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Results 301 - 350 of 986
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Shibuya Ken-ichi - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle oxygenation level at exhaustion and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in an incremental cycling exercise. Nine male subjects took part in an incremental exhaustive cycling exercise, and then cuff occlusion was performed. Changes in oxy-(deltaHbO2) and deoxy-(deltaHb) hemoglobin concentrations ...
van Iterson Mat - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In this study, the hypothesis was tested that resuscitation with hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) affects the oxygenation of the microcirculation differently between and within organs. To this end, we tested the influence of the volume of an HBOC on the microcirculatory oxygenation of the heart and the gut serosa ...
Vigeolas Helene - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d after flowering, when rapid lipid accumulation is occurring in the seeds. (a). By using microsensors, oxygen concentrations were measured ...
Sen Chandan K - - 2003
The orthodox view has been that reactive oxygen species are primarily damaging to cells. There is general agreement that while high (3%) doses of H(2)O(2) may serve as a clinical disinfectant, its overall effect on healing is not positive. Current work shows that at very low concentrations, reactive oxygen species ...
Miura Hajime - - 2004
This study tested whether regional differences in oxygenation status could result from differences in muscle fiber architecture. Architectural properties, oxygen supply, and consumption in the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) were determined in vivo in six men using B-mode ultrasound and functional near infrared (NIR) imaging devices. Fascicle ...
Tsukada Kosuke - - 2003
A catheter-type optical oxygen sensor based on phosphorescence lifetime was developed for medical and animal experimental use. Since the sensor probe should have biocompatibility and high oxygen permeability in vivo, we focused attention on acceptable polymer materials for contact lenses as the substrates of probes. Pd-porphyrin was doped in silicone-based ...
Lee C G - - 2003
The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen ...
Christopher Kent L - - 2003
Over the past 20 years a variety of transtracheal catheters have been developed for long-term oxygen therapy. A modified Seldinger technique has been the standard in the past, but a more recent procedure for surgical creation of the tracheocutaneous tract presents a number of potential advantages. TTO should be administered ...
Jensen Pernille N - - 2003
Storage of nuts at a high oxygen concentration results in rancid nuts whereas storage at a low oxygen concentration results in fine-tasting nuts. During a 13 month experiment, packaging of walnuts with an oxygen absorber was compared to packaging in nitrogen or atmospheric air. At the same time, the effects ...
Mizuno Masaki - - 2003
This investigation evaluated regional differences in blood flow and oxygen consumption and their relationship in exercised muscle during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Five healthy men performed exhaustive one-legged cycling exercise. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction in the quadriceps femoris muscle before ...
Zavorsky Gerald S - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion on arterial blood-gas status during 6.5 min strenuous cycling exercise comparing six athletes with and six athletes without exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). We hypothesized that plasma volume expansion could improve arterial oxygen pressure in a ...
Brunelli Alessandro - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of postoperative exercise oxygen desaturation (EOD) in patients submitted to lobectomy or pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 227 patients with non-small cell lung cancer submitted to lobectomy or pneumonectomy from January 2000 through October 2002 were prospectively analyzed. Maximal stair-climbing ...
Zhao Weili - - 2003
A Raman scattering system was used to measure the O2 (a1delta) yield end the chlorine utilization in a singlet oxygen generator of chemical oxygen iodine laser with nitrogen diluent. We present the results from the tests that conducted on a 0.1-mol/s jet-type singlet oxygen-iodine generator. On the basis of the ...
Li Gai-Ru - - 2003
Oxygen is the most effective dynamic quencher in liquid room temperature phosphorimetry (LRTP). Using oxygen scavenger to achieve significant or more sensitive RTP signals may bring about kinds of trouble in many cases and is apparently not very convenient in procedures. To date a few examples on LRTP without deoxygenation ...
Chieregato A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Normal values of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation were obtained in 1942 and in 1963. Correct catheter positioning was not confirmed radiologically. OBJECTIVES: To replicate the measurements during angiographic catheterisation of the jugular bulb. METHODS: Oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO(2)), inferior petrosal sinus (SipsO(2)), and internal jugular ...
Downs John B - - 2003
Modern clinical use of supplemental oxygen supposes that: (1) exposure to F(IO)(2) < or = 60% is without adverse effects, (2) an individual at risk of developing arterial hypoxemia can be protected by administering high F(IO)(2), and (3) routine administration of supplemental oxygen is useful, harmless, and clinically indicated. There ...
Boumphrey S M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The administration of oxygen at a high-inspired concentration is often required in medicine, particularly in resuscitation of critically ill patients. However, there is a lack of evidence-based guidance on how to achieve this using currently available apparatus. The aim of this study was to assess how maximum inspired oxygen ...
Primhak R A - - 2003
This article deals with the discharge planning and continuing care of babies with chronic lung disease of the newborn (CLD), especially those with a continuing oxygen requirement, with some reference to longer term outcome. The pattern of CLD has changed since early descriptions, and the most useful definition for persisting ...
van Dongen Joost T - - 2003
We have investigated the consequences of endogenous limitations in oxygen delivery for phloem transport in Ricinus communis. In situ oxygen profiles were measured directly across stems of plants growing in air (21% [v/v] oxygen), using a microsensor with a tip diameter of approximately 30 microm. Oxygen levels decreased from 21% ...
Denninghoff Kurt R - - 2003
The objective was to test calibration of an eye oximeter (EOX) in a vitiligo swine eye and correlate retinal venous oxygen saturation (Srv(O(2))), mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv(O(2))), and cardiac output (CO) during robust changes in blood volume. Ten anesthetized adult Sinclair swine with retinal vitiligo were placed on stepwise ...
Heyen U - - 2003
Media and growth conditions were optimized for the microaerobic cultivation of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in flasks and in a fermentor, resulting in significantly increased cell and magnetosome yields, compared with earlier studies. A reliable method was established for the automatic control of low dissolved oxygen tensions (pO(2)) in the fermentor (oxystat). ...
Rajakumar A - - 2003
Pre-eclamptic (PE) placentae overexpress hypoxia inducible transcription factors-1alpha and -2alpha proteins (Biol. Repro. 64: 499-506, 2001; Ibid 1019-1020). Possible explanations include (a) impaired oxygen-dependent reduction, and/or (b) enhanced sensitivity to reduced oxygen. After 18 h equilibration under 21 per cent O(2) atmosphere, we subjected villous explants prepared from placentae of ...
Farrell A P - - 2003
For most teleost fish, the majority of the myocardial oxygen supply is provided by the oxygen reserve remaining in venous blood after other tissues have extracted oxygen. We examined the effect of graded exercise and water temperature on this venous blood oxygen supply to the heart (termed the cardiac circulation) ...
Land Stephen C - - 2003
Oxygen-sensing pathways have been extensively explored in the context of homeostatic responses to hypoxic episodes; however, little is known of their involvement in the morphogenesis of respiratory structures (mitochondria, placenta, lung) during development in utero. This review identifies four essential loci where oxygen signalling pathways may cue the development of ...
Wolff Christopher B - - 2003
Cardiac output (Q) changes linearly with oxygen consumption (VO2) in normal subjects undertaking submaximal exercise (Q = A + B x VO2 where A is the y intercept and B the slope). If (hypothesis 1) the increase in cardiac output above the resting state represents the blood flow to exercising ...
Radhakrishnan Krishnan - - 2003
An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). ...
Vasserot Y - - 2003
The capacity of yeast lees to remove thiols was investigated in a synthetic medium and in wine. In a synthetic medium, yeast lees are able to reduce thiol concentration with a concomitant production of a disulfide. In wine, thiol consumption is lower than in the synthetic medium and no disulfide ...
Edmark Lennart - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The use of 100% oxygen during induction of anesthesia may produce atelectasis. The authors investigated how different oxygen concentrations affect the formation of atelectasis and the fall in arterial oxygen saturation during apnea. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy, nonsmoking women were randomized to breathe 100, 80, or 60% oxygen for 5 ...
Sahoo Goloka Behari - - 2003
A one-dimensional bubble plume model is described to predict the gaseous mass transfer of air bubbles into ambient water and the appropriate design criteria of a bubbler for a linearly stratified reservoir. The bubble plume behavior is governed by two dimensionless parameters: G, the strength of stratification, and M, the ...
Hendeles Leslie - - 2003
Bronchospasm precipitated by exercise is often indistinguishable from bronchospasm produced by other stimuli. Symptoms result from airflow limitation and include wheezing, cough, chest tightness, dyspnea and sometimes hypoxemia. The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm varies from 30%-90%, but virtually all patients with current asthma will experience a decrease in lung function ...
Yu Hyung Suk - - 2002
Bacterial aerotaxis is a rapid response towards or away from oxygen. Here we report on the use of computer-assisted motion analysis coupled to flash photolysis of caged oxygen to quantify aerotactic responses in bacteria. The caged compound (mu-peroxo)(mu-hydroxo)bis[bis(bipyridyl) cobalt(III)] perchlorate liberates molecular oxygen upon irradiation with near-UV light. A mixture ...
Madhani Melanie - - 2002
The effects of the antibacterial peptide PR-39 on nitric oxide (NO) and liver oxygenation (pO(2)) in a mouse model of endotoxaemia have been explored. In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to make direct measurements of liver NO and pO(2). Measurements of pO(2) were made at two different ...
Pridemore William Alex - - 2002
In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine ...
Hummler Helmut D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the effects of low perfusion caused by emerging sepsis on the reliability of a new pulse oximetry technology (Masimo SET; IVY 405T) compared with a standard pulse oximeter (Nellcor N-200). DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: University animal research facility. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six anesthetized, ventilated (Fio, 1.0), adult rabbits. ...
Kalliokoski Kari K - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent and continuous static exercise on muscle perfusion, perfusion heterogeneity, and oxygen extraction. Perfusion and oxygen uptake of quadriceps femoris muscle were measured in 10 healthy men by using positron emission tomography and [(15)O]H(2)O and [(15)O]O(2) first during intermittent ...
Fournell Artur - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on gastric mucosal oxygen saturation assessed by reflectance spectrophotometry in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: A division of cardiothoracic anesthesia in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve consecutive patients undergoing CPB. INTERVENTIONS: Monitoring, anesthesia, surgical ...
Thavasothy M - - 2002
In this study cerebral oxygenation was measured using the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 spectrophotometers in 10 healthy adult volunteers, exposed to varying degrees of hyperoxia and hypoxia. The results showed similar baseline values for tissue oxygenation index and regional cerebral oxygen saturation with mean (SD) values being 64.9% ...
Akça Ozan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Wound infections are common, serious, surgical complications. Oxidative killing by neutrophils is the primary defense against surgical pathogens and increasing intraoperative tissue oxygen tension markedly reduces the risk of such infections. Since hypercapnia improves cardiac output and peripheral tissue perfusion, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral tissue oxygenation increases ...
Fantini Sergio - - 2002
We present a model that describes the effect of physiological parameters such as the speed of blood flow, local oxygen consumption, capillary recruitment, and vascular dilation/constriction on the concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in tissue. This model can be used to guide the physiological interpretation of haemodynamic and oximetric ...
Mokuolu Olugbenga A - - 2002
A 3-year experience of using an oxygen concentrator in a Nigerian newborn unit and economic appraisal of its effectiveness is reported. The oxygen concentrator is a device that absorbs nitrogen from ambient air, with a resultant oxygen concentration of 85 to 95% at different flow rates. The oxygen concentrator met ...
van Bommel Jasper - - 2002
BACKGROUND: During severe isovolemic hemodilution, determination of critical hematocrit levels for the microvascular oxygenation of different organs might provide more insight into the effect of the redistribution of blood flow and oxygen delivery on the oxygenation of different organs. The effect of an increased amount of dissolved oxygen on tissue ...
Zhang Wensheng - - 2002
In this model of oxygen transport in the renal medullary microcirculation, we predicted that the net amount of oxygen reabsorbed from vasa recta into the interstitium is on the order of 10(-6) mmol/s, i.e., significantly lower than estimated medullary oxygen requirements based on active sodium reabsorption. Our simulations confirmed a ...
Roast Stephen D - - 2002
Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) occupies the upper, low-salinity regions of estuaries in Europe, where it can experience periods of reduced oxygen concentration associated with the maximum turbidity zone. The present study reports the distribution of N. integer in response to gradients of dissolved oxygen in combination with environmentally realistic cadmium ...
Tiep Brian L - - 2002
BACKGROUND:Oxygen-conserving devices have been the foundation of highly portable oxygen systems that enable hypoxemic chronic lung disease patients to live active lives. Pulsing demand oxygen delivery systems (DODS) can adequately oxygenate most patients at rest and usually during exercise. However, some patients desaturate during exercise at DODS settings equivalent to ...
Tehrani Fleur - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Supplemental oxygen treatment of patients on mechanical ventilation is crucial in maintaining the patients' oxygen levels in the normal range. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a closed-loop controller for automatic adjustment of the fraction of inspired oxygen, FIO2. More specifically, the aim of ...
Farrell A P - - 2002
Studies in the laboratory with salmonids and now in the field with wild salmon clearly show that critical swimming performance has an optimum temperature. This temperature optimum is coincident with maximum aerobic scope and maximum cardiac scope. At a temperature that is higher than this optimum, however, whole animal performance ...
Oda Jun - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on the relationship between systemic oxygen consumption and oxygen delivery. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized and ventilated rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Rabbits were subjected to stepwise cardiac tamponade to reduce oxygen delivery while body temperature was maintained at 34 ...
Ntefidou Maria - - 2002
In the absence of other external stimuli the motile, unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis normally swims upward in the water column (negative gravitaxis). This behavior is most likely triggered by active physiological orientation mechanisms. Recently it was found that negative gravitaxis often inverts to a positive one upon high light ...
Ward W K - - 2002
The primary objective was to develop a telemetric oxygen sensor designed for implantation in subcutaneous tissue. In the sensor, the platinum indicating electrode was covered with polythene to retard oxygen entry and avoid interference. Given the potential for large indicating electrodes to deplete oxygen in vivo, some sensors were made ...
Alegria Antonio E - - 2002
Four terpenylnaphthoquinones were found to enhance the rate of superoxide production in the presence of ascorbate as detected from the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable initial oxygen consumption rates. Initial rates of oxygen consumption in the presence of ascorbate plus quinone increase with an increase in the half-wave reduction potentials of the ...
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