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Results 251 - 300 of 995
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García-Cantizano Josefina - - 2005
Partitioning of CO(2) incorporation into oxygenic phototrophic, anoxygenic phototrophic, and chemolithoautotrophic guilds was determined in a freshwater lake (Lake Cisó, Banyoles, Spain). CO(2) incorporation into the different types of microorganisms was studied at different depths, during diel cycles, and throughout the year. During winter holomixis, the whole lake became anoxic ...
McNamara M J - - 2005
Hypoxaemia during open-airway apnoea, e.g. during brainstem death testing, may cause organ damage. The effect of ambient oxygen fraction on the extent of hypoxaemia has not been established. We validated the Nottingham Physiology Simulator in this context by reproducing the methodologies and results of four published clinical studies. We then ...
O'Neill B - - 2005
The prescription of home oxygen cylinders is substantial. This study aimed to establish patient's current use of short burst oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to examine potential cost savings if cylinder use had been replaced by a concentrator. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed by 100 patients ...
Yamada Eiji - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on oxygenation of vastus lateralis muscle during squatting exercise. Eighteen male subjects [mean age, 27.3 +/- 6.0 (SD) years; mean height, 171.8 +/- 4.9 cm; mean weight, 64.4 +/- 6.1 kg] performed squatting exercise on ...
Dixon Benjamin J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Class III obese patients have altered respiratory mechanics, which are further impaired in the supine position. The authors explored the hypothesis that preoxygenation in the 25 degrees head-up position allows a greater safety margin for induction of anesthesia than the supine position. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial measured oxygen ...
Lacasse Y - - 2005
Long-term oxygen therapy may limit a patient's ability to remain active and may be detrimental to the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to determine the effect of ambulatory oxygen on quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease fulfilling the usual criteria of long-term oxygen ...
Hoelper B M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Oxygen tension sensors have been used to monitor tissue oxygenation in human brain for several years. The working principals of the most frequently used sensors, the Licox (LX) and Neurotrend (NT), are different, and they have never been validated independently for correct measurement in vitro. Therefore, we tried to ...
Arain Sarina - - 2005
Microplates with integrated optical oxygen sensors are a new tool to study metabolic rates and enzyme activities. Precise measurements are possible only if oxygen exchange between the sample and the environment is known. In this study we quantify gas exchange in plastic microplates. Dissolved oxygen was detected using either an ...
Khoshbin Espeed - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To report a single case of oxygenator failure caused by clot embolism originating from the bladder; and to discuss some preventative options. CASE REPORT: A 2.5 kg neonate with a diagnosis of influenza A received veno-arterial (V-A) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiorespiratory support. Halfway through treatment, she underwent ...
Bickler Philip E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether skin pigmentation affects pulse oximeter accuracy at low HbO2 saturation. METHODS: The accuracy of finger pulse oximeters during stable, plateau levels of arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) between 60 and 100% were evaluated in 11 subjects with darkly pigmented skin and in 10 with light skin ...
Peralta Ruben - - 2005
Near drowning is a common event among otherwise healthy young people. The development of ARDS in the setting may significantly increase mortality. The traditional means of ventilation may lead to barotrauma. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective means to improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide, while allowing the lungs ...
Warren C P W - - 2005
Oxygen was identified at the end of the 18th century by three independent researchers. It was first used indiscriminately with other gases for treatment of pulmonary diseases by Thomas Beddoes. In the 19th century, the physiological properties of oxygen were identified by many researchers. In that same century, physicians used ...
Corbari Laure - - 2005
We studied basic principles of respiratory physiology in Cylindroleberididae, Cylindroleberis mariae Baird 1850, which are millimetre-sized crustaceans (myodocop ostracod) having a fossil record dating back to about 425 millions years ago. Facing experimental changes of O2 partial pressures in the range 2-40 kPa (normoxia is 21 kPa), C. mariae lack ...
Rahardjo Yovita S P - - 2005
Oxygen transfer in the fungal mat is a major concern in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Oxygen supply into the mycelial layers is hampered by diffusion limitation. For aerobic fungi, like Aspergillus oryzae, this oxygen depletion can be a severely limiting factor for growth and metabolite production. This paper describes the effects ...
Hayter Tina L - - 2005
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) devices are being marketed as weight/ fat loss devices throughout the world. Commercially available stimulators have the ability to evoke muscle contractions that may affect caloric expenditure while the device is being used. The aim of this study was to test the effects of two different ...
Schuchardt A - - 2005
In order to develop a process control scheme to reduce energy costs for aeration in activated sludge systems with biological P removal, pre-denitrification and nitrification stages, the spatial distribution of carbon oxidation and nitrification was evaluated over a long full-scale plug flow aeration basin using an externally measured specific oxygen ...
Jacobsen D J - - 2005
Oxygen consumption after exercise is frequently plotted as a function of time and then the area under the curve (AUC) is calculated. Subsequently, this AUC is further manipulated and thus, differences between these manipulations may impact the interpretation of changes in oxygen consumption after exercise. The purpose of this study ...
Park J I - - 2005
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxygen tension during IVM and/or IVC on developmental competence of porcine follicular oocytes. Prospective, randomized experiments were designed, and oocytes were matured, inseminated and cultured in vitro in the designated condition. In experiment 1, either high (20%) or low (7%) oxygen ...
Bradley J M - - 2005
Ambulatory oxygen is defined as the use of supplemental oxygen during exercise and activities of daily living. Ambulatory oxygen therapy is often used for patients on long term oxygen therapy during exercise, or for non long term oxygen therapy users who achieve some subjective and/or objective benefit from oxygen during ...
Bradley J M - - 2005
Ambulatory oxygen is defined as the use of supplemental oxygen during exercise and activities of daily living. Ambulatory oxygen therapy is often used for patients on long term oxygen therapy during exercise, or for non long term oxygen therapy users who achieve some subjective and/or objective benefit from oxygen during ...
Moon Hyunsoo - - 2004
The dynamic behavior of a mediator-less, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as a continuous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. The response time and the sensitivity were analyzed through the step-change testing of the fuel concentration. The MFC of 25 ml had the shortest response time of 36 +/- 2 ...
Nakada Masakatsu - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinetics of muscle oxygenation by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the phase of the decreasing force, especially the pre- and post-phases of the inflection point, during repeated rhythmic grip (RRG) of 30 grips/min(-1) for 6 minutes. The inflection point was the ...
McGuire B J - - 2004
A Krogh-type model for oxygen transport is used to predict maximal oxygen consumption (V(.-) O(2max)) of human skeletal muscle under hypoxic conditions. Assumed values of capillary density, blood flow, and hemoglobin concentration are based on measurements under normoxic and hypoxic exercise conditions. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen is assumed to ...
Schwarte Lothar A - - 2005
Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) compromizes intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that contributors herein include redistribution of oxygen away from the intestines and shunting of oxygen within the intestines. The latter may be due to the impaired ability of erythrocytes to off-load oxygen within ...
Wettstein Reto - - 2004
Our aim was to determine the efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated human albumin (MalPEG-Alb) in restoring circulatory volume after 1 h of hemorrhagic shock. Experiments were performed in the awake condition in the hamster skin fold preparation. Microhemodynamic parameters and tissue Po2 were assessed with intravital microscopy and the use of ...
Johnson Karen L - - 2004
Accurate assessment and treatment of disturbances in oxygenation are crucial to optimal outcomes in critically ill patients. Oxygenation is dependent upon adequate pulmonary gas exchange, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption. Each of these physiologic processes may vary independently in response to pathophysiologic conditions and therapeutic interventions. The author reviews diagnostic ...
Fuhrman C - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of four demand oxygen delivery systems (DODS) in improving oxygenation and effort tolerance, at rest and during exercise, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen COPD patients were prospectively included. Four DODS (Oxiclip, Versatile, Venture ...
Barros Mario H - - 2004
Increased replicative longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of calorie restriction has been linked to enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity. Here we have further investigated how mitochondrial respiration affects yeast life span. We found that calorie restriction by growth in low glucose increased respiration but decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production relative ...
Henry Joanna R - - 2004
Structural changes in the tracheal system during development have the potential to allow insects to compensate for varying oxygen availability. Despite possible compensation, oxygen level during development may also affect insect body size. We investigated how atmospheric oxygen level affects the dimensions of the main dorsal tracheae (DT) and masses ...
Cringle Stephen J - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the ability of the retina and choroid in the avascular region of the rabbit retina to regulate intraretinal oxygen levels during periods of acute systemic hyperoxia. METHODS: Oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen tension as a function of depth through the retina and choroid in anesthetized ...
Fujio M - - 2004
Equilibrium constants are reported for the ionization of benzylic alcohols to carbocations stabilized by cyclic or acyclic o-alkyl or o-oxygen substituents. The measurements were stimulated by the observation of small or inverse effects of replacement of an o-CH2 group by O or S in the cyclopentyl ring of indanol (kO/kCH2 ...
Bhambhani Yagesh N - - 2004
During the last decade, NIRS has been used extensively to evaluate the changes in muscle oxygenation and blood volume during a variety of exercise modes. The important findings from this research are as follows: (a) There is a strong correlation between the lactate (ventilatory) threshold during incremental cycle exercise and ...
Widory David - - 2004
Both oxygen and nitrogen isotope compositions (delta18O and delta15N) of exhaled air from 10 individuals were measured. Results show linear relations between isotope variation and the fraction of O2 used during the respiration process. The isotopic influence of physiological parameters such as smoking habits, age, haemoglobin count, oxygen fixation rate ...
Sumitani Makoto - - 2004
An organic/inorganic hybrid compound consisting of methylene blue, a cationic surfactant and a reductant intercalated into saponite was found to serve as an oxygen indicator that changes color in the presence of oxygen. A mixture of a blue colored dye, methylene blue, a reductant in the form of ascorbic acid ...
Hanl Lars - - 2005
The effect of decreasing oxygen feed rates on the growth and metabolism of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat cultures was investigated. The biosynthetic oxygen requirement, i.e. the minimum specific oxygen consumption rate required for steady-state growth at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1), of T. delbrueckii was quantified ...
McNulty Richard - - 2004
Opacification of the lens nucleus is a major cause of blindness and is thought to result from oxidation of key cellular components. Thus, long-term preservation of lens clarity may depend on the maintenance of hypoxia in the lens nucleus. We mapped the distribution of dissolved oxygen within isolated bovine lenses ...
Aydin Atakan - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Ingestion of button battery, if lodges in esophagus, causes mucosal destruction in esophagus and may damage surrounding tissues due to electrochemical reactions which may lead to esophagus perforation, tracheosefageal fistula and other serious problems. We designed an experimental study to test the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on battery ...
van Dongen Joost T - - 2004
We studied the influence of the internal oxygen concentration in seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum) on storage metabolism and its relation to phloem import of nutrients. Wheat seeds that were developing at ambient oxygen (21%) were found to be hypoxic (2.1%). Altering the oxygen supply by decreasing or increasing the ...
Secomb Timothy W - - 2004
PURPOSE: To simulate effects of reduced oxygen consumption combined with hyperoxic gas breathing on tumor oxygenation, and to test for synergistic effects. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Diffusive oxygen transport was simulated for a small region of tumor containing a three-dimensional network of microvessels whose geometry was derived from in vivo observations. ...
Shibuya Ken-Ichi - - 2004
This study examined cerebral deoxygenation during intermittent supramaximal exercise in six healthy male subjects (age: 27.2 +/- 0.6 years (mean +/- S.E.). The subjects performed seven times exercise at an intensity corresponding to 150% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on cycle ergometer (30 s exercise/15 s rest). Cerebral oxygenation was ...
DeMeo Dawn L - - 2004
We investigated the association between fine particulate air pollution and oxygen saturation as measured with a peripheral oxygen saturation monitor during a 12-week repeated-measures study of 28 older Boston residents. Oxygen saturation and air pollution particulates with a mean diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm were measured continuously ...
Kimura Kazunori - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Intracavernosal oxygen tension varies greatly in the process of erection. Blood extracted from the human penis demonstrates an increase from approximately 30 mmHg Po(2) in the flaccid state to 100 mmHg in the erect state of the penis. In the present study, using these levels as a guide, we ...
Li Jia - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 on the balance between systemic oxygen consumption and oxygen delivery after cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets. METHODS: Twelve piglets weighing 4.5 to 8.3 kg undergoing hypothermic (28 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass for 70 to 120 minutes with 40 minutes ...
Kaya Takatoshi - - 2004
The metabolic activity of E. coli cells embedded in collagen gel microstructures in a cone-shaped well and in a cylindrical micropore was investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), based on the oxygen consumption rate and the conversion rate from ferrocyanide to ferricyanide. The analysis of the concentration profiles for oxygen ...
Radstrom M - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The kneeling prone position is often used for low back surgery in order to decrease intraoperative bleeding and increase the surgical exposure of the vertebral canal. The aim of this study was to assess effects of the kneeling prone position on respiratory gas exchange focusing on oxygen ...
Kalliokoski Kari K - - 2004
Capillary transit time and its heterogeneity have a marked impact on oxygen extraction in different tissues. Animal studies have shown that exercise shortens capillary transit time but the effects on capillary transit time heterogeneity have been controversial. We investigated whether exercise changes muscle blood transit time heterogeneity in humans in ...
Shibuya Ken-ichi - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the onset kinetics of muscle oxygenation in localized working muscle (mOxy) was affected by differences in exercise intensity. Five healthy male subjects exercised for 6 min at 125 W, 150 W, and 175 W, and 1 min at 300 W on ...
Kolb Jon C - - 2004
Validation of pulse oximetry in commercially available normobaric hypoxic chambers (NHC) has not been previously reported. The present study examined the validity of pulse oximetry (SpO2) against direct measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) via co-oximetry (AVOXimeter 4000) in 13 young adults age 21.3 +/- 0.6 years. Over a period ...
Staab A - - 2004
Chinese hamster V79-379A spheroids 200 +/- 30 microm (+/- SD) in diameter were irradiated in agitated medium in different oxygen atmospheres with (1) 227 MeV/nucleon (12)C(+6) ions (plateau region) to model tissue in the entrance channel during therapy, (2) carbon ions in the extended Bragg peak modeling tissue in the ...
Cong Yan-qing - - 2004
A novel in-situ electrochemical oxidation method was applied to the degradation of wastewater containing chlorophenol. Under oxygen sparging, the strong oxidant, hydrogen dioxide, could be in-situ generated through the reduction of oxygen on the surface of the cathode. The removal rate of chlorophenol could be increased 149% when oxygen was ...
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