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Results 451 - 500 of 1374
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Yang Fumo - - 2005
One-week integrated fine particulate matter (i.e., particles <2.5 microm in diameter; PM2.5) samples were collected continuously with a low-flow rate sampler at a downtown site (Chegongzhuang) and a residential site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing between July 1999 and June 2000. The annual average concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental ...
Bini Giada - - 2006
Acute exposure to waterborne copper is followed by a reduction in heart rate in gastropod limpets. In order to understand the mechanism of this effect, exposure to copper (0.25 or 0.5 mg l(-1); for 3 and 6 h) was combined with an injection of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 20 microl, 0.5 or ...
Watson Karen - - 2005
CS spray (2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile 5% w/v in methyl isobutyl ketone) has been used by the police force in the UK as an incapacitant for nearly a decade. It causes a number of well-recognized cutaneous reactions, which are generally regarded as short-lived. These include skin burning, erythema and blistering. However, a ...
Mosleh Yahia Y - - 2005
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered to be a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction ...
Mehta A J - - 2005
This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed ...
Palen Wendy J - - 2005
Increasing ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) has recently captured the attention of ecologists as a key environmental stressor. Certain species may be particularly vulnerable as a result of either high natural exposure to UV-B or limited physiological capacity to withstand it. UV-B sensitivity has been examined at the cellular and individual level ...
Chew S F - - 2005
Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. ...
Lopes Isabel - - 2005
The development of resistance to toxicants has been reported for a wide range of organisms. Two questions were addressed in the present study: Are genetically determined resistance responses at lethal levels (min to h) of copper associated with responses at extreme lethal (h to d) and sublethal levels and does ...
Kimura Kimiko - - 2005
We examined the effect of lactational exposure to tributyltin on innate immunodefenses in the F1 generation using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 15, or 50 microg/ml of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) from parturition to weaning. At weaning time, offspring were inoculated ...
Routledge H C - - 2006
To measure the inflammatory and autonomic responses of healthy humans and patients with coronary artery disease to controlled concentrations of two specific components of vehicle derived air pollution, carbon particles and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Placebo controlled, double blind, random order human challenge study examining the effects of carbon particles (50 ...
Ip Y K - - 2005
The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus lives in freshwater, is an obligatory air breather, and can survive on land during drought. The objective of this study was to elucidate how C. gariepinus defends against ammonia toxicity when exposed to terrestrial conditions. During 4 d of aerial exposure, there was no ...
Fishwick David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Metal working fluids (MWF) constitute a significant respiratory hazard, although symptoms experienced by workers are often poorly investigated and attributed. AIMS: A single possible case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) led to a formal workplace investigation. It was clear that other exposed workers were affected. The aim of this ...
Duydu Yalçin - - 2005
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency and high-frequency cells (HFCs) were analyzed in 50 storage battery plant workers with mean blood lead level (BLL) of 40.14 +/- 9.99 microg/dL. The mean BLL in the control group (n=30) was 9.77 +/-1.67 microg/dL. This difference in mean BLLs between control and exposed group ...
Reynaldi Sebastián - - 2005
This study compares lethal and sublethal responses of Daphnia magna Straus exposed to fenvalerate continuously (21 d) and as a pulse (24 h). Survival was reduced more severely in the continuous- than in the pulse-exposure regime. Complete mortality occurred at 1 microg/L for continuous exposure and at 3.2 microg/L for ...
Oakes Ken D - - 2005
This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus ...
Schiffman Susan S - - 2005
Aerial emissions from a swine house at North Carolina State University's field laboratory were diluted to a level that could occur at varying distances downwind from a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) both within and beyond the property line, and these emissions were delivered to an environmental exposure chamber. The ...
Backer Lorraine C LC National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, MS F-46, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA. - - 2005
Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to ...
Lockman P R PR Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 So. Coulter Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106-1712, USA. - - 2005
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) nicotine transfer has been well documented in view of the fact that this alkaloid is a cerebral blood flow marker. However, limited data are available that describe BBB penetration of the major tobacco alkaloids after chronic nicotine exposure. This question needs to be addressed, given long-term nicotine ...
Violante N - - 2005
Airborne particulate matter was collected and biomonitoring of workers was performed by sampling blood, urine and hair of 84 exposed subjects, 17 occasionally exposed employees, 21 controls from administrative offices and 25 unexposed people (external controls). Determination of Pd was performed using Quadrupole and High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass ...
Maciejczyk Polina - - 2005
We modified, assembled, tested, and validated the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) developed by Sioutas et al. (1999) for use in a subchronic experiment that involved exposure of mice in vivo and of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Since the labor-intensive nose-only exposure regimen ...
Gaber Mohamed H - - 2005
Steadily growing use of electromagnetic fields, especially in conjunction with wireless communication systems, has led to increasing public concern about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiation. However, besides the well-known thermal effect of electromagnetic fields on biological tissue, there is no clear evidence of further athermal interaction mechanisms with biological ...
Faherty Ciaran J - - 2005
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) affects 2% of adults over 50 years of age. PD patients demonstrate a progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). One model that recapitulates the pathology of PD is the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Here we show that exposure to an ...
Kaspari Michael - - 2005
Body mass shapes processes from cell metabolism to community dynamics. Little is known, however, about how the average body mass of individuals varies among ecological communities. Ants alter colony mass by independently changing worker mass and/or worker number. In a survey of 49 ecosystems from tundra to tropical rainforest, average ...
Pennequin-Cardinal Anne - - 2005
Radiello((R)) diffusive samplers filled with a thermally desorbable adsorbent (graphitised charcoal Carbograph 4) have been tested for the monitoring of BTEX. The sampling rates have been estimated under various controlled atmospheres in order to evaluate the effects of two factors (exposure time, concentration levels and their interaction) on the performances ...
Gong Henry H - - 2005
Elderly people, with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may be susceptible to particulate matter (PM) air pollution. However, the respiratory impacts of inhaled PM combined with copollutant(s) in controlled exposure studies are unclear and warrant investigation since exposures to PMgas mixtures constitute realistic scenarios. Thus, we exposed 6 ...
Dennison James E - - 2005
Under OSHA and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guidelines, the mixture formula (unity calculation) provides a method for evaluating exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cause similar toxicities. According to the formula, if exposures are reduced in proportion to the number of chemicals and their respective exposure limits, ...
Lund K - - 2005
Fluoride has been in focus as a possible causal agent for respiratory symptoms amongst aluminium potroom workers for several decades. Previously, using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), we demonstrated airway inflammation in healthy volunteers 24 hours after exposure to hydrogen fluoride (HF). The objective of the present study was to examine early ...
Kent Martin - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of both short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) burial on the photosynthetic efficiency of four typical plant sub-communities of the machair sand dunes of the Outer Hebrides are described. Previous studies have examined the photosynthetic responses on individual species rather than the response at ...
Fowler David - - 2005
The relationship between emissions and deposition of air pollutants, both spatially and in time forms an important focus for science and for policy makers. In practice, this relationship may become nonlinear if the underlying processes change with time, or in space. Nonlinearities may also appear due to errors in emission ...
Sonne C - - 2005
A 23-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) killed in an Inuit hunt in East Greenland on July 9, 1999 had a significantly enlarged clitoris resembling, in size, form and colour, those of previously reported 'pseudohermaphroditic' polar bears from Svalbard. It has been suggested that an enzyme defect (21-hydroxylase deficiency), androgen ...
Jones Alan L - - 2005
The level of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)valine adducts in haemoglobin has been shown to correlate well with workplace exposure to propylene oxide (PO). However, the analytical method, using the modified Edman degradation procedure, is prohibitively time-consuming and expensive for use as a routine workplace exposure measurement tool. As an alternative, AB Biomonitoring Ltd ...
Jang An-Soo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A single, acute exposure to ozone has been shown to modify the antioxidant defense mechanism in the respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ozone exposure on antioxidant response in BALB/c mice. METHODS: We measured enhanced pause of breathing (Penh) as a ...
Bustos-Obregón E - - 2005
Diazinon (D) is an organophosphorate synthetic insecticide widely used in the world. It inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and damages reproduction as well as other organic functions mostly by increasing lipid peroxidation. Melatonin (M) is an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland. It performs numerous functions but recently it has been proposed ...
Shon Zang-Ho - - 2005
This study examines the local/regional DMS oxidation chemistry on Jeju Island (33.17 degrees N, 126.10 degrees E) during the Asian dust-storm (ADS) period of April 2001. Three ADS events were observed during the periods of April 10-12, 13-14, and 25-26, respectively. For comparative purposes, a non-Asian-dust-storm (NADS) period was also ...
Campbell Monica E - - 2005
Given the importance of physical activity to well-being, there is a need to encourage people to be physically active year-round. At the same time, many people are vulnerable to adverse health effects from air pollution, especially on smog alert days. This study was undertaken to determine when air pollution levels ...
Sánchez-Hernández Juan C - - 2004
A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides on the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured in the plasma of 420 lizards collected from agricultural and reference areas on the Island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) ...
Frampton Mark W - - 2004
Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as worsening of asthma. Ultrafine particles (UFP; less than 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter (PM) for a number of reasons. Compared with larger ...
Osterberg Kai - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated exposure- and subject-related determinants of annoyance and performance during the chemical odor provocation of healthy persons with self-reported environmental annoyance. METHODS: Persons with self-reported annoyance attributed to (i) chemicals or smells (smell-annoyed, SA, N=29), (ii) electrical equipment (electrically annoyed, EA, N= 16), and (iii) both smells ...
Steck-Scott S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN: A randomized trial. SETTING: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after antioxidant supplementation or placebo. Exposures occurred while exercising intermittently in a ...
Dubé M G - - 2005
In the summer of 2000, the effects of metal mine discharge on fish growth and exercise performance were assessed at a Zn-Pb-Cu mine in New Brunswick, Canada. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 0%, 20%, and 80% treated metal mine effluent in a mobile, fish-only artificial stream system. ...
Ultman James S - - 2004
The primary hypothesis of this study was that intersubject variation in uptake of inhaled ozone causes corresponding variation in the resulting physiologic response. The second hypothesis was that differences in breathing pattern and lung anatomy induce differences in ozone uptake. Sixty healthy nonsmokers participated in three exposure protocols during which ...
Zhang Jun - - 2004
We are interested in using SU-8 dense gratings with very high aspect ratio microchannels as the master mold for fabrication of child molds needed for replication. For such applications, the sidewall taper angle and mask replication fidelity of SU-8 are very important. Increasing the exposure time was experimentally observed to ...
Larsen S Thor - - 2004
Airborne mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was studied for acute airway effects using a bioassay with BALB/c mice. Concentration- and time-dependent effects were obtained by continuous monitoring of the breathing pattern during exposure to 0.3-43.6 mg/m3 MEHP for 60 min. Additionally, inflammatory effects of MEHP were studied from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. ...
De Santis Franco - - 2004
Ambient ozone was measured in a forest in Castelporziano (Italy) characterised by the prevailing presence of Holm-oak trees (Quercus ilex L.) from June to November 2003. Two methods for measuring ozone were used: long-term monitoring using diffusive samplers at three heights within the canopy, and continuous monitoring at two heights ...
Touchberry Chad D CD Department of Kinesiology, College of Health Sciences and Human Services, Midwestern State University , - - 2004
Training alterations in elite cyclists may cause transient changes in glomerular filtration rate. To these authors' knowledge, no biochemical investigation of chronic renal function in athletes during a training cycle exists. The purpose of the present archival study was to evaluate the effects of training on homeostatic renal function, evaluated ...
Sigurdarson Sigurdur T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Toxic pneumonitis or Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS) is a common, usually self-limiting condition among agricultural workers, occurring after high level exposure to agricultural dust. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 68-year-old smoker and farmer who became ill with dyspnea, flu-like symptoms, and hypoxia after cleaning out ...
Licht Oliver - - 2004
The disappearance (DT50) from water-phase and effects on aufwuchs of three nominal concentrations (5, 50 and 500 microg/l) of bisphenol-A (BPA) were investigated in artificial indoor streams over a period of 103 days. HPLC was used for analyses of BPA in water. Because of the disappearance of BPA from the ...
Volpino P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding long-term adverse effects of urban pollutants in urban workers. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of urban pollutants on respiratory and cardiovascular function in exposed traffic policemen compared to a control group. METHODS: Sixty-eight traffic policemen and 62 controls (all ...
Sharman J E - - 2004
Regular aerobic exercise is recommended by physicians to improve health and longevity. However, individuals exercising in urban regions are often in contact with air pollution, which includes particles and gases associated with respiratory disease and cancer. We describe the recent evidence on the cardiovascular effects of air pollution, and the ...
Florida-James Geraint - - 2004
Athens sits in a basin approximately 450 km2 in area, surrounded by mountains and open sea. Anthropogenic emissions in conjunction with the topographical and meteorological conditions can result in high air pollution within the city. The pollutants of concern for athletes competing in Athens 2004 appear to be nitrogen dioxide ...
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