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Results 451 - 500 of 1525
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Montenegro R - - 2013
The study evaluated the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over prefrontal cortex on the oxygen uptake (V˙ O2) at rest and during post-exercise recovery. The V˙ O2 was assessed in eleven healthy subjects before, during tDCS (sham or anodal tDCS, 2 mA, 20 min), and 30-min following ...
Morris David M - - 2013
Exposure to hypoxia results in vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vasculature (HPV) leading to pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and reductions in blood oxygen saturation and exercise performance. Alleviation of HPV and HPH via vasodilators has been shown to improve blood oxygen saturation and exercise performance in hypoxia. Garlic has been shown to ...
Sacre J W - - 2013
We thank Dr Morton for his interest in our paper on the utility of post-exercise heart-rate recovery for cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment [1] and for elucidating this interesting case study highlighting the related issue of chronotropism. Slower heart-rate recovery in patients with vs. without cardiac autonomic neuropathy in our study ...
Blumberg Friedrich C - - 2013
AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and death. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are key subgroups of this disorder with comparable clinical and pathological findings. Resting pulmonary haemodynamics correlate only ...
Hodge Daniel - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of the attenuation in sympathetic nervous activity during active heat acclimation (HA) in healthy humans. Eight volunteers completed a maximal graded exercise test followed by 8days of active HA. Heat acclimation consisted of 90min of walking at 40% of ...
Crupi Domenica - - 2013
ABSTRACT The authors' aim was to determine the cortical mechanisms that underlie the transition from effective performance to its disruption. They thus used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to study changes of corticospinal excitability after a motor exercise that did not produce overt or perceived neuromuscular fatigue. Forty-four subjects performed either ...
Lin Ying-Hsi YH Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
The time course of the response and recovery after acute activity seen in exercise is not well understood. The goal of this work is to address how proteins of the thin filament (actin and its capping protein CapZ) are changed by 1 h of mechanical stimulation and return to baseline ...
Chandra Navin - - 2013
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an athlete is a rare yet highly visible tragedy that generates significant media attention and discussion among medical personnel, sports communities, and laypersons alike. The incidence of SCD is greater in athletes compared with their nonathletic counterparts due to the increased risk associated with strenuous ...
Mota Márcio Rabelo - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate post-exercise hypotension (PEH) during a four-month period of resistance training in hypertensive elderly women. Sixty-four women were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG), which performed resistance training, and a control group that did not practice any exercise. The experimental group ...
Brunel Patrick - - 2013
Exercise testing is an established noninvasive tool in cardiology used to diagnose and guide treatment in individuals with suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease. Owing to the wealth of information it provides, exercise testing is also being utilized to evaluate prehypertensive stages, characterize hypertension, assess tolerance to exercise and the ...
Gaudio Carlo - - 2013
Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries here described are an uncommon form of structural heart disease. Nevertheless, they deserve attention because may cause chest pain and, in some cases, sudden cardiac death even during exercise. Traditional angiography has limitations due to its projectional and invasive nature. The recent development of ...
Roelands Bart - - 2013
Fatigue during prolonged exercise is often described as an acute impairment of exercise performance that leads to an inability to produce or maintain a desired power output. In the past few decades, interest in how athletes experience fatigue during competition has grown enormously. Research has evolved from a dominant focus ...
Pierpont Gordon L - - 2013
Expanded use of exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has renewed interest in the pathophysiology of heart rate control. This study uses basic physiologic principles to construct a unique model capable of describing the full time course of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during HRR. The model is tested in a new ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2013
Assessment of myocardial contractile function during exercise is important in gaining an understanding of the normal mechanics of the cardiovascular responses to exercise stress. Such insights are important in identifying determinants of cardiovascular fitness in athletes as well as assessing patients with heart disease. While obtaining such measurements in the ...
Gomes Luis Henrique L S - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To review possible peculiarities in biological mechanisms related to responses of thermoregulatory and specific sweat glands in exercise performed by children in hot environments. DATA SOURCES: Review of 47 articles published between 1960 and 2011 in the electronic databases MedLine and SciELO Brazil using the following key-words: 'children', 'heat', ...
Schmidl Doreen - - 2013
We determined whether administration of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor alters optic nerve head blood flow (ONHBF) regulation during isometric exercise in healthy subjects. Our study was done in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, three-way crossover design. A total of 18 healthy subjects was randomized to receive either placebo, phenylephrine, ...
Bothe Nina N Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin, - - 2013
Physical activity activates brain regions and transmitter systems that represent the reward system (i.e., the ventral striatum [VS] and dopamine). To date, the effect of training status and acute exercise on reward processing has not been investigated systematically in humans. To address this issue, we examined highly trained (HT) physically ...
Kolb Erik M - - 2013
Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is ...
Farah B Q - - 2013
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Aerobic exercise training is frequently used to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents. However, there is no consensus on how the intensity of exercise affects blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The current study shows ...
Sanchez-Gonzalez Marcos A - - 2013
In a crossover design we investigated cardiac autonomic responses (heart rate variability, HRV) to isometric handgrip exercise (IHG) in cold (4°C) and temperate (24°C, temp) conditions in 20 men that assumed the supine position for 30min in an environmental chamber. After a 5min rest, subjects performed 3min of IHG followed ...
Okano Alexandre Hideki - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The temporal and insular cortex (TC, IC) have been associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) control and the awareness of emotional feelings from the body. Evidence shows that the ANS and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) regulate exercise performance. Non-invasive brain stimulation can modulate the cortical area directly beneath ...
Abderrahmane A B - - 2013
The effect of recovery mode (Active [AR] vs. Passive [PR]) on plasma catecholamine (Adrenaline [A] and Noradrenaline [NA]) responses to maximal exercise (Exemax) was studied during interval training (IT). 24 male subjects (21.1±1.1 years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=6), AR training group (ARG, n=9) or PR ...
Ansley Les - - 2013
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is highly prevalent in athletes of all abilities and can impact on their health and performance. The majority of athletes with exertional dyspnoea will be initially assessed and managed in primary care. This report provides a practical and pragmatic approach to the assessment and management of a ...
Amaral da Silva Souza Marcus Vinicius - - 2013
Chagas disease (CD) is an infection caused by the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted by insects of the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus. The heart is affected to varying degrees by inflammatory and destructive lesions in atrial and ventricular myocardial fibers. Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of exercise ...
Shabeeh Husain H King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre, London, United - - 2013
Nitric oxide (NO) release from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and/or neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) could be modulated by sympathetic nerve activity and contribute to increased blood flow after exercise. We examined the effects of brachial-arterial infusion of the nNOS selective inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and the nonselective NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) ...
Crecelius Anne R AR Human Cardiovascular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, Vascular Physiology Research Group, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, - - 2013
Intravascular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) evokes vasodilation and is implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. Mechanical stresses to erythrocytes and endothelial cells stimulate ATP release in vitro. How mechanical effects of muscle contractions contribute to increased plasma ATP during exercise is largely unexplored. We tested the ...
Millen Aletta M E - - 2013
To determine whether exercise training-induced decreases in blood pressure (BP) can be explained by decreases in aortic systolic pressure augmentation in overweight or obese individuals. Thirty-five sedentary or recreationally active men and women (30-57 years) who were either overweight (40 %) or obese (60 %) completed 6 weeks of exercise training (≥3 days/week; stationary bike ...
Spranger Marty D MD Department of Physiology and The Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, - - 2013
Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal dynamic exercise in normal individuals increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) via increases in cardiac output (CO) with little peripheral vasoconstriction. The rise in CO occurs primarily via increases in heart rate (HR) with maintained or slightly increased stroke volume. When the reflex is sustained ...
Moen Phyllis P Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. - - 2013
Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE--results only work environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.S. corporation. Using cluster analysis, ...
Abudiab Muaz M MM Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, - - 2013
Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), yet its mechanisms remain unclear. The current study sought to determine whether increases in cardiac output (CO) during exercise are appropriately matched to metabolic demands in HFpEF. Patients with HFpEF (n = 109) and controls (n = ...
Schmidt Barbara - - 2013
Theories of an optimal level of arousal suggest that underaroused humans seek stimulation to enhance their arousal. One way to increase arousal is risky behavior during gambling. In the current study, we show that the lower the participants' resting arousal, measured via resting heart rate, the riskier they acted in ...
Blanco-Rivero Javier - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: To study the effect of aerobic exercise training on sympathetic, nitrergic and sensory innervation function in superior mesenteric artery from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS:: De-endothelized vascular rings from sedentary and trained SHRs (treadmill 12 weeks) were used. Vasomotor responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), noradrenaline, nitric oxide donor ...
Kwok Sit-Yee - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) is increasingly recognised as a prognostic marker for long term cardiovascular outcomes in adults. This study assessed associations of RHR with blood pressure (BP), anthropometry and exercise in a large representative sample of Hong Kong children. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A territory-wide growth survey ...
Shim Chi Young - - 2013
Uncoupling between heart and vessel may be accompanied by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction during exercise. We investigated the association between ventricular-vascular uncoupling during exercise and impaired LV longitudinal functional reserve in hypertensive subjects. Supine bicycle exercise echocardiography (25-watt, 3-minute increments) was performed in 216 hypertensive patients (106 male; mean age, ...
Hu Wei-Tong - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: It is known that one-arm exercise increases the interarm diastolic blood pressure difference (dIAD) in young individuals, but no research has been carried out in middle-aged and more senior populations. This study aimed to determine whether aging impacts the exercise-induced dIAD in healthy individuals. METHODS: Normotensive adults (n=120) were ...
Real C C CC Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil. - - 2013
Physical exercise is known to produce beneficial effects to the nervous system. In most cases, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in such effects. However, little is known on the role of BDNF in exercise-related effects on Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ...
Yeung Pollen K F - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of exercise-induced health benefits are complex and not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of exercise and hypertension on cardiovascular hemodynamic responses and red blood cell (RBC) concentrations of purine nucleotides using normotensive and hypertensive rat models in vivo. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs) and spontaneously ...
Ertaş Faruk - - 2013
This study was aimed to investigate sensitivity and specificity of QT dispersion (QTd) as a predictor of hypertensive response to peak exercise stress testing (EST). Fifty-nine patients were divided in to two groups (32 patients with exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to EST group and 27 patients for normotensive group) ...
Kelly P G - - 2013
REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Endoscopic examination of Thoroughbred (TB) yearlings is performed routinely to determine the suitability of horses for racing and to ensure that the conditions of sale are satisfied. However, previous research has demonstrated that resting endoscopic examination can be inaccurate in the diagnosis of functional pathology ...
Mairer K - - 2013
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition among non-acclimatized individuals ascending to high altitude. Exercise, a characteristic feature of hiking and mountaineering, has been suggested to exacerbate AMS prevalence and to cause modifications of the autonomic nervous system. A reduction of the heart rate variability (HRV) is a common ...
Roof Steve R SR Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2013
Exercise results in beneficial adaptations of the heart that can be directly observed at the ventricular myocyte level. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for these adaptations are not well understood. Interestingly, signaling via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) within myocytes results in similar effects as exercise. Thus, the objective was ...
Morgan Gareth J - - 2013
The goal of this study was to prospectively assess blood pressure (BP) and echocardiographic parameters to delineate the incidence and nature of the hypertension burden in this cohort. Few data are available on the long-term outcomes of aortic stenting. Thirty-one patients with successfully stented coarctation during childhood (mean age 12.4 ...
Stracciolini Andrea - - 2013
Primary care physicians, particularly pediatricians, are expected to promote physical activity and prescribe exercise to patients. Unfortunately, many health care professionals do not have adequate skills or experience in this area, making exercise intervention logistically and psychologically challenging. Exercise-deficit disorder (EDD), which is a new term to the literature, is ...
Heydari Mehrdad - - 2013
The effect of a 12-week high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) response of young males was examined. Participants (N = 38; M BMI = 28.7 kg x m(-2), SD = 3.1; M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 4.3) were randomly assigned to either ...
Roque Fernanda R FR Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid, - - 2013
Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR ...
Gaffurini P P Laboratory of Neuromuscular Rehabilitation (LaRiN), University of Brescia, Casa di Cura Domus Salutis Institute, Brescia, Italy. - - 2013
Activity promoting video game (APVG) practice significantly affects energy metabolism through energy expenditure (EE) increase and has been recently included in strategies for health promotion. It is not known if the APVG practice provides similar outcomes in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Aim of the study was to evaluate ...
Sampedro-Piquero P - - 2013
We have studied the effects of exercise in aged rats (18 months-old) on spatial learning and changes in neuronal metabolic activity associated with exercise program and the spatial learning process. The changes on neuronal oxidative metabolic activity was studied through cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx) in brain regions related to ...
Boutcher Stephen H - - 2013
Abstract Major individual differences in the maximal oxygen uptake response to aerobic training have been documented. Vagal influence on the heart has been shown to contribute to changes in aerobic fitness. Whether vagal influence on the heart also predicts maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training, however, is undetermined. Thus, ...
Kusunose Kenya - - 2013
BACKGROUND: -The role of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (exPHT) in decision-making regarding surgical timing for asymptomatic chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) is controversial. We reasoned that the exPHT response could not be interpreted without knowledge of right ventricular (RV) function. The aim of this study was to assess the role of RV ...
Miyai Nobuyuki - - 2013
Metabolic syndrome (MS) may influence vascular reactivity and might cause an excessive increase in blood pressure (BP) during dynamic exercise. We examined this hypothesis in 698 normotensive men (mean age: 43 years) free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and renal disease. The response of BP to exercise was assessed by ...
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