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Results 451 - 500 of 1349
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Pennequin-Cardinal Anne - - 2005
Radiello((R)) diffusive samplers filled with a thermally desorbable adsorbent (graphitised charcoal Carbograph 4) have been tested for the monitoring of BTEX. The sampling rates have been estimated under various controlled atmospheres in order to evaluate the effects of two factors (exposure time, concentration levels and their interaction) on the performances ...
Gong Henry H - - 2005
Elderly people, with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may be susceptible to particulate matter (PM) air pollution. However, the respiratory impacts of inhaled PM combined with copollutant(s) in controlled exposure studies are unclear and warrant investigation since exposures to PMgas mixtures constitute realistic scenarios. Thus, we exposed 6 ...
Dennison James E - - 2005
Under OSHA and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guidelines, the mixture formula (unity calculation) provides a method for evaluating exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cause similar toxicities. According to the formula, if exposures are reduced in proportion to the number of chemicals and their respective exposure limits, ...
Lund K - - 2005
Fluoride has been in focus as a possible causal agent for respiratory symptoms amongst aluminium potroom workers for several decades. Previously, using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), we demonstrated airway inflammation in healthy volunteers 24 hours after exposure to hydrogen fluoride (HF). The objective of the present study was to examine early ...
Kent Martin - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of both short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) burial on the photosynthetic efficiency of four typical plant sub-communities of the machair sand dunes of the Outer Hebrides are described. Previous studies have examined the photosynthetic responses on individual species rather than the response at ...
Fowler David - - 2005
The relationship between emissions and deposition of air pollutants, both spatially and in time forms an important focus for science and for policy makers. In practice, this relationship may become nonlinear if the underlying processes change with time, or in space. Nonlinearities may also appear due to errors in emission ...
Sonne C - - 2005
A 23-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) killed in an Inuit hunt in East Greenland on July 9, 1999 had a significantly enlarged clitoris resembling, in size, form and colour, those of previously reported 'pseudohermaphroditic' polar bears from Svalbard. It has been suggested that an enzyme defect (21-hydroxylase deficiency), androgen ...
Jones Alan L - - 2005
The level of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)valine adducts in haemoglobin has been shown to correlate well with workplace exposure to propylene oxide (PO). However, the analytical method, using the modified Edman degradation procedure, is prohibitively time-consuming and expensive for use as a routine workplace exposure measurement tool. As an alternative, AB Biomonitoring Ltd ...
Jang An-Soo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A single, acute exposure to ozone has been shown to modify the antioxidant defense mechanism in the respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ozone exposure on antioxidant response in BALB/c mice. METHODS: We measured enhanced pause of breathing (Penh) as a ...
Bustos-Obregón E - - 2005
Diazinon (D) is an organophosphorate synthetic insecticide widely used in the world. It inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and damages reproduction as well as other organic functions mostly by increasing lipid peroxidation. Melatonin (M) is an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland. It performs numerous functions but recently it has been proposed ...
Shon Zang-Ho - - 2005
This study examines the local/regional DMS oxidation chemistry on Jeju Island (33.17 degrees N, 126.10 degrees E) during the Asian dust-storm (ADS) period of April 2001. Three ADS events were observed during the periods of April 10-12, 13-14, and 25-26, respectively. For comparative purposes, a non-Asian-dust-storm (NADS) period was also ...
Campbell Monica E - - 2005
Given the importance of physical activity to well-being, there is a need to encourage people to be physically active year-round. At the same time, many people are vulnerable to adverse health effects from air pollution, especially on smog alert days. This study was undertaken to determine when air pollution levels ...
Sánchez-Hernández Juan C - - 2004
A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides on the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured in the plasma of 420 lizards collected from agricultural and reference areas on the Island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) ...
Frampton Mark W - - 2004
Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as worsening of asthma. Ultrafine particles (UFP; less than 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter (PM) for a number of reasons. Compared with larger ...
Osterberg Kai - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated exposure- and subject-related determinants of annoyance and performance during the chemical odor provocation of healthy persons with self-reported environmental annoyance. METHODS: Persons with self-reported annoyance attributed to (i) chemicals or smells (smell-annoyed, SA, N=29), (ii) electrical equipment (electrically annoyed, EA, N= 16), and (iii) both smells ...
Steck-Scott S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN: A randomized trial. SETTING: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after antioxidant supplementation or placebo. Exposures occurred while exercising intermittently in a ...
Dubé M G - - 2005
In the summer of 2000, the effects of metal mine discharge on fish growth and exercise performance were assessed at a Zn-Pb-Cu mine in New Brunswick, Canada. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 0%, 20%, and 80% treated metal mine effluent in a mobile, fish-only artificial stream system. ...
Ultman James S - - 2004
The primary hypothesis of this study was that intersubject variation in uptake of inhaled ozone causes corresponding variation in the resulting physiologic response. The second hypothesis was that differences in breathing pattern and lung anatomy induce differences in ozone uptake. Sixty healthy nonsmokers participated in three exposure protocols during which ...
Zhang Jun - - 2004
We are interested in using SU-8 dense gratings with very high aspect ratio microchannels as the master mold for fabrication of child molds needed for replication. For such applications, the sidewall taper angle and mask replication fidelity of SU-8 are very important. Increasing the exposure time was experimentally observed to ...
Larsen S Thor - - 2004
Airborne mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was studied for acute airway effects using a bioassay with BALB/c mice. Concentration- and time-dependent effects were obtained by continuous monitoring of the breathing pattern during exposure to 0.3-43.6 mg/m3 MEHP for 60 min. Additionally, inflammatory effects of MEHP were studied from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. ...
De Santis Franco - - 2004
Ambient ozone was measured in a forest in Castelporziano (Italy) characterised by the prevailing presence of Holm-oak trees (Quercus ilex L.) from June to November 2003. Two methods for measuring ozone were used: long-term monitoring using diffusive samplers at three heights within the canopy, and continuous monitoring at two heights ...
Sigurdarson Sigurdur T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Toxic pneumonitis or Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS) is a common, usually self-limiting condition among agricultural workers, occurring after high level exposure to agricultural dust. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 68-year-old smoker and farmer who became ill with dyspnea, flu-like symptoms, and hypoxia after cleaning out ...
Licht Oliver - - 2004
The disappearance (DT50) from water-phase and effects on aufwuchs of three nominal concentrations (5, 50 and 500 microg/l) of bisphenol-A (BPA) were investigated in artificial indoor streams over a period of 103 days. HPLC was used for analyses of BPA in water. Because of the disappearance of BPA from the ...
Volpino P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding long-term adverse effects of urban pollutants in urban workers. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of urban pollutants on respiratory and cardiovascular function in exposed traffic policemen compared to a control group. METHODS: Sixty-eight traffic policemen and 62 controls (all ...
Sharman J E - - 2004
Regular aerobic exercise is recommended by physicians to improve health and longevity. However, individuals exercising in urban regions are often in contact with air pollution, which includes particles and gases associated with respiratory disease and cancer. We describe the recent evidence on the cardiovascular effects of air pollution, and the ...
Florida-James Geraint - - 2004
Athens sits in a basin approximately 450 km2 in area, surrounded by mountains and open sea. Anthropogenic emissions in conjunction with the topographical and meteorological conditions can result in high air pollution within the city. The pollutants of concern for athletes competing in Athens 2004 appear to be nitrogen dioxide ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2004
A cross-sectional study was performed in one industrial (study) and one non-industrial (reference) town in Punjab State, northern India. Ambient air quality samples were collected and analyzed each week for 2 yr. Subjects were 3,603 individuals >15 yr old who were interviewed and whose lung functions were measured spirometrically. Their ...
Vilarinhos Paulo T R - - 2004
After detection of resistance to the organophosphate temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti in Brazil, corncob granule (CG) and water-dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) were introduced in routine focal treatments. Larvicidal persistence and the influence of exposure to sunlight on VectoBac formulations of Bti were ...
Tempels-Pavlica Z - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens can lead to the development of allergic complaints. Mattress covers seem to be an obvious option for lowering allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Previous studies have shown that Dermatophagoides pteronissinus was the most prevalent HDM species in the Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: In the ...
McCurdy David A - - 2004
In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found ...
Jarrard H E - - 2004
Many freshwater aquatic environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America contain neurotoxic pesticides, an issue of concern given the use of many of these habitats by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.). Pesticides such as carbamates are known to affect fundamental physiological systems (such as the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), and have ...
Sundblad Britt-Marie - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute respiratory effects of low ammonia exposure on healthy persons. METHODS: Twelve healthy persons underwent sham or ammonia (5 and 25 ppm) exposure randomly in an exposure chamber on three occasions. The exposure duration was 3 hours, 1.5 hours resting (seated) and 1.5 hours exercising ...
Pleil Joachim D - - 2004
The catastrophic collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. The subsequent cleanup used diesel equipment that further polluted the air until the following June. ...
Perfetti L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor allergens has already been shown to occur in many public places, including workplaces, in several countries. Aim of this study was to measure the levels of house dust mites, cat and cockroach allergens in indoor workplaces (offices and archives) in Italy and to evaluate the possible ...
Pierce Crispin - - 2004
Health risks from ostensible occupational and environmental toxicant exposure are difficult to quantify. Maximal use of limited biological measurements of xenobiotic or metabolite concentration in the body is therefore essential. Elimination rates of exhaled [2H8]toluene and urinary metabolites were analyzed from 33 exposures of males to 50 ppm [2H8]toluene for ...
Sigmond, Michael J.
Parkinson's disease (PD) results in part from the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons. We hypothesize that exercise reduces the vulnerability of DA neurons to neurotoxin exposure and have outlined experiments to test this hypothesis in rats treated with one of several neurotoxins, beginning with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Over the past year, ...
Kardous Chucri A - - 2004
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigated the capabilities of noise dosimeters to measure personal exposure to impulse noise. The two leading types of commercially available dosimeters were evaluated in terms of their ability to measure and integrate impulses generated from gunfire during live-fire exercises at a ...
Evans M J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, we showed that repeated exposure to (1) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) (Dermatophagoides farinae) caused thickening of the basement membrane zone (BMZ) and (2) HDMA+ozone (O3) caused depletion of BMZ perlecan and atypical development of BMZ collagen (irregular thin areas<2.0 microm in width). OBJECTIVE: The purpose ...
Schenker Marc B - - 2004
The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chronic, low-level paraquat exposure causes restrictive lung function with gas transfer impairment. Three hundred thirty-eight Costa Rican farm workers from banana, coffee, and palm oil farms completed a questionnaire, spirometry, and a test of single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Subjects ...
Keywood M D - - 2004
To isolate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in ozone-alkene systems from the additional influence of hydroxyl (OH) radicals formed in the gas-phase ozone-alkene reaction, OH scavengers are employed. The detailed chemistry associated with three different scavengers (cyclohexane, 2-butanol, and CO) is studied in relation to the effects of the scavengers ...
Stuart Andrew - - 2004
The equivalency of Lists 1 to 4 of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (NU-6; T. W. Tillman and R. Carhart, 1966) was investigated in interrupted broadband noise. Forty-eight young adults with normal hearing participated. All lists were administered at 50 dB sensation level re: listener spondee recognition thresholds ...
Sweetman Andy - - 2004
Following a request from a Governmental Interdepartmental Group, the Health and Safety Executive undertook a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) sampling exercise at several work sites in the UK. An initial survey suggested potential PCDD/F production at metal recycling sites, during cement manufacture, at municipal waste incinerators and ...
Taylor Lisa N - - 2004
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of copper exposure on swimming performance and gill-binding characteristics of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a species endemic to metal-contaminated lakes of the Sudbury region in northern Ontario. Yellow perch were collected from lakes varying in the degree of metal ...
Steckel Hartwig - - 2004
Alpha-lactose monohydrate is the standard carrier used for dry powder inhalation drug products. The physico-chemical characteristics of this carrier material need to be monitored and specified carefully in order to guarantee functionality of the powder formulation. But also microbiological acceptance criteria need to be considered during development and routine testing. ...
Malo Jean-Luc - - 2004
Recent data suggest that responsiveness to methacholine continues to improve 2 and more years after cessation of exposure to agents causing occupational asthma (OA). The goal of this study was to characterize further the curve of improvement to methacholine responsiveness in subjects with OA. Eighty subjects with confirmed OA who ...
Tardif Robert - - 2004
With the increased use of ethanol-blend gasoline as an alternative to gasoline, there is a demand for new data to assess the potential health risk of ethanol exposure. Currently, there is very limited information from the scientific database on the adverse effects of inhaled low doses of ethanol (ETOH). The ...
Mäkinen Milja - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to measure the dermal exposure levels of chromium dust during grinding of stainless and acid-proof steel parts. METHODS: The potential dermal exposure of the body was measured with a patch sampling method and the actual exposure of hands with a hand-wash method. Simultaneously, ...
Wei Hui - - 2004
Central infected zone tissue of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) nodules was fractionated into separate subcellular compartments using density gradient centrifugation in nonaqueous solvents to better understand how exposure to Ar:O(2) (80:20%, v/v) atmosphere affects C and N metabolism, and to explore a potential role for adenylates in regulating O(2) ...
Mukherjee Ashit K - - 2004
Air samples from various processing areas of an Indian jute mill were examined for endotoxin. The authors assessed work-related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function changes in the dust-exposed workers from the different processing areas using a standard questionnaire and spirometry. Endotoxin was estimated in water extract of jute dust from ...
Barger Laura K - - 2004
Shift workers and transmeridian travelers are exposed to abnormal work-rest cycles, inducing a change in the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and the endogenous circadian timing system. Misalignment of circadian phase is associated with sleep disruption and deterioration of alertness and cognitive performance. Exercise has been investigated as a ...
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