics. It is ...
Marder Amanda L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal damage of neonates with gastroschisis is thought to be attributed to prolonged exposure to the toxic environment of the amniotic fluid. Amnioexchange/infusion has been a proposed method to improve bowel quality. The aim of the current study was to design an in vitro model to determine the volume ...
Park June-Woo - - 2007
This study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of uptake and elimination of perchlorate in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Perchlorate--an oxidizer used in solid fuel rockets, fireworks, and illuminating munitions--has been shown to effect thyroid function, causing hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. For the uptake study, catfish ...
Rozenek Ralph - - 2007
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure involves the breathing of 100% oxygen under conditions of elevated atmospheric pressure and is used to increase the oxygen content of the plasma fraction of arterial blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute HBO exposure on selected physiological responses and ...
Yung Pun To - - 2007
A fully automated anthrax smoke detector (ASD) has been developed and tested. The ASD is intended to serve as a cost effective front-end monitor for anthrax surveillance systems. The principle of operation is based on measuring airborne endospore concentrations, where a sharp concentration increase signals an anthrax attack. The ASD ...
Keutgen Anna J - - 2008
Cell wall polysaccharides, pectin composition, as well as apoplastic superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were investigated in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) cultivars (cvs) Korona and Elsanta differing in their ozone sensitivity. Plants were exposed to 140-170 microg m(-3) ozone either short-term for 7 days or long-term for 2 months in ...
Quemerais, Bernadette
Atmospheric emissions produced by live gun firing of the 155 mm howitzer were characterized during a live firing training exercise in Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Valcartier in January 2007. Sampling was performed continuously for three hours during the exercise during which particles and chemicals accumulated on sampling media. Sixty-nine rounds ...
Littlefield-Wyer J G - - 2008
We investigated changes in biomass, biochemical fingerprints, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile and functional status of the natural aquatic microbial communities upon impact of an Atradex pulse. The Atradex was applied to microcosm tanks at concentrations ranging from 24.5microgL(-1) to 245mgL(-1). The biomass of all microbial communities declined to ...
Zera Jan - - 2007
Attenuation of high-level acoustic impulses (noise reduction) by various types of earmuffs was measured using a laboratory source of type A impulses and an artificial test fixture compatible with the ISO 4869-3 standard. The measurements were made for impulses of peak sound-pressure levels (SPLs) from 150 to 170 dB. The ...
Sumi Y - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) may cause alterations of airways with inflammation and remodelling after cessation of exposure. Although the long-term clinical, functional and induced sputum sequelae have been examined in workers removed from exposure, the long-term pathological outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether airway inflammation and remodelling ...
Mills Nicholas L NL Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Sweden. - - 2007
Exposure to air pollution from traffic is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The mechanisms for this association are unknown. We conducted a controlled exposure to dilute diesel exhaust in patients with stable coronary heart disease to determine the direct effect of air pollution on myocardial, vascular, and fibrinolytic function. In ...
Suski Cory D - - 2007
Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed ...
Bleiziffer S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: It is presumed that patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) influences morbidity and mortality after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The aim of our study was to determine the impact of PPM on physical capacity. METHODS: Six months after AVR with a bioprosthesis, stress echocardiography was performed on a bicycle ergometer in 312 ...
Tekol Yalcin - - 2008
Despite the abundant studies and overwhelming evidences demonstrating the essential role of salt (sodium chloride) for developing "essential" hypertension (EH), the controversies about salt-hypertension (HT) relations are still continuing. One of important mistakes in this topic is assuming that the HT-producing effect of salt is reversible. The present paper explains ...
Zhou Zhi-Jun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine a) the effect of organophosphorus pesticide exposure on activity of carboxylic esterases, namely butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CarbE) and paraoxonase (PonE); and b) the association of polymorphisms of BChE and PonE with individual genetic susceptibility to organophosphorus pesticide exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 workers ...
Karlsson P E - - 2007
Trends were found for increasing surface ozone concentrations during April-September in northern Sweden over the period 1990-2006 as well as for an earlier onset of vegetation growing season. The highest ozone concentrations in northern Sweden occurred in April and the ozone concentrations in April showed a strong increasing trend. A ...
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