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Results 201 - 250 of 973
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Mathru Mali - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In conscious humans, reduction in hemoglobin concentration to 5 g/dl did not produce inadequate systemic oxygenation. However, systemic measures of inadequate oxygenation may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect inadequate oxygenation in individual organs such as splanchnic organs. The authors tested the hypothesis that acute normovolemic anemia to hemoglobin ...
Russell John A - - 2006
Venous outflow obstruction is the most common cause of tissue failure after microvascular reconstructive surgery. If it is not recognized early, there is an increased risk of tissue damage and loss. Currently, however, there are no adequate models for the study of this clinical problem. The purpose of this study ...
Shibata Masahiro - - 2006
We tested the hypothesis that oxygen is supplied to the resting skeletal muscle by arterioles rather than by capillaries. This hypothesis was evaluated in rats and rabbits by combining different approaches (1) determination of the intravascular oxygen tension (PO2) in arterioles of different diameters, (2) measurement of the perfused capillary ...
Kidder George W GW - - 2006
We have developed a flow-through method for measuring oxygen consumption in fish which allows continuous monitoring over periods of days with good accuracy. Our goal was to determine the changes in basal metabolic rate in estuarine fish as a function of salinity. We show that in Fundulus heteroclitus, the oxygen ...
Richmond Julie P - - 2006
Two key factors influence the diving and hence foraging ability of marine mammals: increased oxygen stores prolong aerobic metabolism and decreased metabolism slows rate of fuel consumption. In young animals, foraging ability may be physiologically limited due to low total body oxygen stores and high mass specific metabolic rates. To ...
Yu Dao-Yi - - 2006
PURPOSE: To make the first measurements of intraretinal oxygen distribution in the mouse, an animal model of increasing importance in ophthalmic research. METHODS: Oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen tension as a function of depth through the retina and choroid in anesthetized mice (n = 8). All measurements were ...
Futrell James W JW - - 2006
Facemasks and nasal cannulae are used to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in the postoperative period after general anesthesia. These devices are associated with several patient complications, including aspiration, hypercarbia, and mechanical trauma. A new device, the OxyArm, is designed to eliminate these problems. It is an "open oxygen" system ...
Mimura, Tatsuya
MIMURA, T., TANAKA, S., ISHIHARA, K., WADAZUMI, T., MIYAMOTO, T., FUJIWARA, H. and FUJIMOTO, S., Relationships Among Muscle Oxygenation, Blood Lactate Concentration, and Substrate Utilization During Prolonged Exercise Below Anaerobic Threshold. Abv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.9, No.4 pp.111-117, 2003. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among ...
Kawahara, Yayoi
KAWAHARA, Y., MIZUNO, M., IWAKAWA, T., NAKAMURA, Y. and MURAOKA, I. Relationship Between Oxygen Supply and Consumption in Exercised Muscle During Recovery. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.11, No.2 pp55-60, 2005. The purposes of this study were to measure muscle oxygenation kinetics and the oxygen consumption index (OCI) and the oxygen ...
Braun Jan-Peter - - 2006
Normothermic, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) impairs systemic and splanchnic oxygen transport and increases gastrointestinal permeability. It is an important therapeutic goal to avoid splanchnic dysoxia during CPB. Small-dose prostacyclin therapy improves splanchnic oxygen transport and microcirculation in septic patients. In this study, we sought to determine if during cardiac surgery, ...
Su Steven W - - 2006
This paper aims to establish block-structured nonlinear model (Hammerstein model) to predict oxygen uptake during moderate treadmill exercises. In order to model the steady state relationship between oxygen uptake (oxygen consumption) and walking speed, six healthy male subjects walked on a motor driven treadmill at six different speed (2,3,4,5,6, and ...
Rollins M D - - 2006
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) increases wound oxygen delivery, but few data quantify wound oxygen levels over the course of healing. We characterized these changes during and after HBO2 treatment in a rat wound model. The treatment group (n=7) received 2.0 ATA HBO2, 90 minutes BID for 15 days. Control rats (n=5) ...
Collins Aaron M - - 2006
A patient with severe hypothermia presented with an initial rectal temperature of 28.3 degrees C coupled with a hemoglobin of 2.2 g x dL(-1) and acute pancreatitis. Although hypothermia decreases oxygen and substrate consumption by tissues and can be cerebro-protective, the ideal rewarming strategy is unclear when the oxygen-delivery system ...
Acker Helmut - - 2005
Structural and functional integrity of organ function profoundly depends on a regular oxygen and glucose supply. Any disturbance of this supply becomes life threatening and may result in severe loss of organ function. Particular reductions in oxygen availability (hypoxia) caused by respiratory or blood circulation irregularities cannot be tolerated for ...
Pareek Mamta - - 2006
Armillaria luteobubalina produces air pores in culture. They consist of two parts: a basal region of tissue elevated to form a mound covered with a rind continuous with that of the colony, but perforated; and an apical region of long parallel hyphae, cemented together by scattered patches of extracellular material. ...
Williams D L - - 2006
Cystic lesions in the eyes of farmed halibut with a number of ocular sequelae have been reported previously with evidence that the condition can be associated with increased activity of choroidal carbonic anhydrase and elevated oxygen tension in the aqueous humour of affected fish. These changes may be compared to ...
Freitag Marc - - 2005
PURPOSE: While the effects of dilutional anemia or isovolemic hemodilution (IHD) on the oxygen extraction and tissue oxygenation in peripheral organs after application of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers like HBOC-201 have been studied intensively, little is known about tissue oxygenation properties of hemoglobin solutions in central organs like the liver. METHODS: ...
Zhu Zhiwen - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if an oxygen prescription based on continuous oximetry monitoring, would result in an increased percentage of time spent within an SpO2 level between 88% and 92%. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, cohort study in an outpatient, pulmonary setting in a ...
Schears Gregory - - 2005
The oxygen distribution in the microcirculation of the piglet's brain and striatal extracellular dopamine were determined during repetitive apnea and resuscitation with 21% or 100% oxygen. Pre-apnea cortical oxygen was 49.5+/-10.4 mm Hg and during each apnea decreased to 8+/-0.9 mm Hg. After ten apneic episodes followed by resuscitation with ...
Rahardjo Yovita S P - - 2005
In this paper, the effects of bed porosity, bran and specific surface area on the oxygen uptake rate and alpha-amylase production during growth of Aspergillus oryzae on wheat grain and wheat-flour substrate are reported. The high oxygen uptake rate found during cultivation of A. oryzae on wheat-flour substrate was not ...
Lopes Paulo - - 2005
Oxygen is one of the most important factors determining the aging potential of bottled wine, and oxygen diffusion into bottled wine is extremely dependent on the sealing effectiveness of the closure. A nondestructive colorimetric method was developed to measure oxygen diffusion from 1 to 9.8 mg/L during the postbottling period. ...
Altermatt F R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In obese patients, reduced functional residual capacity exacerbated by supine position might decrease the effectiveness of pre-oxygenation and the tolerance to apnoea. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of body posture during pre-oxygenation, sitting or supine, on its effectiveness in obese patients. METHODS: Forty obese ...
Stirling J R - - 2005
We present a new model of the underlying dynamics of the oxygen uptake VO2(v,t) kinetics for various exercise intensities. This model is in the form of a set of nonlinear coupled vector fields for the VO2(v,t) and v, the derivative of the exercise intensity with respect to time. We also ...
Foss Ø - - 2005
The aim of this study was to validate a computerized metabolic system with mixing chamber (Oxycon Pro, Erich Jaeger GmbH, Hoechberg, Germany) against the Douglas bag method (1) over a large range of ventilations and (2) for drift during shorter (25-min time trial) and longer (approximately three months) test periods. ...
Watson M A - - 2005
The Ilizarov fixator consists of tensioned wires that attach bone segments to a modular frame. The aim of this study was to establish the accuracy and precision of the wire-tensioning device supplied with the Ilizarov external fixation system. The device was used to tension a wire in direct opposition to ...
Chu C P - - 2005
The anaerobic digestion rate for flocculated sludge has been considered to be lower than that of original sludge, particularly in the later stages of digestion; attributed this relatively slower rate to the increased mass transfer resistance for reactants through the large flocs after flocculation. This study confirmed that methane production ...
Fakler Ullrich - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the differences in assumed and measured oxygen consumption values for the determination of cardiac output by using the Fick principle in a pediatric population with congenital heart disease. METHODS: The patient population consisted of 143 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years (age range, ...
Morris R W - - 2005
The ability of experienced anaesthetists to discern oxygen saturation by listening to the tones of a Datex AS3 pulse oximeter was examined. Five-second samples were recorded using a high fidelity patient simulator and replayed singly and in pairs. Whilst the lower saturations were generally recognized as lower, the perceived range ...
Harrison Jon F - - 2005
How does body size affect the structure and gas exchange capacities of insect tracheae? Do insects become more oxygen-limited as they grow? We addressed these questions by measuring the dimensions of two transverse tracheae within the abdomen of American locusts of different ages, and evaluating the potential for diffusion or ...
García-Cantizano Josefina - - 2005
Partitioning of CO(2) incorporation into oxygenic phototrophic, anoxygenic phototrophic, and chemolithoautotrophic guilds was determined in a freshwater lake (Lake Cisó, Banyoles, Spain). CO(2) incorporation into the different types of microorganisms was studied at different depths, during diel cycles, and throughout the year. During winter holomixis, the whole lake became anoxic ...
McNamara M J - - 2005
Hypoxaemia during open-airway apnoea, e.g. during brainstem death testing, may cause organ damage. The effect of ambient oxygen fraction on the extent of hypoxaemia has not been established. We validated the Nottingham Physiology Simulator in this context by reproducing the methodologies and results of four published clinical studies. We then ...
O'Neill B - - 2005
The prescription of home oxygen cylinders is substantial. This study aimed to establish patient's current use of short burst oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to examine potential cost savings if cylinder use had been replaced by a concentrator. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed by 100 patients ...
Yamada Eiji - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on oxygenation of vastus lateralis muscle during squatting exercise. Eighteen male subjects [mean age, 27.3 +/- 6.0 (SD) years; mean height, 171.8 +/- 4.9 cm; mean weight, 64.4 +/- 6.1 kg] performed squatting exercise on ...
Dixon Benjamin J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Class III obese patients have altered respiratory mechanics, which are further impaired in the supine position. The authors explored the hypothesis that preoxygenation in the 25 degrees head-up position allows a greater safety margin for induction of anesthesia than the supine position. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial measured oxygen ...
Lacasse Y - - 2005
Long-term oxygen therapy may limit a patient's ability to remain active and may be detrimental to the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to determine the effect of ambulatory oxygen on quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease fulfilling the usual criteria of long-term oxygen ...
Hoelper B M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Oxygen tension sensors have been used to monitor tissue oxygenation in human brain for several years. The working principals of the most frequently used sensors, the Licox (LX) and Neurotrend (NT), are different, and they have never been validated independently for correct measurement in vitro. Therefore, we tried to ...
Arain Sarina - - 2005
Microplates with integrated optical oxygen sensors are a new tool to study metabolic rates and enzyme activities. Precise measurements are possible only if oxygen exchange between the sample and the environment is known. In this study we quantify gas exchange in plastic microplates. Dissolved oxygen was detected using either an ...
Khoshbin Espeed - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To report a single case of oxygenator failure caused by clot embolism originating from the bladder; and to discuss some preventative options. CASE REPORT: A 2.5 kg neonate with a diagnosis of influenza A received veno-arterial (V-A) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiorespiratory support. Halfway through treatment, she underwent ...
Bickler Philip E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether skin pigmentation affects pulse oximeter accuracy at low HbO2 saturation. METHODS: The accuracy of finger pulse oximeters during stable, plateau levels of arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) between 60 and 100% were evaluated in 11 subjects with darkly pigmented skin and in 10 with light skin ...
Peralta Ruben - - 2005
Near drowning is a common event among otherwise healthy young people. The development of ARDS in the setting may significantly increase mortality. The traditional means of ventilation may lead to barotrauma. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective means to improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide, while allowing the lungs ...
Warren C P W - - 2005
Oxygen was identified at the end of the 18th century by three independent researchers. It was first used indiscriminately with other gases for treatment of pulmonary diseases by Thomas Beddoes. In the 19th century, the physiological properties of oxygen were identified by many researchers. In that same century, physicians used ...
Corbari Laure - - 2005
We studied basic principles of respiratory physiology in Cylindroleberididae, Cylindroleberis mariae Baird 1850, which are millimetre-sized crustaceans (myodocop ostracod) having a fossil record dating back to about 425 millions years ago. Facing experimental changes of O2 partial pressures in the range 2-40 kPa (normoxia is 21 kPa), C. mariae lack ...
Rahardjo Yovita S P - - 2005
Oxygen transfer in the fungal mat is a major concern in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Oxygen supply into the mycelial layers is hampered by diffusion limitation. For aerobic fungi, like Aspergillus oryzae, this oxygen depletion can be a severely limiting factor for growth and metabolite production. This paper describes the effects ...
Hayter Tina L - - 2005
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) devices are being marketed as weight/ fat loss devices throughout the world. Commercially available stimulators have the ability to evoke muscle contractions that may affect caloric expenditure while the device is being used. The aim of this study was to test the effects of two different ...
Schuchardt A - - 2005
In order to develop a process control scheme to reduce energy costs for aeration in activated sludge systems with biological P removal, pre-denitrification and nitrification stages, the spatial distribution of carbon oxidation and nitrification was evaluated over a long full-scale plug flow aeration basin using an externally measured specific oxygen ...
Jacobsen D J - - 2005
Oxygen consumption after exercise is frequently plotted as a function of time and then the area under the curve (AUC) is calculated. Subsequently, this AUC is further manipulated and thus, differences between these manipulations may impact the interpretation of changes in oxygen consumption after exercise. The purpose of this study ...
Park J I - - 2005
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxygen tension during IVM and/or IVC on developmental competence of porcine follicular oocytes. Prospective, randomized experiments were designed, and oocytes were matured, inseminated and cultured in vitro in the designated condition. In experiment 1, either high (20%) or low (7%) oxygen ...
Bradley J M - - 2005
Ambulatory oxygen is defined as the use of supplemental oxygen during exercise and activities of daily living. Ambulatory oxygen therapy is often used for patients on long term oxygen therapy during exercise, or for non long term oxygen therapy users who achieve some subjective and/or objective benefit from oxygen during ...
Bradley J M - - 2005
Ambulatory oxygen is defined as the use of supplemental oxygen during exercise and activities of daily living. Ambulatory oxygen therapy is often used for patients on long term oxygen therapy during exercise, or for non long term oxygen therapy users who achieve some subjective and/or objective benefit from oxygen during ...
Moon Hyunsoo - - 2004
The dynamic behavior of a mediator-less, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as a continuous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. The response time and the sensitivity were analyzed through the step-change testing of the fuel concentration. The MFC of 25 ml had the shortest response time of 36 +/- 2 ...
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