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Buys Roselien - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Although sports participation is allowed to most adult patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot, a reduced exercise tolerance and reduced perceived physical functioning is often present in these patients. We aimed to investigate daily physical activity in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and to investigate the underlying determinants of ...
Suijo K - - 2012
Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and to enhance synaptic plasticity. It has been demonstrated that these neuroprotective effects can be observed following aerobic exercise. However, it remains unknown whether plasticity molecules, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein ...
Fakhry Farzin - - 2012
Exercise therapy is a common intervention for the management of intermittent claudication (IC). However, considerable uncertainty remains about the effect of different exercise components such as intensity, duration, or content of the exercise programs. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of supervised walking therapy (SWT) as ...
Yuen Hon K HK Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. - - 2013
To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a ...
Parschau Linda - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Experiencing positive consequences of one's physical activity is supposed to facilitate further activity. This motivational outcome might be generated by an increase in perceived self-efficacy. In addition to such a mediator effect, we examine whether this applies generally or only under conditions of volitional control. For this purpose, perceived ...
Grander Wilhelm - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Exercise capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy has low correlation to resting left ventricular function. Dysfunctional autonomic activity, cardiomechanics and inflammation are associated with exercise capacity but were investigated under inhomogeneous situations. It remains essentially unclear which factor mainly determines exercise capacity in dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In a prospective, ...
Watanabe Yuya - - 2012
We investigated the effects of low-intensity resistance training on muscle size and strength in old men and women. Thirty five participants (59-76 years old) were randomly assigned into two groups and performed low-intensity (50% of one-repetition maximum) knee extension and flexion exercises with either slow movement and tonic force generation ...
Candow Darren G - - 2013
Postmenopausal women typically experience accelerated muscle loss which has a negative effect on strength. The maximum daily recommended dosage of ibuprofen (1,200 mg) following resistance exercise has been shown to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength in older adults. This study aimed to determine the effects of low-dose ibuprofen (400 mg) immediately following ...
Chandra Navin - - 2012
Cardiac adaptation to intense physical exercise is determined by factors including age, gender, body size, sporting discipline and ethnicity. Differentiating physiology from pathological conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is challenging, but relevant, as HCM remains the commonest cause of sudden death in young athletes. Marked electrocardiographic repolarisation changes and ...
Weisgarber Krissy D - - 2012
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of whey protein before and during resistance exercise (RE) on body composition and strength in young adults. METHODS: Participants were randomized to ingest whey protein (PRO; 0.3g·kg-1 protein; n=9, 24.58±1.8 yrs, 88.3±17.1 kg, 172.5±8.0 cm) or placebo (PLA; 0.2g·kg-1 corn-starch maltodextrin + 0.1g·kg-1 sucrose; n=8, ...
Shin In-Soo - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical exercise programs on individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This meta-analysis analyzed 67 effect sizes and 14 studies and calculated the standardized mean difference in effect size. The unit of analysis for overall effects was the study, and the ...
Ellis Richard F - - 2012
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:"; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study using a ...
de Lima C - - 2012
The aim of this randomized controlled study was to verify the impact of a 12-weeks muscular endurance (ME) training of high repetitions (i. e., 15-30) with 2 different periodization models on body composition, maximal strength, muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty eight sedentary women aged 20-35 years were randomly assigned ...
Donde Aneesh - - 2012
Intermittent moderate-intensity exercise is used in human inhalational exposure studies to increase the effective dose of air pollutants. To investigate the inflammatory, coagulatory, and autonomic effects of intermittent moderate-intensity exercise. We measured hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, inflammatory, and coagulatory parameters in peripheral blood of 25 healthy subjects across an exercise protocol that ...
Harrison Michael - - 2012
Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) ...
Clark Timothy D - - 2012
Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and ...
Reis Victor M - - 2011
The use of resistance exercises and of typical strength training methods have been progressively used to control body mass and to promote fat mass loss. The difficulties involved in the energy cost calculation during strength training are associated with the large amount of exercises and their several variations. Mean values ...
Muller Matthew D - - 2011
We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to ...
Palstra Arjan P - - 2011
Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data ...
Coza Aurel - - 2011
: Whole-body vibrations are known to affect muscle activity and tissue oxygenation, but some energetic aspects are still poorly understood. This study investigates the effects of whole-body vibration on gastrocnemius muscle oxygen utilization rate and tissue oxygenation dynamics during exercise. : The effects of vibration on gastrocnemius medialis muscle oxygenation ...
Gnanendran Abbyrhamy A Medical School, The Australian National University , - - 2011
We compared the amount of exercise undertaken by medical students, clinicians, and sport scientists with the National Australian Physical Activity (NAPA) Guidelines. A second aim was to compare attitudes to exercise counselling as preventive medicine between university- and clinic-based professionals. The research setting was a university medical school and a ...
Milne Chris - - 2010
One of the major challenges facing today's clinicians is the rising cost of healthcare. Sports and exercise medicine clinicians can address these challenges by making a working diagnosis on clinical grounds and using investigations only selectively. They should also educate their patient about the limits to funding and be prepared ...
Akkerman Moniek - - 2010
To summarize what is currently known about the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) as an objective and independent submaximal measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in health and disease. A literature search was performed within the following electronic databases--PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and MEDLINE--using the search ...
Edmark L - - 2011
atelectasis is a common consequence of pre-oxygenation with 100% oxygen during induction of anaesthesia. Lowering the oxygen level during pre-oxygenation reduces atelectasis. Whether this effect is maintained during anaesthesia is unknown. during and after pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia with 60%, 80% or 100% oxygen concentration, followed by anaesthesia with ...
Smith S J - - 2010
Pre-oxygenation in the seated (sitting) position has been associated with better oxygenation. This randomised, cross over study compared oxygenation in the supine position with that in the 45° seated position in 40 young, healthy volunteers. Oxygen was administered through a circle system and tight fitting facemask. Transcutaneous P(O)₂ levels were ...
Ridgway Zoe A - - 2010
Cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing has a number of medical applications, including the assessment of heart failure and the investigation of unexplained breathlessness. Over the past decade, it has become an important preoperative assessment tool to evaluate functional capacity and predict outcomes in patients undergoing both cardiac and noncardiac surgery. A ...
Binzoni Tiziano - - 2010
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can readily report on changes in blood volume and oxygenation. However, it has proved more problematic to measure real-time changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption. Here we report the development of a novel method using NIRS to measure local oxygen consumption in human muscle. The ...
Bollo Robert J - - 2010
Cerebral autoregulation maintains a relatively stable cerebral blood flow over a range of perfusion pressures. During exercise, regional cerebral blood flow may be elevated in particular areas of the brain. This case report presents the impact of aerobic exercise on intracranially measured pressure and brain tissue oxygenation in an adult ...
Rittweger Jörn - - 2010
Exposure to vibration has traditionally been associated with compromised perfusion. This study investigated whether blood supply during whole body vibration (WBV), as an exercise modality, is in proportion to the metabolic demand by the contracting musculature. As a secondary aim, serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed. ...
Rodrigo Manuel A - - 2010
In this work, the effect of the depletion of oxygen in the cathodic chamber of a MFC operating in steady-state conditions has been studied. To do this, several aeration-oxygen depletion cycles were repeated with a bring-back period of 1 day between them to let the system to re-establish its normal ...
Flaherty Elizabeth A - - 2010
Gliding allows mammals to exploit canopy habitats of old-growth forests possibly as a means to save energy. To assess costs of quadrupedal locomotion for a gliding arboreal mammal, we used open-flow respirometry and a variable-speed treadmill to measure oxygen consumption and to calculate cost of transport, excess exercise oxygen consumption, ...
Sperlich Billy - - 2010
Three textiles with increasing compressive surface were compared with non-compressive conventional clothing on physiological and perceptual variables during sub-maximal and maximal running. Fifteen well-trained endurance athletes (mean+/-s: age 27.1+/-4.8 years, VO(2max) 63.7+/-4.9 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)) performed four sub-maximal (approximately 70% VO(2max)) and maximal tests with and without different ...
Shephard Roy J - - 2010
This presentation explores the value of mechanical, electrical, and mathematical analogues in understanding and evaluating a variety of closely integrated transport processes in human biology. Particular attention is directed to a major interest of John Sutton: the factors limiting transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the working muscles when ...
Brassard Patrice - - 2010
Whether sympathetic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation remains controversial. The influence of sympathetic activity on CBF and oxygenation was evaluated by the effect of phenylephrine on middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity (Vmean) and the near-infrared spectroscopy-derived frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) at rest and during exercise. ...
Palwai Aishwarya - - 2010
Clinical testing of oxygen-conserving devices is not mandated before marketing. Consequently, little is known about individual or comparative therapeutic effectiveness. To relate oxygen delivery from prototypical instruments to physiological performance. Thirteen subjects with obstructive lung disease performed progressive treadmill exercise while inhaling either room air, 2 L O(2)/min, or bolus ...
Nelson Michael D - - 2010
PURPOSE: To report on the normative cardiorespiratory response to a graded exercise test in a group of healthy males, 30-69 yr of age (n = 816), and to test the effect of health and fitness counseling on cardiorespiratory fitness in a subset of healthy subjects (n = 87, mean follow-up ...
Lamont Linda S - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of gender dimorphism and body composition on postexercise oxygen consumption during the rapid recovery phase. We compared the rapid-phase excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in men and women matched for age (32.1 years), physical activity status, and maximal oxygen consumption ...
Saitoh Tadashi - - 2010
Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technique used to monitor tissue oxygenation. Generally, the modified Beer-Lambert's law (MBL) using continuous-wave light has been used to measure active muscle oxygenation during exercise; however, it cannot measure absolute changes in the oxy- (oxy-[Hb + Mb]), deoxy- (deoxy-[Hb + Mb]), and total hemoglobin/myoglobin ...
Hiura Mikio - - 2010
The present study examined the regional differences of cortical oxygenation in the frontal lobe by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during incremental exercise tests and the precise location of NIRS was examined by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pulmonary gas exchange and NIRS measurement during incremental cycling ergometry tests were investigated in ...
Hou Chen - - 2010
The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this ...
Painter Patricia - - 2009
There are many ways to measure physical functioning. Oxygen uptake at peak exercise is considered to be the most objective or 'gold-standard' measure and is determined by the integrated functioning of multiple physiological systems. Renal failure can affect the functioning of several of these systems which results in low levels ...
Campbell Andrew - - 2009
Low steady state haemoglobin oxygen saturation in patients with sickle cell anaemia has been associated with the degree of anaemia and haemolysis. How much pulmonary dysfunction contributes to low saturation is not clear. In a prospective study of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease aged 3-20 years at steady ...
Smith T B - - 2009
This study reviews the predictive value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold, obtained through cardiopulmonary exercise testing, in calculating peri-operative morbidity and mortality in non-cardiopulmonary thoraco-abdominal surgery. A literature review provided nine studies that investigated either one or both of these two variables across a wide range of ...
Tobias Joseph D - - 2009
Methemoglobinemia results from the oxidation of the iron in the hemoglobin molecule from the ferrous to the ferric state. Methemoglobinemia may result from congenital deficiencies of enzymes that normally convert methemoglobin (metHb) to hemoglobin, alterations in the hemoglobin molecule itself or, most commonly, from medications or toxins. As metHb cannot ...
Powell Mark D - - 2009
The occurrence of spinal deformity in aquaculture can be considerable, and a high rate of deformity has been suggested in triploid smolts in Tasmania. However, the physiological performance of fish with skeletal deformities has not been addressed. The swimming performance and oxygen consumption of triploid Atlantic salmon smolts with either ...
Lai Nicola - - 2009
Noninvasive, continuous measurements in vivo are commonly used to make inferences about mechanisms controlling internal and external respiration during exercise. In particular, the dynamic response of muscle oxygenation (Sm(O(2))) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is assumed to be correlated to that of venous oxygen saturation (Sv(O(2))) measured invasively. However, there ...
Midgley Adrian W - - 2009
In this study, criteria are used to identify whether a subject has elicited maximal oxygen uptake. We evaluated the validity of traditional maximal oxygen uptake criteria and propose a novel set of criteria. Twenty athletes completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, consisting of an incremental phase and a subsequent supramaximal ...
Woods H Arthur - - 2009
Compared to temperate and tropical relatives, some high-latitude marine species are large-bodied, a phenomenon known as polar gigantism. A leading hypothesis on the physiological basis of gigantism posits that, in polar water, high oxygen availability coupled to low metabolic rates relieves constraints on oxygen transport and allows the evolution of ...
Wan Jennifer J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Muscle tissue oxygen monitoring (PmO2) holds promise as a continuous guide to resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock, but the relationship of muscle tissue oxygen to perfusion has not been described previously. On the other hand, brain tissue oxygen PbrO2 and perfusion as measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) are already ...
Ando Soichi - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to test if increased oxygen availability affected simple reaction time (RT) to peripheral visual stimuli during exercise. Twelve male participants performed RT tasks at rest, during cycling with three different workloads (100, 150, and 200 W), and after exercise. We fractionated RT into Premotor ...
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