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Results 101 - 150 of 1053
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Ikegawa Shigeki - - 2011
We examined whether enhanced cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses during exercise after short-term aerobic training in a warm environment were reversed when plasma volume (PV) expansion was reversed by acute isotonic hypohydration. Seven young men performed aerobic training at the 70% peak oxygen consumption rate (Vo(₂peak)) at 30°C atmospheric temperature and ...
Azuma Tetsuji - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and gingival oxidative stress in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. DESIGN: Rats were divided into three groups (n=14/group): one control group (fed a regular diet) and two ...
Christensen Peter M - - 2011
PURPOSE:: To examine the effects of a short-term period with intensified training or training cessation of trained soccer players on VO2 kinetics at 75% maximal aerobic speed (MAS), oxidative enzymes and performance in repeated high intensity exercise. METHODS:: After the last match of the season 18 elite soccer players were, ...
Foster E B - - 2011
This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise nutritional protocols: (1) placebo (EX); (2) carbohydrate only (CHO); and (3) essential ...
Beis Lukas - - 2011
Oral supplementation with glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid (GAKIC) has previously been shown to improve exhaustive high-intensity exercise performance. There are no controlled studies involving GAKIC supplementation in well-trained subjects. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of GAKIC supplementation on fatigue during high-intensity, repeated cycle sprints in trained ...
Zakrzewski Julia - - 2011
Consensus on the exercise protocol used to measure Fatmax (exercise intensity corresponding to maximum fat oxidation (MFO)) in children has not been reached. The present study compared Fatmax estimated using the 3 min incremental cycling protocol (3-INC) and a protocol consisting of several 10 min constant work rate exercise bouts ...
Chaouachi Anis - - 2011
The objective of this study was to examine the response and recovery to a single set of maximal, low and high angular velocity isokinetic leg extension-flexion contractions with boys. Sixteen boys (11-14 yrs) performed 10 isokinetic contractions at 60°.s-1 (Isok60) and 300°.s-1 (Isok300). Three contractions at both velocities, blood lactate ...
Yeo Wee Kian - - 2011
The performance of prolonged (>90 min), continuous, endurance exercise is limited by endogenous carbohydrate (CHO) stores. Accordingly, for many decades, sports nutritionists and exercise physiologists have proposed a number of diet-training strategies that have the potential to increase fatty acid availability and rates of lipid oxidation and thereby attenuate the rate ...
Swank Ann M - - 2011
Swank, AM, Kachelman, JB, Bibeau, W, Quesada, PM, Nyland, J, Malkani, A, and Topp, RV. Prehabilitation before total knee arthroplasty increases strength and function in older adults with severe osteoarthritis. J Strength Cond Res 25(2): 318-325, 2011-Preparing for the stress of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery by exercise training (prehabilitation) ...
Paoli Antonio - - 2011
Exercise and nutrition are often used in combination to lose body fat and reduce weight. In this respect, exercise programs are as important as correct nutrition. Several issues are still controversial in this field, and among them there are contrasting reports on whether training in a fasting condition can enhance ...
Kamandulis Sigitas - - 2011
The aim of this study was to examine changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks of stretch-shortening exercise with a progressively increasing load and continued modulation of various key training variables. Eight healthy untrained men performed a drop-jump programme involving a progressive increase in load impact with ...
Garekani Elahe Talebi - - 2011
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of exercise training intensity/volume on plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and tissue total adiponectin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight week-old male Wistar rats (185±5 gm)were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34m/min ∼%80-%85 VO2max), moderate ...
Chen Jui-Lien - - 2011
Chen, J-L, Yeh, D-P, Lee, J-P, Chen, C-Y, Huang, C-Y, Lee, S-D, Chen, C-C, Kuo, TBJ, Kao, C-L, and Kuo, C-H. Parasympathetic nervous activity mirrors recovery status in weightlifting performance after training. J Strength Cond Res 25(X): 000-000, 2011-Heart rate variability (HRV) and parasympathetic power are closely related to the ...
Hosseini Ghomi Reza - - 2011
To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed ...
Sloan Richard P RP Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 1150 St Nicholas Avenue, Suite 121, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2011
To test the hypothesis that aerobic, but not strength, training would lead to attenuated reactivity to and more rapid recovery from cognitive and orthostatic challenge and that deconditioning would reverse this effect. We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of aerobic versus strength training on heart rate, four ...
Helmark Ida C - - 2011
The non-pharmacological treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) includes exercise therapy; however, little is known about the specific effect of exercise on the joint per se. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of a load-bearing exercise upon cartilage in a single, human osteoarthritic joint determined by ...
Crisp Nicole A - - 2011
Abstract Objective. To compare substrate oxidation between normal weight (n = 10) and overweight (n = 10) boys at rest, during exercise at 50% O(2peak) and during the first 30 minutes of recovery post-exercise. Study design. Twenty boys (8-11 years) were tested over two separate occasions. At the first session, ...
Koopman René - - 2011
We examined the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise on fractional muscle protein synthesis rates in human type I and type II muscle fibres. After a standardised breakfast (31 ± 1 kJ kg(-1) body weight, consisting of 52 Energy% (En%) carbohydrate, 34 En% protein and 14 En% fat), 9 untrained men completed ...
Miokovic Tanja - - 2011
As part of the 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2), we investigated the pattern of muscle atrophy of the postero-lateral hip and hamstring musculature during prolonged inactivity and the effectiveness of two exercise countermeasures. Twenty-four male subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bedrest and were assigned to an inactive control ...
Bowtell Joanna L - - 2011
PURPOSE:: Montmorency cherries contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins possessing anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether the effects of intensive unilateral leg exercise on oxidative damage and muscle function were attenuated by consumption of a Montmorency cherry juice concentrate using a crossover experimental design. METHODS:: ...
Pedersen Line - - 2011
The chemokine CXC ligand-1 (CXCL-1) is a small cytokine that elicits effects by signalling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. CXCL-1 has neutrophil chemoattractant activity, is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, inflammation and wound healing, and may possess neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms ...
Williams W Jon - - 2011
This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained ...
Norrbrand Lena - - 2011
Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle ...
Brun Jean-Frédéric - - 2011
It is well known that body composition influences blood rheology (higher blood viscosity and RBC aggregation in obese individuals). On the other hand, blood rheology is related to exercise performance (the fitter the athlete the more fluid the blood). The 'paradox of hematocrit' is that most of the time trained ...
Bloomer Richard J - - 2011
Betaine, beetroot juice, and supplemental nitrate have recently been reported to improve certain aspects of exercise performance, which may be mechanistically linked to increased nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite, a surrogate marker or nitric oxide, in ...
Peeling Peter - - 2011
The effect of hyperoxic gas supplementation on the recovery time of oxygen saturation levels (S(a)O(2)), and its effect on perceptual recovery were assessed. Seven national-level kayak athletes completed two laboratory-based ergometer sessions of 6 × 3-min maximal aerobic intervals, with 2 min recovery between repetitions. During each recovery period, athletes ...
Michaëlsson Karl - - 2011
To complete long-distance ski races, regular physical exercise is required. This includes not only cross-country skiing but also endurance exercise during the snow-free seasons. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of physical exercise is associated with future risk of severe osteoarthritis independent of previous diseases ...
Cocate Paula G - - 2011
The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. ...
Friedman Nizan N Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617, USA. - - 2011
People with stroke typically must perform much of their hand exercise at home without professional assistance as soon as two weeks after the stroke. Without feedback and encouragement, individuals often lose motivation to practice using the affected hand, and this disuse contributes to further declines in hand function. We developed ...
Pyke Kyra Ellen - - 2010
Reactive hyperaemia (RH) creates an uncontrolled, transient increase in brachial artery (BA) shear stress (SS) for flow-mediated dilation (FMD) assessment. In contrast, handgrip exercise (HGEX) can create similar, sustained SS increases over repeated trials. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of repeated SS elevation via RH ...
Ghanbari-Niaki A - - 2010
Background: It has been suggested that circulating ghrelin levels are upregulated by fasting, hypoglycemic status, and a physical exercise-induced energy deficit. Aim The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time-course adaptations of the plasma, fundus and small intestine ghrelin concentrations as well as related hormones and liver ...
Che Li-Long - - 2010
It is unclear whether regular exercise depletes body iron stores and how exercise regulates iron absorption. In this study, growing female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-iron diet (300 mg iron/kg) and subjected to swimming for 1, 3, or 12 months. Their body weight, liver nonheme iron content (NHI), spleen NHI, blood ...
Armstrong Neil - - 2011
Endurance training consists of a structured exercise programme that is sustained for a sufficient length of time with sufficient intensity and frequency to induce an improvement in aerobic fitness. Elite young athletes generally have higher peak oxygen uptakes (peak VO(2)) than their untrained peers largely due to their greater maximal ...
Clarke N D - - 2010
Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact ...
Kitaoka Yu - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of training and detraining on the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 levels in the gluteus medius muscle of thoroughbred horses. Twelve thoroughbred horses were used for the analysis. For 18 weeks, all the horses underwent high-intensity training (HIT), with ...
Trenerry Marissa K - - 2010
The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is essential for myogenic regeneration and is regulated by a diverse range of ligands, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Our aim was to evaluate the responsiveness of IL-6 and PDGF-BB to intense exercise, along with STAT3 activation, before and after 12 weeks of ...
Trenerry Marissa K - - 2011
The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is essential for myogenic regeneration and is regulated by a diverse range of ligands, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Our aim was to evaluate the responsiveness of IL-6 and PDGF-BB to intense exercise, along with STAT3 activation, before and after 12 weeks of ...
González-Haro Carlos - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of relative exercise intensity on various plasma trace elements in euhydrated endurance athletes. Twenty-seven well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycloergometer test: after a warm-up of 10min at 2.0Wkg(-1), workload increased by 0.5Wkg(-1) every 10min until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate ...
Reinke Simon - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most important metabolic dysfunctions. Athletic performance depends on oxygen transport and mitochondrial efficiency, thus on optimal iron balance. We hypothesised that physical extremes result in ID in elite athletes and that the short recovery period may be insufficient to allow a lasting ...
Van Proeyen K - - 2011
Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO ...
Pournot Herve - - 2011
In order to investigate the effectiveness of different techniques of water immersion recovery on maximal strength, power and the post-exercise inflammatory response in elite athletes, 41 highly trained (Football, Rugby, Volleyball) male subjects (age = 21.5 ± 4.6 years, mass = 73.1 ± 9.7 kg and height = 176.7 ± 9.7 cm) performed 20 min of exhaustive, intermittent exercise followed by a 15 min recovery intervention. The ...
Wittekind A - - 2011
Warm-up is generally considered beneficial for performance, although the reduction in anaerobic glycolytic metabolism may be detrimental to sprinting. This study examined the effect of warm-up intensity on metabolism and performance in sprint cycling. The mean power was determined during a 1-min sprint on 11 trained males preceded by easy ...
Stebbins Charles L - - 2010
The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) affect vascular relaxation and involve factors (e.g., nitric oxide) that contribute to exercise-induced increases in skeletal-muscle blood flow (Q). The authors investigated whether DHA and EPA supplementation augments skeletal-muscle Q and vascular conductance (VC) and attenuates renal and splanchnic ...
Del Coso Juan - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine whole-body fat oxidation in endurance-trained (TR) and untrained (UNTR) subjects exercising at different intensities in the heat. On 3 occasions, 10 TR cyclists and 10 UNTR healthy subjects (peak oxygen uptake = 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.05) exercised at 40%, ...
Hansen Kent C - - 2010
Increasing fat content in an isocaloric diet is associated with positive fat imbalance. Exercise attenuates this process, and the authors hypothesized the attenuation was a result of altered postprandial lipid trafficking. To investigate the effects of prior exercise and nutritional state on the metabolic fate of dietary fat, a study ...
Willardson Jeffrey M - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique abdominis (EO), lower abdominal stabilizers (LASs), and lumbar erector spinae (LES) during performance of 3 traditional trunk exercises vs. exercise on the Ab Circle device. Surface electromyography was used to assess 12 subjects ...
McGowan Erin L - - 2010
Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention ...
Petersen Carl J - - 2010
Cricketers are often required to play in hot/humid environments with little time for heat adaptation. We examined the effect of a short 4-d hot/humid acclimation program on classical physiological indicators of heat acclimation. Male club cricketers were randomly assigned into heat acclimation (ACC, n = 6) or control (CON, n ...
Martín-Cordero Leticia - - 2011
The first objective was to evaluate whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) involves deregulation of TNF-α and IL-6 release by non-infiltrated peritoneal macrophages, using obese Zucker rats as the experimental model of MS and lean Zucker rats as a reference for healthy control values. The second purpose was to evaluate in ...
Tadaishi Miki - - 2011
There are three isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) mRNA, which promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscles. Compared with PGC-1α-a mRNA, PGC-1α-b or PGC-1α-c mRNA is transcribed by a different exon 1 of the PGC-1α gene. In this study, effects of exercise intensity and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on isoform-specific ...
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