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Results 401 - 450 of 1064
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Mutlu Ece A - - 2006
While high protein diets are increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on their potential adverse effects. We describe two patients on high protein supplements and exercising for physical fitness. Both developed intermittent abdominal pain, transient elevations in transaminases and hyperalbuminemia without there being any identifiable cause. The ...
Menshikova Elizabeth V - - 2006
Skeletal muscle mitochondria are implicated with age-related loss of function and insulin resistance. We examined the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria in older (age = 67.3 +/- 0.6 years) men (n = 5) and women (n = 3). Similar increases in (p <.01) cardiolipin (88.2 +/- 9.0 to ...
Kubica, Neil
Understanding the molecular basis of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy is critical to the development of targets for therapeutic intervention in muscle wasting conditions. There has recently been a great deal of investigation regarding the action of protein kinase B (PKB) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in ...
Rose Adam J - - 2006
Ca2+ signalling is proposed to play an important role in skeletal muscle function during exercise. Here, we examined the expression of multifunctional Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK) in human skeletal muscle and show that CaMKII and CaMKK, but not CaMKI or CaMKIV, are expressed. Furthermore, the effect of exercise duration and ...
Roepstorff Carsten - - 2006
5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulates fat oxidation during exercise. Moderately trained women and ...
Raue Ulrika - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate mRNA expression of several key skeletal muscle myogenic controllers; myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD), muscle regulatory factor 4 (MRF4), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin, myostatin, and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) at rest and 4 h after a single bout of resistance exercise ...
Dupont-Versteegden Esther E - - 2006
Flywheel-based resistance exercise (RE) attenuates muscle atrophy during hindlimb suspension. We have previously shown that protein synthesis is elevated in response to RE, but the effect on protein degradation, cell proliferation, or apoptosis was not investigated. We hypothesized that, in addition to affecting protein synthesis, RE inhibits processes that actively ...
McGee Sean L - - 2006
1. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that has a remarkable ability to adapt to external demands, such as exercise. Many of these adaptations can be explained by changes in skeletal muscle gene expression. A single bout of exercise is sufficient to induce the expression of some metabolic genes. ...
Elliot Tabatha A - - 2006
PURPOSE: Previous studies have examined the response of muscle protein to resistance exercise and nutrient ingestion. Net muscle protein synthesis results from the combination of resistance exercise and amino acid intake. No study has examined the response of muscle protein to ingestion of protein in the context of a food. ...
Laaksonen M S - - 2006
AIM: The influence of exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSC) on skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) during exercise is currently unknown. METHODS: Quadriceps femoris (QF) BF was measured in eight healthy men using positron emission tomography before and 3 days after exhaustive SSC exercise. The SSC protocol consisted of maximal and ...
Morton James P - - 2006
The exercise-induced expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in rodent models is relatively well defined. In contrast, comparable data from human studies are limited and the exercise-induced stress response of human skeletal muscle is far from understood. This study has characterized the time course and magnitude of the HSP response ...
Trappe T - - 2006
Prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha has been shown to contribute to the anabolic events in skeletal muscle. We measured the skeletal muscle interstitial concentration of PGF2alpha at rest and following a standard bout of resistance exercise in eight young (27+/-2 year) and eight old (75+/-4 year) men. Interstitial PGF2alpha concentration was determined ...
Przybyla Beata - - 2006
Macrophages are involved in skeletal muscle repair through pro-inflammatory and alternative functions. We tested the hypothesis that aging alters the abundance and properties of skeletal muscle macrophages that will influence their functional response to acute resistance exercise. Total macrophages (CD 68+), as well as pro- (CD 11b+) and anti-inflammatory (CD ...
Wolfe Robert R - - 2006
Stable isotope tracer techniques have been developed to quantify rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in human subjects. These methods were applied to the study of the response to resistance exercise as well as to amino acid intake. The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of muscle protein is stimulated for ...
Suzuki Junichi - - 2006
The effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced angiogenesis and VEGF expression were examined in male middle-aged (12 months old) Wistar rats. Exercise training lasted for six weeks at 20 m/min on a 0% gradient for 10-60 min/day. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 2.5% L-arginine. According to ...
Pikosky Matthew A - - 2006
The effect of a 4-wk aerobic exercise training program (30-45 min, 3-5 d/wk, >or=65% maximal heart rate) on mixed skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR), fractional breakdown rate (FBR), and net protein balance (FSR - FBR) (NET) was examined in 8 healthy, previously unfit men and women [21.0+/- 0.4 ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2006
Exercise physiologists are interested in metabolic myopathies because they demonstrate how knocking out a component of a specific biochemical pathway can alter cellular metabolism. McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) has often been studied in exercise physiology to demonstrate the influence of removing the major anaerobic energy supply to skeletal muscle. Studies ...
Miyazaki, Mitsunori
MIYAZAKI, M., HITOMI, Y., KIZAKI, T., OHNO, H., HAGA, S., and TAKEMASA, T., Effects of Intensity and Duration of Endurance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type Transition in Mice. Abv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.11, No.1 pp.15-20, 2005. Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, capable of undergoing changes in its structural and ...
Saito, Mitsuru
SAITO, M. KANAO, Y. TANAKA, H. and SAKAI, T. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Responses During Progressive Cycling Exercise. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.5, No.1 pp.19-25, 1999. To incestigate the relationshio between symoathetic nerve activity and work rate during dynamic exercise. ...
Haga, Shukoh
HAGA, S., BAE, S.Y., HAMAOKA, T., KATSUMURA, T., TOSHINAI, K., KOSEKI, S., SHIGA, T., NAKASE, Y., KIZAKI, T. and OHNO, H., Oxidative Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Measured During Supramaximal Exercise in Sprinter and Active Control Groups by Near Infrared Continuous Wave Spectroscopy. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.4, No.2 pp57-64, 1998. ...
Ohno, Hideki
Ohno, H., SUZUKI, K., HITOMI, Y., KIMOTO, K., ITOH, C., MIYAZAWA, N., OOKAWARA, T., SUZUKI, K;., HAGA, S., SAKURAI, T., IZAWA, T., NOGUCHI, I. and KIZAKI, T., Physical Exercise and Uncoupling Protein Family. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.7, No.1 pp1-15, 2001. There hac recently been a growing interest in uncouplong ...
Kofune, Katsutoshi
KOFUNE, K. and KATSUMURA, T., Changes in Several Lyso-somal Enzymes in Plasma and Skeletal Muscle after the Strenuous Exericise. Abv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.8, No.3 pp.63-69, 2002. Five kinds of lysosomal enzymes, acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, β-flucosidase, β-glucuronidase and cathepsin D, were measured simultaneously on plasma and muscle after both single ...
Kuhl Jeanette E - - 2006
The study was designed to evaluate whether changes in malonyl-CoA and the enzymes that govern its concentration occur in human muscle as a result of physical training. Healthy, middle-aged subjects were studied before and after a 12-wk training program that significantly increased VO2 max by 13% and decreased intra-abdominal fat ...
Tsai Ying-Lan - - 2006
The current study determined the interactive effects of ischemia and exercise training on glycogen storage and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. For the first experiment, an acute 1-h tourniquet ischemia was applied to one hindlimb of both the 1-week exercise-trained and untrained rats. The contralateral hindlimb served as control. For ...
Fluckey James D - - 2006
Recent studies have implicated the mTOR-signaling pathway as a primary component for muscle growth in mammals. The purpose of this investigation was to examine signaling pathways for muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6 mo old) were assigned to either resistance exercise or control groups. Resistance exercise ...
Garcia-Roves Pablo M - - 2006
Raising cytosolic Ca2+ induces an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in myotubes. This phenomenon mimics the adaptive responses of skeletal muscle to exercise. It has been hypothesized that increases in cytosolic Ca2+ during motor nerve activity stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis by activating calcineurin. Overexpression of constitutively active calcineurin increases expression of peroxisome ...
Hayes Shawn G - - 2006
Cyclooxygenase products accumulate in statically contracting muscles to stimulate group III and IV afferents. The role played by these products in stimulating thin fiber muscle afferents during dynamic exercise is unknown. Therefore, in decerebrated cats, we recorded the responses of 17 group III and 12 group IV triceps surae muscle ...
Gong, Xiaofei
This laboratory has shown that exercise in humans impairs skeletal muscle Na+,K+-ATPase&#13;maximal in vitro activity, whilst in isolated rat muscles, Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition with&#13;ouabain leads to early muscle fatigue. Hence, Na+,K+-ATPase function is likely to be&#13;important for skeletal muscle performance. Digoxin is a specific inhibitor of the Na+,K+-&#13;ATPase and is used ...
Timmons James A - - 2006
Regular aerobic exercise reduces risk of cardiovascular disease far more effectively than any pharmaceutical agent. The precise mechanisms contributing to these health benefits are unknown. Currently, much of our knowledge regarding the molecular regulators of skeletal muscle phenotype remodeling in response to muscle activity is derived from rodent models. Over ...
Choe Myoung-Ae - - 2006
This study examined the effects of daily low-intensity exercise following acute stroke on mass, Type I and II fiber cross-sectional area, and myofibrillar protein content of hind-limb muscles in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 7-9 per group): stroke ...
Kiens Bente - - 2006
Lipids as fuel for energy provision originate from different sources: albumin-bound long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) in the blood plasma, circulating very-low-density lipoproteins-triacylglycerols (VLDL-TG), fatty acids from triacylglycerol located in the muscle cell (IMTG), and possibly fatty acids liberated from adipose tissue adhering to the muscle cells. The regulation of utilization ...
Fischer Christian P - - 2006
It is now recognized that contracting skeletal muscle may synthesize and release interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the interstitium as well as into the systemic circulation in response to a bout of exercise. Although several sources of IL-6 have been demonstrated, contracting muscles contributes to most of the IL-6 present in the ...
Joseph Anna-Maria - - 2006
Every time a bout of exercise is performed, a change in gene expression occurs within the contracting muscle. Over the course of many repeated bouts of exercise (i.e. training), the cumulative effects of these alterations lead to a change in muscle phenotype. One of the most prominent of these adaptations ...
Castaneda Francisco - - 2006
We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (hSGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65+/-8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle hSGLT3 and GLUT4 mRNA transcript levels were ...
Rabinovich Roberto A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A physiological increase in muscle glutathione after training is not seen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), indicating abnormal peripheral muscle adaptations to exercise. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that oxidative stress is primarily associated with low body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Eleven patients with preserved BMI (BMI(N): 28.2 ...
Stevens Veerle K - - 2006
Trunk bridging exercises are often used as therapeutic exercises for lumbopelvic stabilization. These exercises focus on the retraining of muscle coordination patterns in which optimal ratios between local segmental stabilizing and global torque producing muscle activity are assumed to be essential. However, a description of such ratios is lacking. The ...
Fischer Christian P - - 2006
Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as seen in response to exercise, challenge the cellular integrity. Important protective adaptive changes include induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherol) would attenuate the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in ...
McGee Sean L - - 2006
Overexpression of GLUT4 exclusively in skeletal muscle enhances insulin action and improves glucose homeostasis. Transgenic studies have discovered two regions on the GLUT4 promoter conserved across several species that are required for normal GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. These regions contain binding motifs for the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) ...
Wagner Peter D - - 2006
Methods to study exercise are evolving from classically integrative organ approaches towards the more fundamental cellular reactions. While in vitro cellular and molecular methods are well established, only recently has in vivo molecular manipulation been widely used. This review discusses two complementary methods for determining in vivo the significance of ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2006
Mitochondrial fatty acid transport is a rate-limiting step in long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation. In rat skeletal muscle, the transport of LCFA at the level of mitochondria is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) activity and the content of malonyl-CoA (M-CoA); however, this relationship is not consistently observed in ...
Coutinho Agnes E - - 2006
Recent findings indicate that elevated levels of glucocorticoids (GC), governed by the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and GC receptors (GR), in visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lead to increased insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Paradoxically, evidence indicates that aerobic exercise attenuates the development of the ...
Schmutz Silvia - - 2006
We hypothesized that in untrained individuals (n=6) a single bout of ergometer endurance exercise provokes a concerted response of muscle transcripts towards a slow-oxidative muscle phenotype over a 24-h period. We further hypothesized this response during recovery to be attenuated after six weeks of endurance training. We monitored the expression ...
Coffey Vernon G - - 2006
Skeletal muscle displays enormous plasticity to respond to contractile activity with muscle from strength- (ST) and endurance-trained (ET) athletes representing diverse states of the adaptation continuum. Training adaptation can be viewed as the accumulation of specific proteins. Hence, the altered gene expression that allows for changes in protein concentration is ...
Shiraishi Koichi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The effects of chronic alcohol intake on skeletal muscle are clinically observed as muscle cramps with decrease in the amount of muscle. It was clarified by expired gas analysis that acute alcohol load affects disturbed energy metabolism of skeletal muscle. We studied abnormal energy metabolism of skeletal muscles in ...
Mayer John M - - 2005
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, repeated measures analysis of exercise-induced changes in lumbar muscle transverse relaxation time (T2). OBJECTIVES: To use muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize the activity levels and recruitment patterns of the lumbar extensor muscles during trunk extension exercise over 3 intensities. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Contrast ...
Lundby Carsten - - 2006
Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1 and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription ...
Raj Dominic S C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a state of microinflammation, with increased activation of cytokines and augmented oxidative stress. While peripheral blood mononuclear cells are an established source of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines during hemodialysis (HD), skeletal muscle is also capable of generating these biomolecules. METHODS: Femoral arterio-venous ...
Cuthbertson Daniel J - - 2006
We hypothesized a differential activation of the anabolic signaling proteins protein kinase B (PKB) and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6K)) and subsequent differential stimulation of human muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after dynamic shortening or lengthening exercise. Eight healthy men [25 +/- 5 yr, BMI 26 +/- 3 kg/m(-2) (means +/- SD)] ...
Urso Maria L - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Statins are safe medications but have side effects including myalgia and rhabdomyolysis. How statins provoke muscle damage is not known, but this effect is exacerbated by exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy subjects took Atorvastatin (80 mg/daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Biopsies of both vastus lateralis muscles were performed ...
Morifuji Masashi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effects of casein and whey protein as the source of dietary protein on the activity of lipogenic enzymes and mRNA levels in the liver and skeletal muscle of exercise-trained rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = ...
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