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Results 351 - 400 of 995
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Roast Stephen D - - 2002
Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) occupies the upper, low-salinity regions of estuaries in Europe, where it can experience periods of reduced oxygen concentration associated with the maximum turbidity zone. The present study reports the distribution of N. integer in response to gradients of dissolved oxygen in combination with environmentally realistic cadmium ...
Tiep Brian L - - 2002
BACKGROUND:Oxygen-conserving devices have been the foundation of highly portable oxygen systems that enable hypoxemic chronic lung disease patients to live active lives. Pulsing demand oxygen delivery systems (DODS) can adequately oxygenate most patients at rest and usually during exercise. However, some patients desaturate during exercise at DODS settings equivalent to ...
Tehrani Fleur - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Supplemental oxygen treatment of patients on mechanical ventilation is crucial in maintaining the patients' oxygen levels in the normal range. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a closed-loop controller for automatic adjustment of the fraction of inspired oxygen, FIO2. More specifically, the aim of ...
Farrell A P - - 2002
Studies in the laboratory with salmonids and now in the field with wild salmon clearly show that critical swimming performance has an optimum temperature. This temperature optimum is coincident with maximum aerobic scope and maximum cardiac scope. At a temperature that is higher than this optimum, however, whole animal performance ...
Oda Jun - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on the relationship between systemic oxygen consumption and oxygen delivery. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized and ventilated rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Rabbits were subjected to stepwise cardiac tamponade to reduce oxygen delivery while body temperature was maintained at 34 ...
Ntefidou Maria - - 2002
In the absence of other external stimuli the motile, unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis normally swims upward in the water column (negative gravitaxis). This behavior is most likely triggered by active physiological orientation mechanisms. Recently it was found that negative gravitaxis often inverts to a positive one upon high light ...
Ward W K - - 2002
The primary objective was to develop a telemetric oxygen sensor designed for implantation in subcutaneous tissue. In the sensor, the platinum indicating electrode was covered with polythene to retard oxygen entry and avoid interference. Given the potential for large indicating electrodes to deplete oxygen in vivo, some sensors were made ...
Alegria Antonio E - - 2002
Four terpenylnaphthoquinones were found to enhance the rate of superoxide production in the presence of ascorbate as detected from the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable initial oxygen consumption rates. Initial rates of oxygen consumption in the presence of ascorbate plus quinone increase with an increase in the half-wave reduction potentials of the ...
Rahardjo Yovita S P - - 2002
Oxygen transfer is for two reasons a major concern in scale-up and process control in industrial application of aerobic fungal solid-state fermentation (SSF): 1) heat production is proportional to oxygen uptake and it is well known that heat removal is one of the main problems in scaled-up fermenters, and 2) ...
Hourdez Stéphane - - 2002
Methanoaricia dendrobranchiata Blake (Polychaeta; Orbiniidae) occurs in large numbers in association with communities of the mussel Bathymodiolus childressi at hydrocarbon seeps on the Louisiana Slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Its microhabitat can be strongly hypoxic (oxygen is often undetectable) and sulfidic (sulfide concentrations can reach millimolar levels), which may ...
Dunham Rex A - - 2002
The survival and tolerance of F2 transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) containing pRSVrtGH1 complementary DNA were compared with nontransgenic (control) common carp when subjected to low dissolved oxygen. The tolerance of low oxygen was evaluated in 8 families of common carp in rectangular tanks (3 x 1 x 1 m). ...
Arieli Yehuda - - 2002
It is accepted that gas bubbles grow from preexisting gas nuclei in tissue. The possibility of eliminating gas nuclei may be of benefit in preventing decompression sickness. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that hyperbaric oxygen may replace the resident gas in the nuclei with oxygen and, because ...
Jensen Tina D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that impaired oxygen extraction in mitochondrial myopathy (MM) results in a high oxygen saturation in venous effluent blood from working muscle and that this phenomenon can be used as a diagnostic tool for MM. METHODS: Twelve patients with MM, 10 patients with muscular dystrophy, and 12 ...
Tretinyak Alexander S - - 2002
Supplemental oxygen can reduce intimal hyperplasia (IH) after stent deployment in a rabbit model. Endovascular stent placement is technically feasible, but long-term durability in vessels outside the aortoiliac system is compromised with postinterventional IH, which causes restenosis and failure of the arterial conduit. Groups (n = 4 to 6) of ...
Higgins Rosemary D - - 2002
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of two somatostatin analogs, Woc4D and octreotide, on oxygen induced retinopathy in the mouse. Oxygen induced retinopathy was produced in C57BL6 mice. Octreotide and Woc4D were administered from post-natal day 12-16. Retinopathy was assessed by a retinal scoring system utilizing ...
Russell W C - - 2002
We investigated the effects of neuromuscular blockade with atracurium on oxygen consumption, oxygen delivery and total chest compliance in 20 sedated intensive care patients who required mechanical ventilation with an inspired oxygen fraction of at least 0.6. The reverse Fick method was used to measure oxygen consumption. Total chest compliance ...
Lavon Haim - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Many hyperbaric facilities use infusion pumps inside the chamber. It is therefore important to ensure that this equipment will perform accurately during hyperbaric conditions. The authors tested the function and accuracy of the Imed 965 and Infutec 520 volumetric infusion pumps, the Easy-pump MZ-257 peristaltic infusion pump, and the ...
Bäumer C - - 2002
To determine the contribution of circulatory convection to tissue oxygen supply in animals of Daphnia magna, heart rate ( f(H)), in-vivo Hb oxygen-saturation ( S(Hb)) and NADH fluorescence intensity ( I(NADH)) as a measure of the tissue oxygenation state were simultaneously measured using digital motion analysis, microabsorption spectroscopy and fluorescence ...
Ho Anthony M H - - 2002
Heliox has a lower density than oxygen and nitrogen, and can improve ventilation rapidly in patients with critical upper airway obstruction. The choice of the best helium:oxygen ratio depends on whether the predominant problem is hypercarbia or hypoxia. In the former situation, 80% helium should be used, and in the ...
Stitt David T - - 2002
A novel method utilizing the BD Oxygen Biosensor System has been developed to rapidly, simply, and accurately determine the growth rate of microorganisms in broth, with no needfor plate counts, standardized inocula, or technically difficult manipulations. The BD Oxygen Biosensor System incorporates an oxygen-sensitive material into the wells of standard ...
Kalinin A - - 2002
Relative to species such as rainbow trout, freshwater turtle shows a high tolerance to challenges involving acidosis and increases in extracellular K+. Therefore, the effects of acidosis or high K+ on twitch force and oxygen consumption were examined in ventricular ring preparations from these two species. The oxygen consumption associated ...
Goldstein N - - 2002
In this review evidence for the presence of the anion radical O2(-*) in atmospheric air is considered, and the biological activity of superoxide and negative air ions is compared. Various aspects of the biological effect of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species contained in air at the cell, tissue, and ...
Tusseau-Vuillemin M H - - 2002
Two different re-oxygenation techniques (aeration and hydrogen peroxide addition) were compared in respirometric experiments. As similar results were obtained in both cases, it was concluded that the addition of hydrogen peroxide does not modify the oxygen uptake rate of the biomass, under either endogenous or feeding conditions. It was hypothesized ...
Walamies Markku A - - 2002
Eighteen generally fit clinical patients were monitored with pulse oximetry. Mean oxygen saturation levels were lower (P<0.05) during oesophageal manometry (97.7-97.3%) than before it (98.3%). Fourteen out of seventeen (successful) traces had short 4-8% desaturation episodes, and in worst cases there were 8-9 episodes. It seems, therefore, that even patients ...
Hütter Eveline - - 2002
Oxygen kinetics in fibroblasts was biphasic. This was quantitatively explained by a major mitochondrial hyperbolic component in the low-oxygen range and a linear increase of rotenone- and antimycin A-inhibited oxygen consumption in the high-oxygen range. This suggests an increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress at elevated, air-level ...
David O - - 2002
Nine carriers of beta-abnormal haemoglobins with increased oxygen affinity (Hb X) were examined. Their oxygen dissociation curves from whole blood were more or less left-shifted, with six of nine also characterized by biphasism. This refers to an 'inflection point' usually positioned at about 50-60% of Hb O(2) saturation, commonly believed ...
Pham Tuan H - - 2002
Hemorrhagic hypovolemia and inotropic agent administration were used to manipulate cardiac output (CO) and oxygen delivery in rabbits to investigate the correlation between noninvasive frequency domain photon migration (FDPM) spectroscopy and invasive hemodynamic monitoring parameters. Frequency-domain photon migration provides quantitative measurements of light absorption and reduced scattering (mu(a) and mu(s)(prime ...
Hink J - - 2001
The basic mechanisms behind the pharmacologic effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy are not clear. Reactive oxygen metabolites are generally associated with the adverse reactions to hyperbaric oxygen exposure but they are also believed to be involved in the antibacterial effects of this therapy. The possibility that reactive oxygen metabolites are ...
Wijkstra P J - - 2001
While there is broad agreement about who should receive long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), there is little information available on how clinicians should decide on the oxygen prescription itself, at rest, during sleep and during exercise. The authors describe the results of an international survey that was undertaken to compare how ...
Gnaiger E - - 2001
Oxygen limitation is generally considered as impairment of mitochondrial respiration under hypoxia and ischemia. Low intracellular oxygen levels under normoxia, however, imply mild oxygen limitation, provide protection from oxidative stress, and result from economical strategies for oxygen transport through the respiratory cascade to cytochrome c oxidase. Both perspectives relate to ...
Janz C - - 2001
Neuronal activation leads to an increase in the local cortical perfusion. The exact regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes are still unknown. To elucidate the role of oxygen in the initial hemodynamic regulation, a disactivation paradigm was performed with fMRI. A stimulus was applied following a previous extended activation in ...
Schumacher Y O - - 2001
Maximal oxygen uptake is the major performance limiting factor in endurance sports. Sophisticated training methods have been developed to increase this variable. On the other hand, attempts have been made to improve maximal oxygen uptake by artificial means: blood doping and the misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin have beneficial effects ...
McGuire B J - - 2001
Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content ...
Wiechert U - - 2001
We have determined the abundances of 16O, 17O, and 18O in 31 lunar samples from Apollo missions 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17 using a high-precision laser fluorination technique. All oxygen isotope compositions plot within +/-0.016 per mil (2 standard deviations) on a single mass-dependent fractionation line that is identical ...
Baumgarten A - - 2001
Washed cells of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Marburg (DSM 2119) reduced oxygen to water with H(2) as electron donor at a mean rate of 253 nmol O(2) min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). After separating the periplasm from the cells, more than 60% of the cytochrome c activity and 90% of the oxygen-reducing activity ...
Neary J P - - 2001
In this study we examined the oxygenation trend of the vastus medialis muscle during sustained high-intensity exercise. Ten cyclists performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to voluntary exhaustion [mean (SD) maximum oxygen uptake 4.29 (0.63) l x min(-1); relative to body mass 60.8 (2.4) ml x kg(-1)min(-1)] and a simulated ...
Arieli R - - 2001
Central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity can occur as convulsions and loss of consciousness when hyperbaric oxygen is breathed in diving and hyperbaric medical therapy. Lin and Jamieson (J Appl Physiol 75: 1980-1983, 1993) reported that humidity in the inspired gas enhances CNS oxygen toxicity. Because alveolar gas is fully ...
Hoffmann U - - 2001
As the use of oxygen enhances the resorption of gas bubbles in decompression illness, it is recommended and generally accepted that the inspired oxygen concentration in emergency treatment of diving accidents has to be as close to 100% as possible. Therefore, several emergency oxygen devices are offered to the diving ...
Gallaugher P E - - 2001
To examine cardiorespiratory plasticity, cardiovascular function, oxygen consumption, oxygen delivery and osmotic balance were measured at velocities up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in seawater-adapted chinook salmon. We used two groups of fish. The control group had swum continuously for 4 months at a low intensity (0.5 BLs(-1)) and the ...
Tijerina M - - 2001
Photosensitizers, light-sensitive compounds, become activated upon illumination with a specific wavelength of light generating cytotoxic oxygen species. Due to the short half-life of singlet oxygen, the subcellular site of localization and excitation affects the type of cellular damage produced as well as cellular responses to different types of photodamage created ...
Froget G - - 2001
The use of heart rate to estimate field metabolic rate has become a more widely used technique. However, this method also has some limitations, among which is the possible impact that several variables such as sex, body condition (i.e. body fat stores) and/or inactivity might have on the relationship between ...
Sakamoto T - - 2001
Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cytochrome oxygenation could be a valuable technique to monitor cerebral intraneuronal oxygen delivery during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, the validity of the cytochrome signal has been questioned as it could easily be overwhelmed by the Hb signal. Five- to six-week-old control piglets (n = 5) underwent cardiopulmonary ...
Timmins G S - - 2001
Endogenous reductants such as hydrogen sulfide and alkylthiols provided free radical scavenging systems during the early evolution of life. The development of oxygenic photosynthesis spectacularly increased oxygen levels, and ancient life forms were obliged to develop additional antioxidative systems. We develop here the hypothesis of how "prototypical" bioluminescent reactions had ...
Bengtsson J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: "Ideal" alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) is a calculated entity and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (PA-aO2) is used to evaluate gas exchange function of the lungs. Accurate calculations of PAO2 necessitate measurements of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which is less frequently done, and most often approximations are made. ...
Bouwer S T - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to verify the concept of non-equilibrium facilitated oxygen diffusion. This work succeeds our previous study, where facilitated oxygen diffusion by hemoglobin was measured at conditions of chemical equilibrium, and which yielded diffusion coefficients of hemoglobin and of oxygen. In the present work chemical non-equilibrium ...
Saugstad O D - - 2001
Since the discovery of retrolental fibroplasia, and the role of oxygen in its development, oxygen has been considered a double-edged sword in neonatal medicine, the utmost care being exercised in order not to give too much oxygen (1). However, the important observation that hypoxaemia might induce pulmonary vasoconstriction (2) and ...
Holzer K - - 2001
The purpose of the study was to characterize oxygen radical generation by emigrated, intraabdominal and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (ePMNLs and cPMNLs) during peritonitis, as well as to assess any differences between oxygen radical production in patients with low Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI < 26, group 1) or high Mannheim peritonitis ...
Mills C E - - 2001
A purification procedure for flavohaemoglobin Hmp (NO oxygenase) is described that gives high yields of protein with equistoichiometric haem and FAD contents. H(2)O(2) accumulated on NADH oxidation by the purified protein and in cell extracts with elevated Hmp contents. H(2)O(2) probably arose by dismutation from superoxide, which was also detectable ...
van Bommel - - 2001
BACKGROUND: A critical point in oxygen supply for microvascular oxygenation during normovolemic hemodilution has not been identified. The relation between organ microvascular oxygen partial pressure (microPO2) and organ oxygen consumption (VO2) during a decreasing oxygen delivery (DO2) is not well understood. The present study was designed to determine the systemic ...
Smets B F - - 2001
Transformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Alcaligenes JS867 under varying degrees of oxygen limitation was examined. Complete 2,4-DNT removal was observed under oxygen excess with near stoichiometric release (83%) of nitrite. Average kinetic parameters were estimated based on a dual-Monod biokinetic model with 2,4-DNT and O2 as growth limiting substrates. The ...
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